# CALCULATING PERCENTAGES AND PERCENT PROBLEMS #21

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1 CALCULATING PERCENTAGES AND PERCENT PROBLEMS #21 PERCENTAGES AND PERCENT PROBLEMS are calculated and solved using a variety of methods depending on the situation. Mental math strategies, calculations with fractions or decimals, equivalent fractions (proportions), and linear models are all useful. PERCENT OF A NUMBER Students calculate a percent of a number using two methods. Knowing quick methods to calculate 10% of a number and 1% of a number will help you to calculate other percents by composition. Use the fact that 10% = 1 and 1% = 1. Direct computation is useful with 10 more complicated expressions and they are calculated by first converting the percent into a decimal. Example 1 To calculate 23% of 50, you can think of 2(10% of 50) + 3(1% of 50). 10% of 50 => 1 10 of 50 = 5 and 1% of 50 => 1 23% of 50 => 2(5) + 3(0.5) => = 11.5 of 50 = 0.5 so Example 2 To calculate 9% of 450, you can think of 10% of 450 1% of % of 450 => 1 10 of 450 = 45 and 1% of 450 => 1 9% of 450 => = 40.5 of 450 = 4.5 so Other common percents such as 50% = 1 2, 25% = 1 4, 75% = 3 4, 20% = 1 5 may also be used. Example 3 To calculate 17% of convert the percent to a decimal and then direct computation is better. 17% of => 17 (123.4) => 0.17(123.4) = Example 4 To calculate 8.2% of \$49.79 convert the percent to decimal and then direct computation is better. 8.2% of \$49.70 => 8.2 (\$49.79) => 0.082(\$49.79) = \$ => \$4.08 (rounded)

2 Problems Use composition to compute the values % of % of % of % of % of % of % of % of % of 4500 Compute by any method. Round to the nearest cent as appropriate % of % of % of % of % of % of \$ % of \$ % of \$ % of \$10, % of % of % of \$ % of % of % of 2450 Answers \$ \$ \$ \$ \$

3 PERCENTAGE PROBLEMS DESCRIBED IN WORDS A variety of percent problems described in words involve the relationship between the percent, the part and the. When this is represented using a number line, solutions may be found using logical reasoning or equivalent fractions (proportions). These linear models might look like the diagram below: part of % % Example 1 Sam s Discount Tires advertises a tire that originally cost \$50 on sale for \$35. What is the percent discount? A possible diagram for this situation is shown at right: \$15 off \$50 tire part of %? % % In this situation it is easy to reason that since the percent number total (%) is twice the cost number total (\$50), the percent number saved is twice the cost number saved and is therefore a 30% discount. The problem could also be solved using a proportion: = x!!!!!1500 = 50x!!!!!1500 = x!!!!!x = Example 2 Martin received 808 votes for mayor of Smallville. If this was 32% of the total votes cast, how many people voted for mayor of Smallville? A possible diagram for this situation is shown at right: 808 votes? total votes part of % 32% % In this case it is better to write a pair of equivalent fractions as a proportion: = x If using the Giant One, the multiplier is = so 32 32! = A total of 2525 people voted for mayor of Smallville. Note that the proportion in this problem could also be solved using cross-multiplication = x 808()!!!!!808() = 32x!!!!! = x!!! 2525 = x 32

4 Problems Use a diagram to solve each of the problems below. 1. Sarah s English test had 90 questions and she got 18 questions wrong. What percent of the questions did she get correct? 2. Cargo pants that regularly sell for \$36 are now on sale for 30% off. How much is the discount? 3. The bill for a stay in a hotel was \$188 including \$15 tax. What percent of the bill was the tax? 4. Alicia got 60 questions correct on her science test. If she received a score of 75%, how many questions were on the test? 5. Basketball shoes are on sale for 22% off. What is the regular price if the sale price is \$42? 6. Sergio got 80% on his math test. If he answered 24 questions correctly, how many questions were on the test 7. A \$65 coat is now on sale for \$52. What percent discount is given? 8. Ellen bought soccer shorts on sale for \$6 off the regular price of \$40. What percent did she save? 9. According to school rules, Carol has to convince 60% of her classmates to vote for her in order to be elected class president. There are 32 students in her class. How many students must she convince? 10. A sweater that regularly sold for \$52 is now on sale at 30% off. What is the sale price? 11. Jody found an \$88 pair of sandals marked 20% off. What is the dollar value of the discount? 12. Ly scored 90% on a test. If he answered 135 questions correctly, how many questions were on the test? 13. By the end of wrestling season, Mighty Max had lost seven pounds and now weighs 128 pounds. What was the percentage decrease from his starting weight? 14. George has 245 cards in his baseball card collection. Of these, 85 of the cards are pitchers. What percent of the cards are pitchers? 15. Julio bought soccer shoes at the 35% off sale and saved \$42. What was the regular price of the shoes?

5 Answers 1. 80% 2. \$ about 8% questions 5. \$ questions 7. 20% 8. 15% students 10. \$ \$ questions 13. about 5% 14. about 35% 15. \$120

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