# Chapter 22: Cost-Volume-Profit

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1 Chapter 22: Cost-Volume-Profit DO IT! 1 Types of Costs Helena Company reports the following total costs at two levels of production. 10,000 Units 20,000 Units Direct materials \$20,000 \$40,000 Maintenance 8,000 10,000 Direct labor 17,000 34,000 Indirect materials 1,000 2,000 Depreciation 4,000 4,000 Utilities 3,000 5,000 Rent 6,000 6,000 Classify each cost as variable, fixed, or mixed. Direct materials, direct labor, and indirect materials are variable costs. Depreciation and rent are fixed costs. Maintenance and utilities are mixed costs. Related exercise material: BE22-1, BE22-2, BE22-3, E22-1, E22-3, and DO IT! Recall that a variable cost varies in total directly and proportionately with each change in activity level. Recall that a fixed cost remains the same in total with each change in activity level. Recall that a mixed cost changes in total but not proportionately with each change in activity level. DO IT! 2 High-Low Method Byrnes Company accumulates the following data concerning a mixed cost, using units produced as the activity level. Units Produced Total Cost March 9,800 \$14,740 April 8,500 13,250 May 7,000 11,100 June 7,600 12,000 July 8,100 12,460 (a) Compute the variable-cost and fixed-cost elements using the high-low method. (b) Estimate the total cost if the company produces 8,000 units. (a) Variable cost: (\$14,740 2 \$11,100) 4 (9, ,000) 5 \$1.30 per unit Fixed cost: \$14,740 2 \$12,740* 5 \$2,000 or \$11,100 2 \$9,100** 5 \$2,000 *\$ ,800 units **\$ ,000 units (b) Total cost to produce 8,000 units: \$2,000 1 \$10,400 (\$ ,000 units) 5 \$12,400 Related exercise material: BE22-4, E22-2, and DO IT! Determine the highest and lowest levels of activity. Compute variable cost per unit as Change in total costs 4 (High 2 low activity level) 5 Variable cost per unit. Compute fixed cost as Total cost 2 (Variable cost per unit 3 Units produced) 5 Fixed cost. D-1

2 D-2 DO IT! DO IT! 3 CVP Income Statement Ampco Industries produces and sells a cell phone-operated thermostat. Information regarding the costs and sales of thermostats during September 2017 are provided below. Unit selling price of thermostat \$85 Unit variable costs \$32 Total monthly fixed costs \$190,000 Units sold 4,000 Prepare a CVP income statement for Ampco Industries for the month of September. Provide per unit values and total values. Provide a heading with the name of the company, name of statement, and period covered. Subtract variable costs from sales to determine contribution margin. Subtract fixed costs from contribution margin to determine net income. Express sales, variable costs, and contribution margin on a per unit basis. Related exercise material: BE22-5, E22-4, and DO IT! AMPCO INDUSTRIES CVP Income Statement For the Month Ended September 30, 2017 Total Per Unit Sales \$340,000 \$85 Variable costs 128, Contribution margin 212,000 \$53 Fixed costs 190,000 Net income \$ 22,000 DO IT! 4 Break-Even Analysis Apply the formula: Sales 2 Variable costs 2 Fixed costs 5 Net income. Apply the formula: Fixed costs 4 Unit contribution margin 5 Break-even point in units. Lombardi Company has a unit selling price of \$400, variable costs per unit of \$240, and fixed costs of \$180,000. Compute the break-even point in units using (a) a mathematical equation and (b) unit contribution margin. (a) The equation is \$400Q 2 \$240Q 2 \$180,000 5 \$0; (\$400Q 2 \$240Q) 5 \$180,000. The break-even point in units is 1,125. (b) The unit contribution margin is \$160 (\$400 2 \$240). The formula therefore is \$180,000 4 \$160, and the break-even point in units is 1,125. Related exercise material: BE22-6, BE22-7, E22-5, E22-6, E22-7, E22-8, E22-9, E22-10, and DO IT! 22-4.

3 DO IT! D-3 DO IT! 5 Break-Even, Margin of Safety, and Target Net Income Zootsuit Inc. makes travel bags that sell for \$56 each. For the coming year, management expects fixed costs to total \$320,000 and variable costs to be \$42 per unit. Compute the following: (a) break-even point in dollars using the contribution margin (CM) ratio; (b) the margin of safety and margin of safety ratio assuming actual sales are \$1,382,400; and (c) the sales dollars required to earn net income of \$410,000. (a) Contribution margin ratio 5 [(\$56 2 \$42) 4 \$56] 5 25% Break-even sales in dollars 5 \$320, % 5 \$1,280,000 (b) Margin of safety 5 \$1,382,400 2 \$1,280,000 5 \$102,400 Margin of safety ratio 5 \$102,400 4 \$1,382, % (c) Required sales in dollars 5 (\$320,000 1 \$410,000) 4 25% 5 \$2,920,000 Related exercise material: BE22-8, BE22-9, BE22-10, E22-11, E22-12, E22-13, and DO IT! the break-even point in dollars. Apply the formulas for the margin of safety in dollars and the margin of safety ratio. the required sales in dollars.

4 D-4 DO IT! DO IT! 6 CVP Analysis Krisanne Company reports the following operating results for the month of June. KRISANNE COMPANY CVP Income Statement For the Month Ended June 30, 2017 Total Per Unit Sales (5,000 units) \$300,000 \$60 Variable costs 180, Contribution margin 120,000 \$24 Fixed expenses 100,000 Net income \$ 20,000 To increase net income, management is considering reducing the selling price by 10%, with no changes to unit variable costs or fixed costs. Management is confident that this change will increase unit sales by 25%. Using the contribution margin technique, compute the break-even point in units and dollars and margin of safety in dollars (a) assuming no changes to sales price or costs, and (b) assuming changes to sales price and volume as described above. (c) Comment on your findings. the break-even point in units. the break-even point in dollars. the margin of safety in dollars. (a) Assuming no changes to sales price or costs: Break-even point in units 5 4,167 units (rounded) (\$100,000 4 \$24) Break-even point in sales dollars 5 \$250,000 (\$100, a ) Margin of safety in dollars 5 \$50,000 (\$300,000 2 \$250,000) a \$24 4 \$60 (b) Assuming changes to sales price and volume: Break-even point in units 5 5,556 units (rounded) (\$100,000 4 \$18 b ) Break-even point in sales dollars 5 \$300,000 (\$100,000 4 (\$18 4 \$54 c )) Margin of safety in dollars 5 \$37,500 (\$337,500 d 2 \$300,000) b \$60 2 ( \$60) \$18 c \$60 2 ( \$60) d 5,000 1 ( ,000) 5 6,250 units, 6,250 units 3 \$54 5 \$337,500 (c) The increase in the break-even point and the decrease in the margin of safety indicate that management should not implement the proposed change. The increase in sales volume will result in contribution margin of \$112,500 (6,250 3 \$18), which is \$7,500 less than the current amount. Related exercise material: BE22-11, E22-14, and DO IT! DO IT! Exercises Classify types of costs. (LO 1) DO IT! 22-1 Amanda Company reports the following total costs at two levels of production. 5,000 Units 10,000 Units Indirect labor \$ 3,000 \$ 6,000 Property taxes 7,000 7,000 Direct labor 28,000 56,000 Direct materials 22,000 44,000 Depreciation 4,000 4,000 Utilities 5,000 8,000 Maintenance 9,000 11,000 Classify each cost as variable, fixed, or mixed.

5 DO IT! D-5 DO IT! 22-2 Westerville Company accumulates the following data concerning a mixed cost, using units produced as the activity level. Units Produced Total Cost March 10,000 \$18,000 April 9,000 16,650 May 10,500 18,580 June 8,800 16,200 July 9,500 17,100 (a) Compute the variable- and fixed-cost elements using the high-low method. (b) Estimate the total cost if the company produces 9,200 units. DO IT! 22-3 Cedar Grove Industries produces and sells a cell phone-operated home security control. Information regarding the costs and sales of security controls during May 2017 are provided below. Unit selling price of security control \$45 Unit variable costs \$22 Total monthly fixed costs \$120,000 Units sold 8,000 Prepare a CVP income statement for Cedar Grove Industries for the month of May. Provide per unit values and total values. DO IT! 22-4 Snow Cap Company has a unit selling price of \$250, variable costs per unit of \$170, and fixed costs of \$160,000. Compute the break-even point in units using (a) the mathematical equation and (b) unit contribution margin. DO IT! 22-5 Presto Company makes radios that sell for \$30 each. For the coming year, management expects fixed costs to total \$220,000 and variable costs to be \$18 per unit. (a) Compute the break-even point in dollars using the contribution margin (CM) ratio. (b) Compute the margin of safety ratio assuming actual sales are \$800,000. (c) Compute the sales dollars required to earn net income of \$140,000. DO IT! 22-6 Victoria Company reports the following operating results for the month of April. VICTORIA COMPANY CVP Income Statement For the Month Ended April 30, 2017 Total Per Unit Sales (9,000 units) \$450,000 \$50 Variable costs 270, Contribution margin 180,000 \$20 Fixed expenses 150,000 Net income \$ 30,000 Compute costs using high-low method and estimate total cost. (LO 2) Prepare CVP income statement. (LO 3) Compute break-even point in units. (LO 4) Compute break-even point, margin of safety ratio, and sales for target net income. (LO 5) Compute the break-even point and margin of safety under different alternatives. (LO 6) Management is considering the following course of action to increase net income: Reduce the selling price by 4%, with no changes to unit variable costs or fixed costs. Management is confident that this change will increase unit sales by 20%. Using the contribution margin technique, compute the break-even point in units and dollars and margin of safety in dollars: (a) Assuming no changes to selling price or costs, and (b) Assuming changes to sales price and volume as described above. Comment on your findings.

6 D-6 DO IT! CONTINUING PROBLEMS EXCEL TUTORIAL CURRENT DESIGNS CD22 Bill Johnson, sales manager, and Diane Buswell, controller, at Current Designs are beginning to analyze the cost considerations for one of the composite models of the kayak division. They have provided the following production and operational costs necessary to produce one composite kayak. Current Designs.xls Home Insert Page Layout Formulas Data Review View B7 fx A Kevlar Resin and supplies Finishing kit (seat, rudder, ropes, etc.) Labor Selling and administrative expenses variable Selling and administrative expenses fixed Manufacturing overhead fixed B \$250 per kayak \$100 per kayak \$170 per kayak \$420 per kayak \$400 per kayak \$119,700 per year \$240,000 per year C Bill and Diane have asked you to provide a cost-volume-profit analysis, to help them finalize the budget projections for the upcoming year. Bill has informed you that the selling price of the composite kayak will be \$2,000. Instructions (a) Calculate variable costs per unit. (b) Determine the unit contribution margin. (c) Using the unit contribution margin, determine the break-even point in units for this product line. (d) Assume that Current Designs plans to earn \$270,600 on this product line. Using the unit contribution margin, calculate the number of units that need to be sold to achieve this goal. (e) Based on the most recent sales forecast, Current Designs plans to sell 1,000 units of this model. Using your results from part (c), calculate the margin of safety and the margin of safety ratio. WATERWAYS (Note: This is a continuation of the Waterways problem from Chapters ) WP22 The Vice President for Sales and Marketing at Waterways Corporation is planning for production needs to meet sales demand in the coming year. He is also trying to determine how the company s profits might be increased in the coming year. This problem asks you to use cost-volume-profit concepts to help Waterways understand contribution margins of some of its products and decide whether to mass-produce any of them. Go to the book s companion website, to find the remainder of this problem.

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