# Chapter 03.00F Physical Problem for Nonlinear Equations Industrial Engineering

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1 Chapter 3.F Physical Problem for Nonlinear Equations Industrial Engineering Problem Statement You have been recently employed by a start-up computer assembly company called the MOM AND POP COMPUTER SHOP. As a recent graduate with a bachelor s degree in industrial engineering, you have been asked by the president, to determine the minimum number of computers that the shop will have to sell to make a profit during the first year in business. Solution First, it is important to determine the first costs or capital costs, CC, associated with starting the business. The capital costs include such items as: computer assembly and diagnostic equipment, office furniture, workbenches, and initial inventory purchase, to name a few. It is assumed that the capital costs, CC, associated with the business are CC \$2, Second, it is important to determine the repeated costs or operating costs, OC, associated with operating the business for the first year. Operating costs differ from capital costs mainly in that operating costs must be paid repeatedly (every year in this instance), in contrast to capital costs, which involve a one-time payment. Operating costs can be broken down into three major classifications: 1. indirect costs or fixed costs, FC 2. direct or variable costs, VC, and 3. semivariable or regulated costs, RC, where OC FC VC RC Fixed costs include items that are not generally a function of the production level, such as: building lease, real estate taxes, utilities (DSL or cable modem, basic electric and local phone), 3.F.1

2 3.F.2 Chapter 3.F insurance, and marketing, to name a few. These fixed costs could, however, increase say if the production level reaches a point when a larger building is needed or when more phone lines needs to be installed. It is assumed that the fixed costs, FC, associated with the business are FC \$15, Variable costs include items that are a direct function, often linear, of the production level, such as: materials (computer components), utilities (production electric and long distance phone), labor (also includes supervision and payroll charges), maintenance, and distribution (packaging and shipping), to name a few. It is assumed that the variable costs, VC, associated with the business are VC \$ 625n where n is the number of computers produced. Regulated costs include items that are also a direct function, though often non-linear, of the production level, such as: labor (also includes supervision and payroll charges), For instance, if production levels reach a certain level, another employee may need to be hired. It is assumed that the regulated costs, RC, associated with the business are RC \$ 3n Combining the fixed, variable and regulated costs gives the operating cost, that is, CC FC VC RC CC \$ 15, \$5n 3n And the total cost, TC, to operate the business for the first year is the capital costs plus the operating costs, that is TC CC OC TC \$ 2, \$15, \$625n \$3n TC \$ 35, \$625n \$3n All of the costs (capital, fixed, variable, regulated, operating, and total) are shown below in Figure 1. Next, it is important to determine the total sales, TS, associated with operating the business for the first year. Total sales can be broken down into two major classifications: 1. product sales, PS, and 2. discounted sales, DS, where TS PS DS If they sell n computers, their product sales, PS, are PS \$ 15n This represents the \$15 selling price for each computer. It is assumed that the discounted sales, DS, are DS \$ 1n

3 Physical Problem For Nonlinear Equations: Industrial Engineering 3.F.3 which represents a discount as the number of computers sold increases. The total sales is then given by TS PS DS TS \$ 15n \$1n All of the sales (product, discounted, and total) revenue are shown below in Figure 2. 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, Capital Costs Fixed Costs Variable Costs Regualted Costs Operating Costs Total Costs 1, Figure 1 Capital, Fixed, Variable, Regulated, Operating, And Total Costs

4 3.F.4 Chapter 3.F Product Sales Discounted Sales Total Sales Figure 2 Product, Discounted, And Total Sales All of the costs and sales revenue are shown next in Figure 3. 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, Capital Costs Fixed Costs Variable Costs Regualted Costs Operating Costs Total Costs Product Sales Discounted Sales Total Sales 1, Figure 3 All of the Costs and Sales Revenue

5 Physical Problem For Nonlinear Equations: Industrial Engineering 3.F.5 At the break-even point there is no profit, so the capital cost plus the product cost equals the product sales (see Figure 4). TC TS \$ 35, \$625n \$3n \$15n \$1n 6, 5, Profit 4, 3, Total Costs Total Sales 2, 1, Break Down Point Figure 4 Break-Even Point and Profit Margin Simplifying the previous equation yields the following nonlinear equation that needs to solved. \$35, \$875n \$4n The value of n is the minimum number of computers that the shop will have to sell to make a profit. This is called the break-even point. Questions 1. Will some of the roots be complex for the above nonlinear equation? 2. Using numerical techniques, we can solve this equation and any other equation of the form f ( x). Solve the above equation by all the methods you have learned assuming you want at least 3 significant digits to be correct in your answer. 3. How can you use the knowledge of the problem to develop initial guess(es) for the numerical methods?

6 3.F.6 Chapter 3.F 4. Determine the production level that produces the most profit. 5. Determine the second break-even point, after which a loss is realized. 6. Reformulate the problem to determine the break-even point for the second year in business assuming that no capital costs are incurred. Topic Sub Topic Summary NONLINEAR EQUATIONS Physical Problem A physical problem of determining how many computers a business would have to sell to turn a profit. To find this number of computers to be sold, the physical model is a nonlinear equation. Glen Besterfield Authors Date August 15, 22 Web Site

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