# GCO 2431 Irrigation 1

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

## Transcription

1 GCO 2431 Irrigation 1

2 BASIC HYDRAULICS & SYSTEM DESIGN IRRIGATION INSTRUCTOR Doug Callison Area Specifications Manager 1/4/98

3 DESIGN TERMINOLOGY Scale = mechanical or engineering measurements. Plan view = flat view of the site from a particular height. PSI = pounds per square inch (water pressure). GPM = gallons per minute (flow rate). Elevation = height difference in feet. 3

4 DESIGN TERMINOLOGY Friction Loss = pressure lost by water flowing through system components (pipe, valves, etc...) measured in psi. Velocity = speed of the water moving through system components measured in feet per second (fps). Water hammer = surge pressures created by combinations of high velocity, fast closing valves, long pipe runs & high psi. 4

5 BASIC HYDRAULICS Relationship between pressure & elevation: 1 foot of elevation =.433 psi 1 psi = 2.31 feet of elevation (head) Static (hydrostatic) pressure = water at rest / experiencing no friction or pressure losses. Dynamic (hydrodynamic or working) pressure = water in motion / experiencing friction or pressure losses. 5

6 BASIC HYDRAULICS Feet of elevation x.433 = psi 2 feet of elevation x.433 =.866 psi or 20 feet of elevation x.433 = 8.66 psi 6

7 STATIC PSI EXERCISE Calculate the static pressure at the following points: Outlet of control valve 60 PSI 100-PEB valve Inlet 60 PSI Static Pressure gauge A Pressure gauge B Pressure gauge C 1-1/4 Class 200 PVC Pipe 60 PSI PSI PSI A B Class 200 PVC Pipe C /4 Class 200 PVC Pipe

8 DYNAMIC PSI EXERCISE Calculate the dynamic pressure at the following points: Outlet of control valve 55 PSI 100-PEB valve Inlet 60 PSI Static Inlet of sprinkler A Inlet of sprinkler B Inlet of sprinkler C 1-1/4 Class 200 PVC Pipe 51.8 PSI 45.1 PSI 38.6 PSI A Falcon Rotor 10 GPM each 10 B 1 Class 200 PVC Pipe 10 C 3/4 Class 200 PVC Pipe

9 OBTAINING SITE INFORMATION Plot plan = scaled drawing of the site including: all structures and hardscapes. water source (water meter size, service main size, gpm & psi). landscape (type & location of plant material / lawn shrub borders). exposures to sun, wind & rain (direction north). soil & slope conditions. 9

10 CALCULATING SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS 10 ET = evapotranspiration (water lost to the plants use by evaporation & transpiration) in inches for a certain time period. PET = potential highest ET inches of ET based records and site conditions. (maximum on historical Irrigation design should be based on the site PET or the worst case scenario.

11 11 CALCULATING SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS Soil infiltration rate = maximum inches of water that can be absorbed by a particular type of soil in one hours time. Soil holding capacity = inches of water available to the plant in different soils. Rooting depth = average depth of a plants root system in different soils. This information is used to determine the frequency of irrigation.

12 12 CALCULATING WATER SOURCE CAPACITY & PSI Collect the following water source info: Water meter size (5/8, 3/4, 1, etc...). Service line size & type (3/4 K copper, 3/4 sch. 40 galv., 1 sch. 40 PVC, etc...). Service line length (from water source point of connection - POC). Static water psi (with no water running). Working water psi (with water running). Average high/low psi from purveyor. to

13 CALCULATING WATER SOURCE CAPACITY & PSI Select a maximum system working capacity that is the most restrictive of these 3 values: The pressure loss through the water meter should not exceed 10% of the minimum static pressure available in the city water main. The maximum flow through the meter for irrigation should not exceed 75% of the maximum safe flow of the meter (AWWA standard). The velocity of flow through the service line should not exceed 5 fps (for PVC/poly pipe) or 7 1/2 fps (for copper/galv/cast iron/ductile iron pipe). 13

14 CALCULATING WATER SOURCE CAPACITY EXERCISE Calculate the maximum system working capacity based on the following information: 60 PSI Static 13 GPM 5/8 x 3/4 Water Meter 15 GPM 1 Schedule 40 PVC Pipe 12 GPM Maximum system GPM 12 GPM 14

15 CALCULATING WATER SOURCE CAPACITY & PSI Water Source Service Line Static Pressure Maximum Flow 5/8 x 3/4 Meter 5/8 x 3/4 Meter 3/4 type K copper 1 sch 40 Galv. 80 psi 10 gpm 60 psi 12 gpm 3/4 Meter 1 type K copper 3/4 Meter 1 sch 40 PVC 70 psi 18 gpm 50 psi 13 gpm 15

16 SPRINKLER SELECTION & SPACING Sprinkler Type Typical Spacing Emission Style Operating Pressure Flow Rate Drip/Micro or Bubbler 0 to 3 feet point of use 10 to 60 psi.01 to 5 gpm Spray Head 4 to 15 feet fixed fan or pattern 15 to 50 psi.3 to 5 gpm Rotory Sprinkler 16 to 100+ feet rotating stream(s) 25 to 100+ psi.5 to 100+ gpm 16

17 SPRINKLER SELECTION & SPACING Sprinkler series will often include a fixed shrub version & different pop-up height models for irrigating various plants/grasses. Sprinkler radius = distance from the sprinkler to the edge of throw (in feet). Sprinkler gpm = flow rate of the sprinkler with different size nozzle orifices. Sprinkler psi = sprinkler operating pressure. 17

18 SPRINKLER SELECTION & SPACING Overlapping coverage is required for uniform coverage on all sprinkler layouts. Stretched sprinkler spacing will result in uneven coverage and wet / dry spots. Head-to-head spacing = sprinklers spaced at their expected radii. This is the most commonly used sprinkler spacing range in landscape irrigation system design. 18

19 SPRINKLER SELECTION & SPACING 19 Square pattern = sprinklers placed in a square pattern, with the same distance between all 4 sprinklers in the pattern. Best pattern for areas with 90 o corners. Triangular pattern = sprinklers placed in a triangular grid, with the same distance between all three sprinklers in the pattern. Good pattern for irregular shaped areas where overspray is not a problem.

20 SPRINKLER SELECTION & SPACING Equilateral triangular pattern row spacing formula: L = S x.866 L = Distance in feet between sprinkler rows. S = distance in feet between sprinklers on a row..866 = a constant. 20

21 SPRINKLER SELECTION & SPACING Rectangular pattern = like square pattern but one side of the pattern is closer together. Best pattern for fighting wind. Staggered pattern = combinations of various spacing patterns to adapt to site conditions or move around obstacles. Sliding pattern = gradual change from one pattern to another to work around curves. 21

22 SPRINKLER SELECTION & SPACING This chart shows the maximum spacing ranges for different wind velocities. Wind Velocity 0 to 3 mph 4 to 7 mph 8 to 12 mph Square Pattern 55% of Diameter 50% of Diameter 45% of Diameter Triangular Pattern 60% of Diameter 55% of Diameter 50% of Diameter Rectangular Pattern 60% x 50% of Diameter 60% x 45% of Diameter 60% x 40% of Diameter 22

23 SPRINKLER SELECTION & SPACING Precipitation rate = the average amount of water that would be applied to a given area by all sprinklers in 1 hour (measured in inches per hour). Matched precipitation rates = sprinklers which apply water at the same rate per hour no matter the arc of coverage (matching gpm flow rates to arc of coverage). 23

24 SPRINKLER SELECTION & SPACING 24 Precipitation rate formula: 96.3 x GPM S x L 96.3 = a constant. = IPH GPM = gallons per minute applied to the target area by all sprinklers in pattern. S = distance in feet of the sprinklers on a row. L = distance in feet between sprinkler rows. IPH = average inches per hour.

25 CALCULATING PRECIP- ITATION RATE EXERCISE Calculate the precip. rate for the sprinkler layout using the following information: Operating pressure = 45 PSI. T4-T T4-T T4-T

26 CALCULATING PRECIP- ITATION RATE EXERCISE Calculate the precip. rate for the sprinkler layout using the following information: Operating pressure = 45 PSI. T4-T T4-T T4-T o GPM 180 o GPM 360 o GPM % 1.4 GPM 50% 1.45 GPM 96.3 x GPM = x % 1.45 GPM 25% GPM =.67 inches per hour (PR) 25

27 27 SPRINKLER SELECTION & SPACING Start your sprinkler layout by selecting one area and measuring it. Select a sprinkler spacing range that would fit in the area (length & width). Select a sprinkler with a radius that will fit your spacing range. Lay out your sprinklers starting in the corners and working your way out.

28 SPRINKLER SELECTION & SPACING Check your sprinkler layout. Are sprinklers stretched too far apart (farther than head-to-head spacing)? Are all sprinklers in the pattern spaced the same distance apart? Are there any sprinklers missing in the pattern (areas of little or no coverage)? Will there be much overspray onto hardscapes or buildings? 28

29 SPRINKLER SELECTION & SPACING EXERCISE Select a sprinkler spacing range that will best fit the area while minimizing overspray (0-3 MPH wind). 88 O O O O 28 Rectangular spacing 28 x O O O O 28

30 30 CIRCUITING SPRINKLERS INTO VALVE GROUPS Never combine sprinklers into the same valve group if: the sprinkler precipitation rates are not matched. the sprinklers have different operating psi. the sprinklers cover plant material with differing water requirements. the areas of sprinkler coverage have different exposures to sun, wind or rain.

31 31 CIRCUITING SPRINKLERS INTO VALVE GROUPS Select sprinklers with common precipitation rates, operating psi, plant material and exposure to combine into valve groups. Add up the gpm of all sprinklers in a group and divide the total by the maximum gpm available from the water source. This tells you the number of valves you will need to supply water for this group of sprinklers.

32 32 MAINLINE & LATERAL PIPING SYSTEM LAYOUT Draw lateral pipe lines between all sprinklers on a common valve. Center feed (rather than end feed) the zone if possible to reduce friction losses. Select locations for valves (combine where possible but keep in area of the sprinklers). Draw mainline pipe lines between water source and all valves. Use common lateral trenches where possible.

33 33 SIZING LATERAL & MAINLINE PIPE Pipe should be sized so that: the desired gpm & psi can reach each sprinkler. water travels through the piping system at a safe velocity, limiting the possibility of water hammer & damaging surge pressures. the smallest size pipe possible is used to accomplish the task (for economic reasons). Pipe friction loss/velocity charts are used to select the appropriate size pipe.

34 34 SIZING LATERAL & MAINLINE PIPE The maximum safe velocity for irrigation system piping is: 5 feet per second in PVC or poly pipe. 7 1/2 feet per second in copper, cast iron or ductile iron pipe. galvanized, Pipe sizing is done in reverse, starting with the pipe segment supplying water to the last or furthest sprinkler from the valve and working in.

35 SIZING LATERAL & MAINLINE PIPE Use the manufacturers catalog & find the gpm flow rate of the various sprinklers. Use the pipe velocity chart to select a pipe size that will supply the gpm flow rate of the sprinkler at a velocity of 5 fps or lower. Use the same procedure to size all the pipe segments remembering to add the total gpm flow rate of all sprinklers that pipe supplies. 35

36 SIZING LATERAL & MAINLINE PIPE This chart shows the maximum gpm flow rate for various sizes of Class 200 PVC pipe at velocities of no more than 5 feet per second. Pipe Size 3/ /4 1-1/ /2 3 Max gpm

37 CIRCUITING SPRINKLERS & SIZING PIPE EXERCISE Circuit sprinklers into valve groups, lay out & size the lateral pipe lines. Water source capacity = 12 GPM Q H F 3/4 3/4 3/4 # /4 3/4 # /4 3/4 3/4 1 3/4 3/4 3/4 3/4 3/4 36

38 SIZING VALVES & BACKFLOW PREVENTERS Use the following guidelines when sizing valves and backflow preventers: Valve pressure loss should not exceed 10% the static psi in the irrigation mainline. The valve should be the same size or no more than one size smaller than the largest lateral pipe it serves. The valve should not be larger than the largest lateral pipe it serves. of 38

39 39 CALCULATING SYSTEM PRESSURE REQUIREMENTS Select the worst case valve circuit: valve with the largest gpm flow rate. valve with sprinklers requiring highest psi. valve furthest distance from the water source. valve at highest elevation above water source. Add up all system pressure/friction losses & add to the pressure required at the sprinklers on this valve. This is the total system psi requirement.

40 40 CALCULATING SYSTEM PRESSURE REQUIREMENTS Subtract the total system psi requirement from the static psi available from the water source. If the answer is a positive number, the system will work as designed. If the answer is negative, look back over the design & see where you can change pipe sizes or add valves to lower pressure losses.

41 41 PREPARING THE FINAL IRRIGATION PLAN Design at a maximum readable scale of: 1 = 20-0 for spray heads or drip. 1 = 50-0 for small radius rotors. 1 = for large radius rotors. Use a different symbol for each type of sprinkler, valve, backflow preventer, etc... Inset sprinkler symbols from boundary lines for easy reading.

42 42 PREPARING THE FINAL IRRIGATION PLAN Use a different line style for mainline piping verses lateral line piping. Check local codes for POC & backflow requirements & 120v power connections for the controller. Write out a schedule for each valve showing by month, the cycle days, average run times, maximum cycle time & minimum soak time between cycles.

43 IRRIGATION SCHEDULING Valve operating time formula: ET x 60 = OT (PR x EFF) x DA ET = evapotranspiration (inches per week). 60 = a formula constant. PR = precipitation rate. DA = days of the week available for irrigation. EFF = system efficiency % (as a decimal). OT = station operating time per day. 43

44 CALCULATING VALVE OPERATING TIME EXERCISE Calculate the valve operating time based on: ET requirement = 1.25 per week Precipitation rate =.67 per hour Days for irrigating = 4 days per week System efficiency = 65% 1.25 ET x = (.67 PR x.65 Eff.) x 4 Days per week = 43 minutes operating time per irrigation day

45 COMPUTER AIDED IRRIGATION DESIGN RainCAD - CAD design package with irrigation & landscape design modules. IrriCalc - Irrigation scheduling and water use/cost calculations. XeriCalc - Drip/Micro irrigation scheduling & product applications. CIT-Space - Sprinkler test/evaluation data. IA-Water Audit - Water auditing package. 45

### Landscape Irrigation Design Manual

Landscape Irrigation Design Manual c Contents Forward...v Introduction...vii Step one: Understanding basic hydraulics...3 Static water pressure...4 Dynamic water pressure...6 Exercises on basic hydraulics...9

### Landscape Irrigation Design Manual

Landscape Irrigation Design Manual c Contents Forward...v Introduction...vii Step one: Understanding basic hydraulics...3 Static water pressure...4 Dynamic water pressure...6 Exercises on basic hydraulics...9

### WaterSense Notice of Intent (NOI) to Develop a Draft Specification for Landscape Irrigation Sprinklers

WaterSense Notice of Intent (NOI) to Develop a Draft Specification for Landscape Irrigation Sprinklers I. Introduction Residential outdoor water use in the United States accounts for nearly 9 billion gallons

### Open Channel Diffusers

Open Channel Diffusers Application Information: Open channel diffusers are used to increase mixing and absorbance efficiency of a chemical solution into the process water. Specifically designed penetrations

### APPENDIX M-2 SANITARY SEWER TECHNICAL MEMORANDUM. Stadium Reconstruction EIR

APPENDIX M-2 SANITARY SEWER TECHNICAL MEMORANDUM Stadium Reconstruction EIR Appendices \ AECOM Technical Services, Inc 401 West A Street Suite 1200 San Diego, CA 92101 www.aecom.com 619-610-7600 tel 619-610-7601

### RESIDENTIAL WATER SURVEY

RESIDENTIAL WATER SURVEY Thomas Guide 2009 Page Number: Meter #/Location: Appointment Date Time Acct Number Customer Name Last First Address City Zip Code Daytime Phone Evening Phone Age of Home Years

### Module 9: Basics of Pumps and Hydraulics Instructor Guide

Module 9: Basics of Pumps and Hydraulics Instructor Guide Activities for Unit 1 Basic Hydraulics Activity 1.1: Convert 45 psi to feet of head. 45 psis x 1 ft. = 103.8 ft 0.433 psi Activity 1.2: Determine

### Irrigation System Maintenance, Inspection and Repair

Chapter 12 Irrigation System Maintenance, Inspection and Repair In this Chapter What does irrigation maintenance and repair involve? How do I receive replacement parts/components? What are the components

### Hydrant flow testing data provides important

feat40606.qxd 5/30/06 5:24 PM Page 44 The use of hydrant flow testing data to design automatic sprinkler systems has gotten easier thanks to new computer modeling software. By Dr. Sang H. Wong Hydrant

### WATER MEASUREMENT USING TWO INCH (50 mm) DRAIN TESTS

GAP.14.1.2.2 A Publication of Global Asset Protection Services LLC WATER MEASUREMENT USING TWO INCH (50 mm) DRAIN TESTS INTRODUCTION A hydrant or other large-volume flow test is necessary for proper water

### SECTION 5: SANITARY SEWER SYSTEM DESIGN

SECTION 5: SANITARY SEWER SYSTEM DESIGN 5.01 GENERAL Sanitary sewer improvements shall be designed to serve the ultimate level of City development as defined in the General Plan and the Wastewater Facilities

### Tailored Application Solutions

Tailored Application Solutions Performance. Period. A Step-By-Step Guide What are Your Needs? Step 1: Determine Your Application Needs Deciding on the correct water application solution is vital to your

### Do-It-Yourself. Home Water Survey

Marin Municipal Water District Do-It-Yourself Water Survey City of California City Water Department Do-It-Yourself Home Water Survey The Do-It-Yourself Home Water Survey will guide you through activities

### SANITARY SEWER SPECIFICATIONS

SANITARY SEWER SPECIFICATIONS OCTOBER 2003 HARVEST-MONROVIA WATER, SEWER, AND FIRE PROTECTION AUTHORITY SECTION 1.00 1.10 Purpose The purpose of this document is to assemble the sewer specifications, policies,

### Voltage Loss Formula s

www.litz-wire.com HM Wire International Inc. Phone: 330-244-8501 Fax: 330-244-8561 Voltage Loss Formula s www.hmwire.com Voltage loss in a wire is synonymous to pressure loss in a pipe. Electric current

### Irrigation. part of a continuing series of water-wise workshops. ...a few good things to know. by Jean Marsh 951-736-8941

Irrigation...a few good things to know part of a continuing series of water-wise workshops by Jean Marsh 951-736-8941 Irrigation 101 Introduction The intention of this workshop is to give you some information,

### 10/9/2012. Poultry Farm Water Supply. Alabama Burglar & Alarm System. Industry Upgrades. Drinkers Fans Water Supply

Poultry Farm Water Supply Jess Campbell & Jim Donald - Auburn University National Poultry Technology Center 1 Alabama Burglar & Alarm System 2 Industry Upgrades Ceilings, Sidewalls & Insulation Ventilation

### There are three steps to determining a watering schedule for a drip irrigation system:

Master Gardener Sonoma County Calculating Drip Irrigation Schedules The biggest challenge in drip irrigation is accurately determining how much and when to water. Fortunately, UC websites contain a goodly

### CHAPTER 11 STORM DRAINAGE

CHAPTER 11 STORM DRAINAGE SECTION 11 GENERAL 11.1 Scope. The provisions of this chapter shall govern the materials, design, construction and installation of storm drainage. 11.2 Where required. All roofs,

### One of the fundamental design elements that every

Preliminary Design Information Before starting the water system design, you must assemble a collection of information. This includes information from the owner, the local utility, and the architect. Things

### Sprinkler Planning & Installation Guide

Do-It-Yourself Sprinkler Planning & Installation Guide Your beautiful landscape awaits... Introduction Do-It-Yourself Sprinkler Planning & Installation Guide Table of Contents Before You Begin.... Using

### 2.0 BASIC CONCEPTS OF OPEN CHANNEL FLOW MEASUREMENT

2.0 BASIC CONCEPTS OF OPEN CHANNEL FLOW MEASUREMENT Open channel flow is defined as flow in any channel where the liquid flows with a free surface. Open channel flow is not under pressure; gravity is the

### How do I use a Quik-fix to repair a broken line or sprinkler head?

Highway Manual for Sustainable Landscape Maintenance If the break is at the base of the sprinkler head or riser: Excavate a hole around and under the base of the sprinkler large enough to easily work in.

### City of Modesto WATER-USE HOME SURVEY

City of Modesto WATER-USE HOME SURVEY Water is a precious natural resource important to our health, community and the quality of life. Because water is precious, it is essential to conserve and use water

### Experiment (13): Flow channel

Introduction: An open channel is a duct in which the liquid flows with a free surface exposed to atmospheric pressure. Along the length of the duct, the pressure at the surface is therefore constant and

### GENERAL WATERING & CARE GUIDE

GENERAL WATERING & CARE GUIDE Between 30-60 percent of water applied to lawns and gardens is never absorbed by the plants. Water is often wasted because it is applied too quickly and runs off, evaporates

### CITY OF FRISCO Irrigation Rules & Requirements. Ordinance No. 08-12-103

CITY OF FRISCO Irrigation Rules & Requirements Ordinance No. 08-12-103 TABLE OF CONTENTS Irrigation License and Permit Required 1 Sec. 18-378 Backflow Prevention Methods and Devices 2 Sec. 18-379 Specific

### DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS DIVISION 33 UTILITIES 33 00 00 SITE UTILITIES

SECTION INCLUDES Domestic Water Fire Water Service Water Well Sanitary Sewer Storm Drains Foundation Drainage RELATED SECTIONS 03 30 00 Concrete 21 00 00 Fire Suppression - Sprinklers 22 00 00 Plumbing

San Jose, California LEAK DETECTION: BUY THE RIGHT EQUIPMENT FOR YOUR SYSTEM 2010 SubSurface Leak Detection, Inc. Search Strategy for Finding Leaks Area Analysis Determined Through Water Audit of System

### Leak Detector Guide. Your Guide to Home Water Conservation

E v e r y D r o p C o u n t s! Leak Detector Guide Your Guide to Home Water Conservation M i a m i - D a d e W a t e r a n d S e w e r D e p a r t m e n t A High Bill Usually Means a Leak Did you know

### Open Channel Flow. M. Siavashi. School of Mechanical Engineering Iran University of Science and Technology

M. Siavashi School of Mechanical Engineering Iran University of Science and Technology W ebpage: webpages.iust.ac.ir/msiavashi Email: msiavashi@iust.ac.ir Landline: +98 21 77240391 Fall 2013 Introduction

### Optimizing the hydraulic designing of pressurized irrigation network on the lands of village Era by using the computerized model WaterGems

Optimizing the hydraulic designing of pressurized irrigation network on the lands of village Era by using the computerized model WaterGems Ali Ghadami Firouzabadi 1 and Majid Arabfard 2 1. Ali Ghadami

### Soakage Trenches. A better way to manage stormwater. Thinking Globally and Acting Locally

Soakage Trenches A better way to manage stormwater Thinking Globally and Acting Locally A partnership of the Scranton Sewer Authority, The Lackawanna River Corridor Association and the citizens of Scranton

### Leakage Detection Using PLUMBOAT

International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, Volume 4, Issue 10, October 2014 1 Leakage Detection Using PLUMBOAT Pratiksha Kulkarni Electronics & Telecommunication Department, R.A.I.T

### MIKE 21 FLOW MODEL HINTS AND RECOMMENDATIONS IN APPLICATIONS WITH SIGNIFICANT FLOODING AND DRYING

1 MIKE 21 FLOW MODEL HINTS AND RECOMMENDATIONS IN APPLICATIONS WITH SIGNIFICANT FLOODING AND DRYING This note is intended as a general guideline to setting up a standard MIKE 21 model for applications

### DIVISION OF WATER QUALITY CONSTRUCTION GRANTS & LOANS SECTION FAST TRACK AUDIT CHECKLIST

DIVISION OF WATER QUALITY CONSTRUCTION GRANTS & LOANS SECTION FAST TRACK AUDIT CHECKLIST CERTIFICATION 1. Did the engineer submit a certificate of completion utilizing the appropriate page of the issued

### Septic System Design Manual

Septic System Design Manual Prince George s County Health Department Largo Government Center 9201 Basil Court, Suite 318 Largo, Maryland 20774 (Office) 301-883-7681 (Fax) 301-883-7266 (January 2007) Table

### Optimizing Tank Cleaning Operations

Optimizing Tank Cleaning Operations Choosing the best way to thoroughly clean your tanks while minimizing use of costly chemicals, water and manual labor can be challenging. There are several things you

### DESIGNING A DRIP IRRIGATION SYSTEM USING HYDROCALC IRRIGATION PLANNING PROIECTAREA UNUI SISTEM DE IRIGAŢII PRIN PICURARE UTILIZÂND PROGRAMUL HYDROCALC

DESIGNING A DRIP IRRIGATION SYSTEM USING HYDROCALC IRRIGATION PLANNING PROIECTAREA UNUI SISTEM DE IRIGAŢII PRIN PICURARE UTILIZÂND PROGRAMUL HYDROCALC Abstract: The competitive demand of available water

### BERMAD Waterworks. High Pressure, Surge Anticipating Control Valve. 800 Series. Model 835-M. Features and Benefits. Major Additional Features

High Pressure, Surge Anticipating Control Valve Eliminates surge in all pumping systems: Booster & deep well, single & variable speed Eliminates surge in all distribution networks: Municipal, high-rise

### LIFE SCIENCE. Hoop House Construction for New Mexico: 12-ft. x 40-ft. Hoop House BRINGING TO YOUR HOME ECONOMICS COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE AND

Hoop House Construction for New Mexico: 12-ft. x 40-ft. Hoop House COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS BRINGING SCIENCE TO YOUR LIFE Hoop House Construction for New Mexico: 12-ft. x 40-ft. Hoop House

### OAR52 A-1 (September, 1981)

APPENDIX A SEWER PIPELINES (1) MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS FOR SEWER - PIPELINES (a) Capacity: Sewers shall be of such diameter as to pass without overflow, bypass, or back flow onto damageable property of a

### LEAK DETECTION GUIDE

LEAK DETECTION GUIDE Your Guide to Home Water Conservation CITY OF BELLEVUE UTILITIES WATER & SEWER DEPARTMENTS LEAK DETECTION GUIDE PAGE: 1 WHERE TO START If you receive a high water bill, or think there

### com www. IRRIEXPRESS IRRIGATION DESIGN SOFTWARE

Established 1963 IRRIEXPRESS IRRIGATION DESIGN SOFTWARE Create And Validate Irrigation Designs In Minutes. Design comprehensive irrigation projects with pivots, sprinklers and drip using a simple, intuitive

### RECYCLED MICRO HYDROPOWER GENERATION USING HYDRAULIC RAM PUMP (HYDRAM)

IMPACT: International Journal of Research in Engineering & Technology (IMPACT: IJRET) Vol., Issue 3, Aug 23, - Impact Journals RECYCLED MICRO HYDROPOWER GENERATION USING HYDRAULIC RAM PUMP (HYDRAM) C.

### Open channel flow Basic principle

Open channel flow Basic principle INTRODUCTION Flow in rivers, irrigation canals, drainage ditches and aqueducts are some examples for open channel flow. These flows occur with a free surface and the pressure

### What s New V 11. Preferences: Parameters: Layout/ Modifications: Reverse mouse scroll wheel zoom direction

What s New V 11 Preferences: Reverse mouse scroll wheel zoom direction Assign mouse scroll wheel Middle Button as Fine tune Pricing Method (Manufacturing/Design) Display- Display Long Name Parameters:

### Sanitary Sewer Overflow (SSO) Incident Report Form

Submit completed form to EHS. Date of SSO spill: Sanitary Sewer Overflow (SSO) Incident Report Form Identify the SSO category (check one): Category 1 SSO Spills of any volume that reach surface water Category

### ELFRING FONTS INC. MICR FONTS FOR WINDOWS

ELFRING FONTS INC. MICR FONTS FOR WINDOWS This package contains ten MICR fonts (also known as E-13B) used to print the magnetic encoding lines on checks, and eight Secure Fonts for use in printing check

### Firefighter Review. Instructor Guide

Firefighter Review Instructor Guide Session Reference: 3 Topic: Attack Line Handling Level of Instruction: Time Required: Three Hours Materials: Two Fully Equipped Pumpers Structure for Use in Advancing

### Travel Time. Computation of travel time and time of concentration. Factors affecting time of concentration. Surface roughness

3 Chapter 3 of Concentration and Travel Time Time of Concentration and Travel Time Travel time ( T t ) is the time it takes water to travel from one location to another in a watershed. T t is a component

Practice Tests Answer Keys COURSE OUTLINE: Module # Name Practice Test included Module 1: Basic Math Refresher Module 2: Fractions, Decimals and Percents Module 3: Measurement Conversions Module 4: Linear,

### IMPACT SPRINKLER TROUBLESHOOTING GUIDE

RAIN USE AND OPERATION BIRD IMPACT SPRINKLER TROUBLESHOOTING GUIDE The diagrams below depict typical Rain Bird sprinklers with all available controls. Your particular model may have only some of these

### IES <Virtual Environment> Tutorial. ModelIT (Version 6.0)

IES Tutorial ModelIT (Version 6.0) 1 Introduction: ModelIT Tutorial This document shows you how to use ModelIT, IES s 3D building geometry modelling tool. The tutorial is intended

### Energy Efficiency Business Rebates Other Technology Catalog

Energy Efficiency Business Rebates Other Technology Catalog RECENT CATALOG CHANGES Pre and post inspections are now required for all air handler and compressor variable frequency drive (VFD) measures.

### Water-Efficient Landscape Design A model landscape ordinance for Colorado s communities utilizing a water conservation-oriented planning approach

Water-Efficient Landscape Design A model landscape ordinance for Colorado s communities utilizing a water conservation-oriented planning approach Provided by the Colorado Department of Local Affairs, Office

### Soaker Hoses for Trees & Foundations. Patty Sipe Heads Up Sprinkler Company www.headsupsprinkler.com

Soaker Hoses for Trees & Foundations Patty Sipe Heads Up Sprinkler Company www.headsupsprinkler.com U.S. Drought Monitor as of April 1, 2014 Lavon Lake Elevation as of April 7, 2014 2012 2013 2014 BY LAW:

### How to Pre-empt a Significant Profit Drain: Nozzle Wear

Experts in Technology Nozzles Control Analysis Fabrication How to Pre-empt a Significant Profit Drain: Nozzle Wear Causes, Detection and Corrective Action Strategies By Jon Barber, ing Systems Co. KEY

### Chapter 9. Steady Flow in Open channels

Chapter 9 Steady Flow in Open channels Objectives Be able to define uniform open channel flow Solve uniform open channel flow using the Manning Equation 9.1 Uniform Flow in Open Channel Open-channel flows

### 1. Site plans assist the Fire Department to determine where a potential spill can be contained. The detailed site plan shall include the following:

Secondary Containment, Spill Control and Drainage Guidelines for Hazardous Materials per 2010 CFC PURPOSE The intent of this guideline is to provide the requirements for the design and construction of

### Characteristics of Evaporators

Characteristics of Evaporators Roger D. Holder, CM, MSME 10-28-2003 Heat or Energy In this paper, we will discuss the characteristics of an evaporator coil. The variance of the operational condenses of

### Basic Selection & Proper Application of Overhead Air Distribution Devices

Basic Selection & Proper Application of Overhead Air Distribution Devices GRD Selection & Application Terms Selection Throw Sound Installation Variations affect Performance Inlet Effects Basics Return

### Backwater Rise and Drag Characteristics of Bridge Piers under Subcritical

European Water 36: 7-35, 11. 11 E.W. Publications Backwater Rise and Drag Characteristics of Bridge Piers under Subcritical Flow Conditions C.R. Suribabu *, R.M. Sabarish, R. Narasimhan and A.R. Chandhru

### 10/4/2012. 40 slide sample of Presentation. Key Principles to Current Stormwater Management

40 slide sample of Presentation Please contact mhoalton@pacewater.com if you would like the complete presentation Key Principles to Current Stormwater Management Distributed Control Measures Integrated

### Jackson County Department of Public Health Application to Construct, Install, Remodel or Modify a Public Swimming Pool

Jackson County Department of Public Health 538 Scotts Creek Rd. Suite 100 Sylva, NC 28779 Tel: 828-586-8994 FAX: 828-586-3493 Paula G. Carden DIRECTOR Jackson County Department of Public Health Application

### SITE IMPROVEMENT PLANS CHECKLIST

REVIEW SERVICES TEAM SITE IMPROVEMENT PLANS CHECKLIST (Also for SITE DEVELOPMENT PERMIT applications) GENERAL REQUIREMENTS This checklist applies to commercial building site work involving engineering,

### What is the most obvious difference between pipe flow and open channel flow????????????? (in terms of flow conditions and energy situation)

OPEN CHANNEL FLOW 1 3 Question What is the most obvious difference between pipe flow and open channel flow????????????? (in terms of flow conditions and energy situation) Typical open channel shapes Figure

### Technical Article. Sprinkler Protection for High Bay and Automated Storage in Warehouse-Type Storage Facilities

Technical Article for High Bay and Automated Storage in Warehouse-Type Storage Facilities Scott Martorano, CFPS Senior Manager Technical Services February, 2010 Worldwide Fire Protection www.vikinggroupinc.com

### 2006 Codes. Please verify the following before calling for inspection

INSPECTION CHECKLIST RESIDENTIAL PLUMBING ROUGH IN 2006 Codes This checklist is intended for use to prepare for an inspection. This is only a general list and is not intended to address all possible conditions.

### The Hydrologic Cycle. precipitation evaporation condensation transpiration infiltration surface runoff transport groundwater water table.

The Hydrologic Cycle Page 1 of 1 Name Directions: The hydrologic cycle consists of the processes that change and move water through the earth s system. Use the terms below to label the hydrologic cycle.

### CITY OF SALEM DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS ADMINISTRATIVE RULES CHAPTER 109 DIVISION 003 SANITARY SEWER COLLECTION SYSTEM

CITY OF SALEM DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS ADMINISTRATIVE RULES CHAPTER 109 DIVISION 003 SANITARY SEWER COLLECTION SYSTEM SECTION 3.1 INTRODUCTION... 1 (a) Objectives...1 (b) Applicability...1 (c) Drafting

### TexasET Network Water My Yard Program

TexasET Network Water My Yard Program What is the Water My Yard Program? The WaterMyYard Program (http://watermyyard.org) is a new program and website that solves two of the biggest problems in getting

### The checklist utilized by the Authority will be similar to that which is shown below. Project Name: Location: Consulting Engineering Firm:

Page 1 of 6 Section 1. PURPOSE This policy is an Engineering checklist of the Local Review Program for sanitary sewer improvement projects by the Bedford Regional Water Authority ( Authority ). Section

### Energy Efficiency Business Rebates Other Technology Catalog

Energy Efficiency Business Rebates Other Technology Catalog Other Technology Products Solution Product Code Product Description Units \$/Unit Page # O-A1 Reflective Window Film (Coastal) \$1.35 2 Reflective

### Guidelines For Landscape Drip Irrigation Systems

Guidelines For Landscape Drip Irrigation Systems Prepared by the Arizona Landscape Irrigation Guidelines Committee July 2001 www.amwua.org TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION 1 SECTION 1: GENERAL 2 A. Description

### MONITORING TOOLS AND METHODS. Michelle Buzalsky Rangeland Management Technician Shoshone National Forest

MONITORING TOOLS AND METHODS Michelle Buzalsky Rangeland Management Technician Shoshone National Forest MONITORING TOOLS Tools for Monitoring Transect Stakes (PVC pipe, Rebar) 100 Tape Two Carpenter Rules

### Applied Fluid Mechanics

Applied Fluid Mechanics 1. The Nature of Fluid and the Study of Fluid Mechanics 2. Viscosity of Fluid 3. Pressure Measurement 4. Forces Due to Static Fluid 5. Buoyancy and Stability 6. Flow of Fluid and

### A High Bill Usually Means a Leak

A High Bill Usually Means a Leak Did you know that approximately 50 percent of all households have some kind of plumbing leak? Most of these leaks are due to worn out washers, flappers or faulty tank valves,

### SECTION 6 SANITARY SEWER MAIN 6.01 SCOPE

6.01 SCOPE The work covered by this section of the specifications consists of the furnishing of all plant, labor, materials, equipment and supervision and performing all operations involved in the construction

### Hydraulics Prof. A. K. Sarma Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati. Module No. # 02 Uniform Flow Lecture No.

Hydraulics Prof. A. K. Sarma Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati Module No. # 02 Uniform Flow Lecture No. # 04 Computation of Uniform Flow (Part 02) Welcome to this

### CHAPTER 6 SEWER SYSTEM DESIGN STANDARDS

CHAPTER 6 SEWER SYSTEM DESIGN STANDARDS TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER 6 SEWER SYSTEM DESIGN STANDARDS 6.00 Objective Page 1 6.01 Additional Referenced Standards Page 2 6.02 Special Design Problems Page 2 6.03

### EIN DOR EMITTERS. Sprinklers and Sprayers

EIN DOR EMITTERS Sprinklers and Sprayers Ein-Dor Emitters by TAVLIT For the past 40 years Ein-Dor products have been in the forefront of technology and innovation when it comes to micro irrigation. Following

### Checklist for plans to Construct, Alter or Repair An Individual Subsurface Sewage Disposal System

Checklist for plans to Construct, Alter or Repair An Individual Subsurface Sewage Disposal System An application for the construction or alteration of an individual subsurface sewage disposal system shall

### LEE S SUMMIT USES PIPE BURSTING TO BROADEN ITS ASSET MANAGEMENT TOOLBOX AND REHABILITATE POTABLE WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

North American Society for Trenchless Technology (NASTT) No-Dig Show 2010 Chicago, Illinois May 2-7, 2010 Paper D-4-02 LEE S SUMMIT USES PIPE BURSTING TO BROADEN ITS ASSET MANAGEMENT TOOLBOX AND REHABILITATE

### Assessment Blueprint PHCC Educational Foundation Plumbing Year 2

Assessment Blueprint PHCC Educational Foundation Plumbing Year 2 Post-Test Code: 7662 Copyright 2008. All Rights Reserved. General Assessment Information PHCC Educational Foundation Plumbing Year 2 General

### ONSITE WASTEWATER TREATMENT SYSTEM Property Transfer Certification Instructions and Inspection Report

ONSITE WASTEWATER TREATMENT SYSTEM Property Transfer Certification Instructions and Inspection Report These instructions are for homeowners and inspectors completing the onsite wastewater treatment system

### Topic 8: Open Channel Flow

3.1 Course Number: CE 365K Course Title: Hydraulic Engineering Design Course Instructor: R.J. Charbeneau Subject: Open Channel Hydraulics Topics Covered: 8. Open Channel Flow and Manning Equation 9. Energy,

### Emerging Technologies in Wastewater Collection Systems

Keville Enterprises Emerging Technologies in Wastewater Collection Systems Douglas McCutchen, CCM Brian Karmasin, P.E., BCEE CMAA Annual Conference Oct 2008 San Francisco, California Today s s Presentation

### EXHIBIT "A. Technical Specifications for Water and Sewer Service Lines

EXHIBIT "A Technical Specifications for Water and Sewer Service Lines Water and Sewer Line Bedding and Backfill: Drawings show cross-section of trench, pipe laid on top of 6" min. bedding material, bedding

### WE OFTEN BELIEVE artists

Analyzing the Residential Landscape WE OFTEN BELIEVE artists have the liberty to create anything they want. That is sometimes true, but many artists are hired to do particular types of work. Landscape

### GROUNDS MAINTENANCE-WATER USE DFC Environmental Management System

1.0 Purpose To reduce the amount of water applied to the DFC Grounds in order to conserve water. 2.0 Activity/Department The On-site Landscape Contractor GSA Team 6 3.0 Forms Used Contractor s Daily Quality

### Basic Hydrology. Time of Concentration Methodology

Basic Hydrology Time of Concentration Methodology By: Paul Schiariti, P.E., CPESC Mercer County Soil Conservation District What is the Time of Concentration? The time it takes for runoff to travel from

### Guidelines for Control of Water Runoff on Small Lots. Revised 6/09

Guidelines for Control of Water Runoff on Small Lots Revised 6/09 Table of Contents Introduction and Purpose 3 Administrative Procedures 3 Plan Submittal Requirements 3 General Design Criteria 4 Dry Wells

### Contents and Nomenclature

DX Coils Contents and Nomenclature Nomenclature... 1 Evaporator Coil Types EN... 2 EF... 2 ER... 2 EJ... 3 EK... 3 Evaporator Construction Connections... 4 Tubing... 4 Headers... 5 Tube Supports... 5 Coil

### Hydraulics Laboratory Experiment Report

Hydraulics Laboratory Experiment Report Name: Ahmed Essam Mansour Section: "1", Monday 2-5 pm Title: Flow in open channel Date: 13 November-2006 Objectives: Calculate the Chezy and Manning coefficients

### SECTION 8 WATER SUPPLY SYSTEMS

SECTION 8 WATER SUPPLY SYSTEMS Contents Page 8-1 INTRODUCTION... 1 8-2 INTENT OF WATER SYSTEM IMPROVEMENT STANDARDS... 1 8-3 DEFINITIONS... 1 8-4 APPLICABLE STANDARDS... 1 8-5 IMPROVEMENT AND LANDSCAPE

### Follow the Drop. Activity Overview Students observe and collect information about water runoff on their school property. Objective Students will:

Follow the Drop Activity Overview Students observe and collect information about water runoff on their school property. Objective Students will: Practice observation and investigative skills Survey and

### Many Word problems result in Quadratic equations that need to be solved. Some typical problems involve the following equations:

Many Word problems result in Quadratic equations that need to be solved. Some typical problems involve the following equations: Quadratic Equations form Parabolas: Typically there are two types of problems: