# Cost-Volume-Profit Analysis

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1 HOSP 2110 (Management Acct) Learning Centre Cost-Volume-Profit Analysis The basic principles of CVP analysis were covered in business math. CVP analysis can be done both graphically, through plotting the equations for Total Revenues and Total Costs ( + Variable Costs), and algebraically, through solving the two linear equations of total revenues and total costs. The breakeven point (whether in sales \$ or in sales units) represents the point where the sales revenue (TR) exactly covers the fixed costs and variable costs (TC). In other words, the breakeven point occurs where there is \$0 profit (and \$0 loss). On a graph, it is the point where the TR curve and TC curve intersect. Any sales above the breakeven point will result in an operating profit for the business. Any sales below the breakeven point will result in an operating loss. The contribution margin is the difference between total sales revenue and total variable costs; this amount contributes to paying fixed costs and beyond that, providing profit. The contribution margin unit (CMu) is the amount of money per unit of good sold that contributes towards fixed costs and profit. It is the difference between the sales price per unit (SPu) and the variable cost per unit (VCu). The contribution margin ratio is the expression of the portion of each dollar of sales that goes towards fixed costs and profit (CMu/SPu). Some basic equations that you might use for solving for the breakeven point are below: Breakeven sales revenue in dollars (\$) Variable Costs 1 Sales Revenue = Breakeven sales units = Variable Cost per Unit 1 Sales Price per Unit Sales Price Unit Variable Costs Unit = Contribution margin ratio Contribution margin per unit The value for VC/SR and VC per unit/sp per unit is also called the variable cost percent. The contribution margin is equal to 1 Variable Cost %. Example 1: If the fixed costs (FC) for a year of operation are \$45,000, the variable expenses (VC) are \$27,000 and sales revenue (SR) is \$112,000, what is the breakeven sales revenue (BESR)? Solution: BESR = 1 (Variable Costs Sales Revenue) = 45,000 1 (27, ,000) = % 24.1% = \$59,289 Authored by Emily by Simpson Emily Simpson Student review only. May not be reproduced for classes.

2 Note in these types of problems, we calculate the variable cost percentage first and round that number (24.1%). So the contribution margin ratio is 100% 24.1% = 75.9%, which is what we divide by to the find the break even sales revenue. All dollar values should be rounded (no cents). Another way to show CVP analysis is a contribution margin income statement where fixed costs, variable costs, the contribution margin and the operating income are shown. For example 1: Contribution Margin Income Statement Sales revenue \$112,000 Less: Variable Costs (27,000) Contribution margin Less: 85,000 (45,000) Operating Income 40,000 If there is a required amount of operating income (OI) that a business wants to make, the BESR equation changes to express the required sales in terms of FC, OI, and contribution margin (CM) ratio. FC + OI Required sales in \$ or units = CM ratio (or CM per unit) If there are any adjustments to fixed costs, this would also affect the required sales \$ for a certain OI level. Changes to fixed costs are added in the top of the equation to figure out how the sales revenue must change. The same is true if we are talking about an investment and we want to see a specific return on investment (this becomes a new OI). Example 2: A business operates with a variable cost percentage of 68%. The fixed costs of operation last year were \$37,000. The owner is giving her employees a raise which results in an increased fixed cost of \$9,200 this year. What is the required sales revenue in order to achieve an operating profit of \$16,000 assuming FC and the VC percentage are the same? Solution: Required SR FC + new FC + OI 1 VC% \$37, , , \$194,375 In the case where a business sells differently priced goods (with differing variable costs), the contribution margin income statement is a bit more complicated, and you will need to calculate a weighted-average contribution margin per unit. You will be given a sales mix, which tells you the relative proportion in which a company's goods are sold. Student review only. May not be reproduced for classes. 2

3 To find the weighted average CM, first find the contribution margin per unit of each individual good. Then multiply each CM by the quantity of that good in the sales mix. Total the contribution margins and then divide by the total quantity of goods in the sales mix. This is the weighted average CM. Example 3: A company sells apples and oranges in a sales mix of 4 apples : 5 oranges. The selling price for apples is \$0.50 each and for oranges is \$0.70 each. The variable cost of apples is \$0.20 per unit and for oranges \$0.30 per unit. Find the weighted average contribution margin. Solution: The contribution margin for apples is ( ) 4 = \$1.20. The contribution margin for oranges is \$2.00; the total contribution margin is \$ \$2 = \$3.20. To find the weighted-average contribution margin per unit, take \$3.20 divided by the total of goods in the sales mix: \$3.20/(4 + 5) = \$3.20/9 = \$0.36. To find the number of units sold of each good at the breakeven point, take the total breakeven units (FC divided by the weighted-average contribution margin per unit) and multiply by the fraction each good represents of the sales mix. If there are two departments in a business, you may be asked to find how changes in sales revenue to one or both departments impact the contribution margin and profit levels of the business. Use the following formula to determine the required sales based on each department s contribution margin and their percent of total revenue. Required Sales FC OI Dept A Rev% Dept A CM ratio (Dept B Rev% Dept B CM ratio) Example 4: A hotel has a room department and food department. The hotel s FC are \$350,000 a year. The room department s revenue is \$450,000 and the food department s revenue is \$300,000. The variable costs for the room department are \$225,000 and the food department s variable cost is \$102,000. What increase in sales revenue is needed to double the current operating income (a) by increasing only room sales revenue or (b) by increasing revenue jointly between the departments, assuming the revenue ratio stays the same? Solution: First find the CM ratio for each department and each department s sales revenue % of the total sales revenue. Find the current operating income. Room revenue % = \$450,000/(450, ,000) 100 = 60% Food revenue% = 40% Room Dept CM ratio = 1 (225,000/450,000) = 1 50% = 50% Food Dept CM ratio = 1 (80,000/250,000) = 1 34% = 66% Current Operating Income = TR TC = \$700,000 (350, ,000) = \$23,000 (a) To double the income would be to increase it by 23,000. If the increase needs to come from room revenues, then we just use the CM ratio for rooms: 23, = \$11,500 increase in revenue is needed. Student review only. May not be reproduced for classes. 3

4 (b) To double the income jointly from both departments revenue, 23,000 60% % ,000 30% 26.4% 23, % \$40,780 The increase in revenue needed is \$40,780. Practice Problems 1. Fixed costs are \$142,500 and the variable cost percentage is 35%. What is the breakeven sales revenue? 2. A bar has fixed costs of \$178,000 and the contribution margin ratio is 56%. Find the breakeven sales revenue. 3. If a business has fixed costs of \$215,000 and goods selling for \$12.50/unit with a variable cost of \$6.40/unit, find the breakeven sales units and revenue. 4. A hotel has sales revenue of \$423,000 and variable costs averaging 48%. The average room cost is \$30/unit. Fixed costs are \$208,000. What is the breakeven sales revenue? What is the current operating income? If the hotel wants to increase its operating income by \$4,200, how much additional sales revenue is required? If variable costs increase to 54% and the hotel wants to maintain the increase in operating income of \$4,200, what is the required sales revenue? 5. Company A has sales revenue of \$500,000 and fixed expenses of \$196,000. If the number of units sold is 16,000 and the contribution margin ratio is 0.44, find the variable expenses, operating income (loss), and contribution margin per unit. 6. A coffee shop sells small, medium, and large coffees in a sales mix of 2:3:1. The variable costs per unit for small, medium, and large coffees are \$1.20, \$1.50, and \$1.90 respectively. The sales price per unit for small, medium, and large coffees are \$2.50, \$3.00, and \$3.50. The contribution margin income statement for the year is shown below. Contribution Margin Income Statement Sales Revenue 84,000 Variable Expenses (42,240) Contribution Margin 41,760 Fixed Expenses (36,000) Operating Income 5,760 (a) Prepare a contribution margin income statement using the weightedaverage technique for the three different coffee sizes. (b) Find the breakeven sales in total units, and for each size of coffee. (c) Find the breakeven sales in dollars. Student review only. May not be reproduced for classes. 4

5 (d) If the variable costs of coffee increase by 5% for all sizes and the shop wants to maintain an operating income of \$5,760, how many more units have to be sold to achieve break even? (e) How many units of each coffee should have to be sold to achieve an operating income of \$13,320 with the change in variable costs above? 7. Fill in the missing information in the table: A B C Sales price per unit \$30 \$25 Variable Cost per unit \$12 Fixed Cost CM per unit \$13 CM ratio 45% Break even units 250 Break even Sales Target Sales units Target Sales \$4,000 \$6,950 CM Operating Income \$840 (\$234) Solutions 1. \$219, \$317, ,246 units (round to the nearest whole number); units \$12.50/unit = \$440,575 is the BESR 4. BESR = \$400,000; current operating income = \$11,960; additional sales revenue = \$8,077; required sales revenue = \$487, Variable expenses = \$280,000; Operating income = \$24,000; Contribution margin per unit = \$ (a) Small Medium Large Total Sale price per unit \$2.50 \$3.00 \$3.50 Less: Variable cost per unit ( 1.20) ( 1. 50) (1.90) Contribution margin per unit Sales mix in units Contribution margin per unit Weighted average CM per unit 1.45 (b) Breakeven sales units \$36,000 = 24,828 units \$1.45/unit Breakeven sales of small coffees = 24,828 (2/6) = 8,276 units Breakeven sales of medium coffees = 24,828 (3/6) = 12,414 units Breakeven sales of large coffees = 24,828 (1/6) = 4,138 units (c) Breakeven sales dollars = SP s Q s + SP m Q m + SP L Q L Breakeven sales dollars = \$2.50 8,276 + \$3 12,414 + \$3.50 4,138 = \$72,415 Student review only. May not be reproduced for classes. 5

6 (d) Change in VC means that small VC = \$1.26/unit, medium VC = \$1.58/unit, large VC = \$2.00/unit. The average CM per unit is now \$1.37. Required sales units = (36, ,760)/ \$1.37 = 30,482 units 30,482 24,828 = 5,654 units more (e) Total units sold = 36,000; small coffees = 12,000; medium coffees = 18,000; large coffees = 6, Fill in the missing information in the table: A B C Sales price per unit \$30 \$20 \$25 Variable Cost per unit \$12 \$11 \$12 Fixed Cost \$4,500 \$960 \$3848 CM per unit \$18 \$9 \$13 CM ratio 60% 45% 52% Break even units Break even Sales \$7,500 \$2,140 \$7,400 Target Sales units Target Sales \$9,000 \$4,000 \$6,950 CM \$5,400 \$1,800 \$3,614 Operating Income \$900 \$840 (\$234) Student review only. May not be reproduced for classes. 6

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