M&M: Multiplication Madness Grade Level or Special Area: Third Grade Amy Collins and Grace Van Horne, Jefferson Academy, Broomfield, CO

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1 M&M: Multiplication Madness Grade Level or Special Area: Third Grade Written by: Amy Collins and Grace Van Horne, Jefferson Academy, Broomfield, CO Length of Unit: Ten lessons two to three weeks I. ABSTRACT The focus of this third grade unit is a systematic approach to learning the multiplication facts from zero to ten and preparing the way to mastery of these facts. In addition, we will address such topics as mental multiplication and solving word problems using multiplication. Hands-on activities and tricks of the trade will enhance the multiplication madness. II. OVERVIEW A. Concept Objectives (Colorado Model Content Standards for Mathematics) 1. Understands and applies basic and/or advanced properties of number sense in multiplication. (CS1) 2. Understands and applies basic and/or advanced properties of the concept of computation in multiplication and mental multiplication. (CS6) 3. Develops an awareness of how to use multiplication in problem-solving situations and communicate the reasoning used in solving these problems. (CS6) B. Content from the Core Knowledge Sequence- Third Grade (page 79) 1. Master basic multiplication facts to 10x10 2. Mentally multiply by 10, 100, 1, Solve word problems involving multiplication C. Skill Objectives 1. The students will be able to arrange objects in sets when given a multiplication fact. 2. The students will be able to arrange objects in sets to demonstrate the commutative property. 3. The students will learn basic strategies for the multiplication facts for the 0 s, 1 s, and 2 s. 4. The students will be able to demonstrate proficiency on facts for 0 s, 1 s and 2 s. 5. The students will learn basic strategies for the multiplication facts for the 10 s. 6. The students will be able to demonstrate proficiency on the facts for the 10 s. 7. The students will be able to demonstrate understanding of mentally multiplying by 10, 100, and 1, The students will learn basic strategies for the multiplication facts for the 5 s. 9. The students will be able to demonstrate proficiency on the facts for the 5 s. 10. The students will learn basic strategies for the multiplication facts for the 9 s. 11. The students will be able to demonstrate proficiency on the facts for the 9 s. 12. The students will be able to demonstrate proficiency for the facts containing like numbers (0x0, 1x1, 2x2, 3x3, 4x4, 5x5, 6x6, 7x7, 8x8, 9x9, and 10x10). 13. The students will be able to demonstrate proficiency for the numbers that are 1 apart (2x3, 3x4, 4x5, 5x6, 6x7, 7x8, 8x9, 9x10). 14. The students will be able to demonstrate proficiency for the numbers that are 2 apart (2x4, 3x5, 4x6, 5x7, 6x8, 7x9). 15. The students will be able to demonstrate proficiency for the five final facts (3x6, 3x7, 3x8, 4x7, 4x8). 16. The students will be able to use the multiplication facts they have learned to create and solve word problems. Third Grade, M & M: Multiplication Madness 2002 Colorado Summer Writing Institute 1

2 III. IV. BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE A. For Teachers 1. Goldish, Meish. Making Multiplication Easy. New York City, NY: Scholastic Inc ISBN Miller, M., & Lee, M. The Mega-Fun Multiplication Facts Activity Book. New York City, NY: Scholastic Inc ISBN Wickelgren, W.A. & Wickelgren, I. Math Coach. New York City, NY: Berkley Books, IBSN B. For Students- from Core Knowledge Sequence Second Grad (page 57) 1. Recognize the times sign (x). 2. Know what factor and product mean. 3. Understand that you can multiply numbers in any order (commutative property). 4. Know what happens when you multiply by 0, 1 and 2. RESOURCES A. Poster(s) of a multiplication chart B. Book: Pallotta, Jerry. The Hershey s Milk Chocolate Multiplication Book. New York City, NY: Scholastic Inc., IBSN C. Book: McGrath, Barbara B. More M&M s Math. Watertown, MA: Charlesbridge Publishing, IBSN V. LESSONS Lesson One: Making Sets A. Daily Objectives 1. Concept Objective(s) a. Understands and applies basic and/or advanced properties of number sense in multiplication. (CS1) 2. Lesson Content a. Master basic multiplication facts to 10x10 3. Skill Objective(s) a. The students will be able to arrange objects in sets when given a multiplication fact. b. The students will be able to arrange objects in sets to demonstrate the commutative property. B. Materials 1. M&M s enough for each student (about 25-30) 2. Overhead projector 3. Vis-à-vis pen 4. Pencil and paper 5. Construction paper 8 x 11 (one per student) 6. Book: More M&M s Math 7. Book: The Hershey s Milk Chocolate Multiplication Book 8. Appendix A - one transparency 9. Chart paper to list vocabulary words 10. Black marker C. Key Vocabulary 1. Set - a group of objects 2. Commutative property - the property of multiplication which states numbers can be multiplied in any order Third Grade, M & M: Multiplication Madness 2002 Colorado Summer Writing Institute 2

3 3. Product - the answer to a multiplication problem 4. Factors - the numbers that you multiply together to find a product 5. Multiplication - short cut to addition; repeated addition 6. Times sign - x (signifies the operation of multiplication) D. Procedures/Activities 1. Introduce multiplication by reading aloud The Hershey s Milk Chocolate Multiplication Book. Point out key concepts such as the times sign, the commutative property, factor, product, and multiplication as a short cut to addition or repeated addition. 2. Distribute M&M s to each student. 3. Give the students time to play with the M&M s, sorting them according to colors, counting and arranging them in a graph-like form etc. 4. On the overhead, model how to arrange sets or groups of M&M s according to several sample problems such as 2x3 (two sets of three M&M s) or 1x4 (one set of four M&M s). 5. Allow different students to practice modeling on the overhead. While one student works a problem on the overhead, the rest of the students will independently work the problem. Discuss the various results. Be sure students understand what a set is. 6. Review the vocabulary words for this lesson. List and write the vocabulary words for this lesson on the chart paper. Ask the students to help you define the words. Have volunteers demonstrate the commutative property (numbers can be multiplied in any order) by showing it on the overhead. Be sure the students clearly understand this property and are able to model a problem such as 2x5=5x2. 7. Pair the students. Have them sort the M&M s into sets according to basic multiplication facts. Roam the classroom to check for questions. 8. End the lesson by reading More M&M s Math. E. Assessment/Evaluation 1. Homework assignment: Assign students to complete four examples of sets using a variety of materials such as cheerios, buttons, stickers etc. Demonstrate to the students how to fold their construction paper into four equal parts. One multiplication problem needs to go into each part (Appendix A). Collect and grade it. Lesson Two: Multiplying by 0 s, 1 s, and 2 s A. Daily Objectives 1. Concept Objective(s) a. Understands and applies basic and/or advanced properties of number sense in multiplication. (CS1) b. Understands and applies basic and/or advanced properties of the concept of computation in multiplication and mental multiplication. (CS6) 2. Lesson Content a. Master basic multiplication facts for 0, 1, Skill Objective(s) a. The students will learn basic strategies for the multiplication facts for the 0 s, 1 s, and 2 s. b. The students will be able to demonstrate proficiency on facts for the 0 s, 1 s and 2 s. B. Materials 1. Multiplication chart displayed in the classroom Third Grade, M & M: Multiplication Madness 2002 Colorado Summer Writing Institute 3

4 2. Paper and pencils 3. Multiplication flashcards for the 0 s, 1 s and 2 s 4. Appendix B - one copy per student C. Key Vocabulary 1. Double - two of one kind 2. Pair - two of one kind D. Procedures/Activities 1. Begin by brainstorming with the children possible examples of multiplication by zero. For example: say, I see two birds with zero blue wings. How many blue wings are there? The students will say zero. Or say, I see two football players with zero footballs. How many footballs are there? Zero is the answer. 2. Ask the children to raise their hand if they notice a pattern as you continue giving examples. Ask the students if they can find the trick to multiplication by zero. The students are going to be detectives and try to find the answer. 3. Tell them the trick: If any number is multiplied by zero, the answer is zero, no matter what the number is. 4. Have the students make up problems to trick their classmates. For example: 5 cats x zero white ears equal what? Zero white ears. Or multiply 6,379 x 0 = 0 5. Begin to give the students examples of problems containing multiplication by one. Ask them to wear their detective hats again and find the trick to multiplying by one. Let them think about the question and see if they can determine the answer. 6. Tell them the trick: Remember that any number multiplied by one is always the number. For example: 1x 8=8. 7. Explain to the students that multiplying by 2 is like adding doubles. Talk about different examples from general everyday life when they see doubles or pairs. For example: eyes, ears, feet, legs, etc. 8. Now divide the students into small groups of three or four. While in each group the students will create three examples of multiplication problems using two factors. For example: If one horse has two eyes, how many eyes do three horses have? 9. After the students have completed their three multiplication problems, have one student from each group present two of their examples to the rest of the class. 10. Finally, instruct the students to practice their flashcards with the numbers that have been learned: 0 s, 1 s, and 2 s. They can practice with partners. E. Assessment/Evaluation 1. Give the students a quiz over the multiplication facts for 0 s, 1 s and 2 s (Appendix B). Collect and grade. Lesson Three: Multiplying by 10 s A. Daily Objectives 1. Concept Objective(s) a. Understands and applies basic and/or advanced properties of number sense in multiplication. (CS1) b. Understands and applies basic and/or advanced properties of the concept of computation in multiplication and mental multiplication. (CS6) 2. Lesson Content a. Master basic multiplication facts for the 10 s. b. Mentally multiply by 10, 100, 1,000 Third Grade, M & M: Multiplication Madness 2002 Colorado Summer Writing Institute 4

5 3. Skill Objective(s) a. The students will learn basic strategies for the multiplication facts for the 10 s. b. The students will be able to demonstrate proficiency on the facts for the 10 s. c. The students will be able to demonstrate understanding of mentally multiplying by 10, 100, and 1,000. B. Materials 1. Whiteboards and dry erase markers 2. Overhead 3. Vis-à-vis pens 4. Multiplication flashcards for the 10 s C. Key Vocabulary 1. Mental Multiplication - doing multiplication in your head without pencil and paper D. Procedures/Activities 1. Review previous multiplication vocabulary including factors, product, times sign and commutative property. 2. Hand the whiteboards out to each student. Instruct the students to begin counting by tens from ten to one hundred. Tell them to write the numbers down and say them aloud as well. 3. Give several examples on the overhead to the students and show them how to multiply any number by 10. Tell them that any number times 10 is that same number with a zero added to the right (in the one s place). For example: 2x10=20, notice how the zero has just been added to the digit other than Continue to dictate problems as the students independently practice the problems on their whiteboards. 5. Divide the class into two groups. Begin to orally give a multiplication drill of the 10 s. 6. If the students grasp the 10 s (measured by teacher observation) demonstrate to them multiplication by 100 and 1,000 (adding 2 zeroes and 3 zeroes respectively to the right). For example: 3x 100=300, 8x 1,000 =8, Practice mental multiplication. E. Assessment/Evaluation 1. Parent volunteer(s) will use flashcards to check the students understanding of the 10 s. Run through flashcards for the 10 s. If a student misses one, stop and have him repeat it with the correct answer. Then go back three cards and begin again. Proceed in this manner until the student is able to recite 80% or better of all of the 10 s. Lesson Four: Multiplying by 5 s A. Daily Objectives 1. Concept Objective(s) a. Understands and applies basic and/or advanced properties of number sense in multiplication. (CS1) b. Understands and applies basic and/or advanced properties of the concept of computation in multiplication and mental multiplication. (CS6) 2. Lesson Content a. Master basic multiplication facts for the 5 s. Third Grade, M & M: Multiplication Madness 2002 Colorado Summer Writing Institute 5

6 3. Skill Objective(s) a. The students will learn basic strategies for the multiplication facts for the 5 s. b. The students will be able to demonstrate proficiency on the facts for the 5 s. B. Materials 1. Money - 20 nickels per students 2. Clocks - one large clock and one small clock per student 3. Overhead 4. Vis-à-vis pens 5. Appendix C - one transparency 6. Appendices D and E - one per student of each of these C. Key Vocabulary 1. Even - a whole number that has 0, 2, 4, 6, or 8 in the one s place 2. Odd - a whole number that has 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 in the one s place D. Procedures/Activities 1. Discuss what the students have previously learned about counting by fives. Ask the students to remember to include counting by fives in regard to time (5 minutes, 10 minutes, 15 minutes, etc.) and money (5 cents, 10 cents, 15 cents, etc.). After a classroom discussion about prior knowledge of the fives, lead the class in counting by fives to On the overhead write a pattern of evens and odds to demonstrate a good rule for the fives. Five times an even number will end in zero. Five times an odd number will end in 5 (Appendix C). For example: 5x2=10 and 5x3= Practice the five facts with this pattern in mind. (Check to be sure children understand the difference between even and odd numbers. Refer to vocabulary.) Hand out a practice worksheet on the facts for the fives, from 5x0 through 5x10 (Appendix D). Instruct on the overhead while the class goes through this worksheet together. 4. Next, introduce another helpful trick about the fives. Demonstrate on the overhead by saying, For example, for 2x5, here is Step one for another strategy: write a zero after the other number (which is 2); so we have 20. Step two: then divide that number (20) in half (which is 10). 5. Give similar examples, working with even numbers first (5x2, 5x4, 5x6, 5x8, 5x10, 5x12). Then give examples using odd numbers (5x1, 5x3, 5x5, 5x7, 5x9, 5x11). E. Assessment/Evaluation 1. Then give the students a worksheet on the 5 s. (Appendix E) Collect and grade. Lesson Five: Multiplying by 9 s A. Daily Objectives 1. Concept Objective(s) a. Understands and applies basic and/or advanced properties of number sense in multiplication. (CS1) b. Understands and applies basic and/or advanced properties of the concept of computation in multiplication and mental multiplication. (CS6) 2. Lesson Content a. Master basic multiplication facts for the 9 s. 3. Skill Objective(s) a. The students will learn basic strategies for the multiplication facts for the 9 s. Third Grade, M & M: Multiplication Madness 2002 Colorado Summer Writing Institute 6

7 b. The students will be able to demonstrate proficiency on the facts for the 9 s. B. Materials 1. Multiplication chart displayed in the room 2. Washable markers - one per student 3. Overhead 4. Vis-à-vis pens 5. Appendix F - one transparency 6. Appendix G - one copy per student C. Key Vocabulary None D. Procedures/Activities 1. Let s have some fun! First, divide the students into groups of three or four. Instruct the students to use the large multiplication charts hanging around the room to find all the patterns they can for the 9 s. After five minutes, ask the students to return to their seats to share what they have found. Hopefully they will have discovered these patterns: a. Each individual product for the 9 s (up to 9x10) adds up to 9. For example, the digits for 18 add up to 9. b. In looking at the multiples of 9-9, 18, 27, 36, 45, 54, 63, 72, 81, 90, notice how the one s column decreases by one digit and the ten s column increases by one digit. 2. Now that we have explored some different patterns of the 9 s we are going to learn a handy trick (Appendix F). Demonstrate the trick by standing with your back to the class with both hands raised and thumbs touching. Show the students how to number their fingers with washable markers, beginning with 1 on the left pinky and ending with 10 on the right pinky. Walk through the classroom to check to see if this has been done correctly. Demonstrate a problem such as 3x9. Bend down finger 3. Explain to the students that on the left of the bent finger is the 10 s and on the right is the one s. So the answer is Put a list of multiplication problems for the 9 s on the overhead for the students to try. They will have five minutes to practice. E. Assessment/Evaluation 1. The students will complete a worksheet on the 9 s (Appendix G). Collect and grade. Lesson Six: Multiplying Like Numbers A. Daily Objectives 1. Concept Objective(s) a. Understands and applies basic and/or advanced properties of number sense in multiplication. (CS1) b. Understands and applies basic and/or advanced properties of the concept of computation in multiplication and mental multiplication. (CS6) 2. Lesson Content b. Master basic multiplication facts for like numbers. 3. Skill Objective(s) a. The students will be able to demonstrate proficiency for the facts containing like numbers (0x0, 1x1, 2x2, 3x3, 4x4, 5x5, 6x6, 7x7, 8x8, 9x9, and 10x10). Third Grade, M & M: Multiplication Madness 2002 Colorado Summer Writing Institute 7

8 B. Materials 1. Decks of square number cards - 13 sets (these are decks of cards containing only facts of like numbers) 2. Appendices H and I - one per student of each of these 3. Beach balls, each one marked with a set of multiplication facts (0 s, 1 s, 2 s, 5 s, 9 s and 10 s) 4. Multiplication chart displayed in the classroom C. Key Vocabulary 1. Square number - a product of two factors that are the same 2. Like numbers - two factors that are the same number (such as 2x2) D. Procedures/Activities 1. Begin the lesson with a fun review activity. Toss prepared beach balls (each ball is marked with a different set of multiplication facts) from student to student. When a student catches the ball he needs to recite the multiplication fact and give the answer to the problem where his right index finger lands. Then he tosses the ball to a different student and so on. 2. Introduce multiplication of like numbers. Distribute a copy of the multiplication chart to each student (Appendix H). Ask them to color in all the products of the like numbers. In other words, the square numbers (0x0, 1x1, 2x2, etc.). Ask them: What is the pattern that emerges? Talk about what a square number is, a product of two factors that are the same. (The products of like numbers form a diagonal line through the multiplication chart from the top left corner to the bottom right corner.) 3. Divide the students into pairs. Instruct the students in the rules for playing Square War. Explain that each player receives the same number of cards and then places his cards face down in front of him. To begin the game, at the same time, each player flips one card over. The player with the highest square number or product gets to keep both cards. Play continues until both players flip over the same square number. Then it is war. Each player turns over three more cards and the top card determines who is the winner. Continue until cards or time runs out. The player with the most cards wins. E. Assessment/Evaluation 1. The students will complete a worksheet on like numbers (Appendix I). Collect and grade. Lesson Seven: Multiplying Numbers That Are One Apart A. Daily Objectives 1. Concept Objective(s) a. Understands and applies basic and/or advanced properties of number sense in multiplication. (CS1) b. Understands and applies basic and/or advanced properties of the concept of computation in multiplication and mental multiplication. (CS6) 2. Lesson Content a. Master basic multiplication facts for numbers that are 1 apart. 3. Skill Objective(s) a. The students will be able to demonstrate proficiency for numbers that are one apart (2x3, 3x4, 4x5, 5x6, 6x7, 7x8, 8x9, 9x10). B. Materials 1. Whiteboards and dry erase markers 2. Multiplication flashcards 3. Appendices J and K - one copy per student Third Grade, M & M: Multiplication Madness 2002 Colorado Summer Writing Institute 8

9 C. Key Vocabulary None D. Procedures/Activities 1. Review the strategies for 0, 1, 2, 5, 10 and 9. Using whiteboards and dry erase markers, do a review of multiplication facts. Hold up a flash card and call out the fact. The students will write their answers on the white boards. Instruct them to hide their answers against their chests until you say, Show me. Then they will hold up their answers. Check these and move along quickly to the next fact. Repeat the procedure with various facts. 2. Begin direct instruction time informing the children that you have a simple rule to teach them for numbers that are only 1 apart (like 2&3). In a problem like 2x3, multiply the smaller digit by itself and then add the same digit to the product. For example: 2x2+2 =6, 4+2=6. The problem 4x5 would look like 4x4+4=20, 16+4=20. For two facts there are other simpler devices: For 7x8=56, think of it as 56=7x8 or 5, 6, 7, 8. For 3x4=12, think of it as 12=3x4 or 1, 2, 3, Play Multiplication Bingo for numbers that are one apart. Distribute bingo worksheets to each student (Appendix J). Instruct the students to fill in his/her chart with products from the choices at the bottom of the page. Take your stack of multiplication cards and begin to call out one problem at a time. If the students have an answer to the problem they will place a game marker on the answer. The first one to cover all the answers in a straight line (vertically, horizontally, or diagonally) shouts BINGO and wins the game. Check the answers. Then you may start again or play to blackout when all the answers are covered. E. Assessment/Evaluation 1. Give the students a worksheet on the numbers that are one apart (Appendix K). Collect and grade. Lesson Eight: Multiplying Numbers that are Two Apart A. Daily Objectives 1. Concept Objective(s) a. Understands and applies basic and/or advanced properties of number sense in multiplication. (CS1) b. Understands and applies basic and/or advanced properties of the concept of computation in multiplication and mental multiplication. (CS6) 2. Lesson Content a. Master basic multiplication facts for the numbers that are 2 apart. 3. Skill Objective(s) a. The students will be able to demonstrate proficiency for the numbers that are 2 apart (2x4, 3x5, 4x6, 5x7, 6x8, 7x9). B. Materials 1. Appendix L - one per student 2. Whiteboards and dry erase markers 3. Paper and pencil C. Key Vocabulary None D. Procedures/Activities 1. Begin the lesson with a 25-question review quiz over all previous lessons. Pass out the quiz to each student (Appendix L). Upon completion check the quiz together as a class. Allow the students to make corrections, reinforcing correct answers. Third Grade, M & M: Multiplication Madness 2002 Colorado Summer Writing Institute 9

10 2. Review the previous day s lesson (multiplication of numbers that are one apart) using whiteboards and dry erase markers. Use the same hide it, show me procedures as the review in the previous lesson. For example: For 2x3=6, the students will write 6 and hide there answers until you ask them to show them. Move quickly again to review as many facts as possible in five minutes. 3. Explain how to multiply numbers that are two apart, such as 2x4 or 3x5. First, ask for the number between the two factors. For 2x4, that number would be three. Second, multiply that number by itself, or 3x3=9. Finally, subtract 1 from your answer: 9-1=8. So 2x4=8. 4. Practice, practice, practice using pencil and paper. Give lots of examples such as 3x5, 4x6, 5x7, 6x8 and 7x9. E. Assessment/Evaluation 1. The students will have a worksheet on the numbers that are two apart (Appendix M). Collect and grade. Lesson Nine: Final Multiplication Facts A. Daily Objectives 1. Concept Objective(s) a. Understands and applies basic and/or advanced properties of number sense in multiplication. (CS1) b. Understands and applies basic and/or advanced properties of the concept of computation in multiplication and mental multiplication. (CS6) 2. Lesson Content a. Master basic multiplication facts: 3x6=18, 3x7=21, 3x8=24, 4x7=28, 4x8= Skill Objective(s) a. The students will be able to demonstrate proficiency for the five final facts (3x6, 3x7, 3x8, 4x7, 4x8). B. Materials 1. Appendix N - one per group (four) 2. Appendices O, P, Q - one per student 3. Pencils C. Key Vocabulary None D. Procedures/Activities 1. Time to celebrate! Play a multiplication relay to review the facts for numbers that are two apart and numbers that are one apart. Divide the class into four equal teams. Hand out a game card to each team (Appendix N). The first person on the team will work the first problem and then pass it to the second person who will work the second problem and so on. When the team has completed the game card, have them bring it up to be checked by the teacher. If there are any wrong answers, they must figure which one(s) and make corrections. The first team to complete the game card with 100% is the winner. 2. Celebrate! There are only five remaining facts to learn. For the three facts involving 3 (3x6, 3x7, 3x8), practice skip counting by 3 s. 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21, 24, 27, 30. 3x6=18, 3x7=21, 3x8=24. For the two facts involving 4 (4x7 and 4x8), show the children how to double the 2 times facts. 2x7=14, so 4x7=2x7+2x7=14+14 or 28. 2x8=16, so 4x8=2x8+2x8=16+16 or These problems need to be memorized, just like all the other facts. Pass out a review drill sheet (Appendix O) and an answer sheet (Appendix P) to each student. Pair the students to begin the oral drill. Each student will quiz the other. Third Grade, M & M: Multiplication Madness 2002 Colorado Summer Writing Institute 10

11 The first student will recite each problem orally with the answers. If an answer is wrong the second student will correct him, using the answer key if needed. Then the first student needs to begin again three problems back. The goal is 100% correct recitation of the facts. Then the partners will switch places; so each one has a chance to be quizzed and to quiz. E. Assessment/Evaluation 1. The students will have a worksheet on 3x6, 3x7, 3x8, 4x7, 4x8 (Appendix Q). Collect and grade. Lesson Ten: Solving Word Problems Involving Multiplication A. Daily Objectives 1. Concept Objective(s) a. Develops an awareness of how to use multiplication in problem-solving situations and communicate the reasoning used in solving these problems. (CS6) 2. Lesson Content a. Solve word problems involving multiplication. 3. Skill Objective(s) a. The students will be able to use the multiplication facts they have learned to create and solve word problems. B. Materials 1. Chart paper 2. Markers 3. Appendix R - one per student 4. Pictures or comic strips that contain multiple groups. 5. Paper and pencil 6. Construction paper 18 x 24 - one per student C. Key Vocabulary None D. Procedures/Activities 1. Now that the students have learned strategies for their multiplication facts, put their new knowledge to work in creating and solving word problems. 2. Assign the students to create their own word problems involving multiplication facts. First, model an example to them. For instance, you have four horses that eat two bales of hay a day. How many bales do they eat over seven days? (fourteen bales) Encourage the children to be as creative as possible. Show them fun pictures or funny cartoons that contain multiple groups. 3. Divide the students into groups of three or four. In the groups have them brainstorm ideas for their story situations that would involve multiplication. Have one student in each group record these ideas on chart paper. A second student from each group can share about these ideas with the whole class. 4. Then each student needs to choose one of the ideas and write a short story problem based on a multiplication fact(s). Have them illustrate this problem in comic strip form (Appendix R). 5. Give the students time to be creative and thorough. This could involve a rough draft and final copy. Be sure to share the rubric criteria with the students. 6. Let the students have plenty of time for sharing. E. Assessment/Evaluation 1. Rubric for evaluation of their multiplication comic strip (Appendix S). Collect and rubric. Third Grade, M & M: Multiplication Madness 2002 Colorado Summer Writing Institute 11

12 VI. VII. HANDOUTS/WORKSHEETS A. Appendix A: Sets B. Appendix B: Quiz over 0 s, 1 s, & 2 s C. Appendix C: A Rule for the Fives D. Appendix D: Practice Worksheet for the Fives E. Appendix E: Multiplication of the 5 s F. Appendix F: A Handy Trick for the 9 s G. Appendix G: Multiplication of the 9 s H. Appendix H: Multiplication Chart for Like Numbers I. Appendix I: Multiplication of Like Numbers J. Appendix J: Multiplication Bingo for Numbers that are One Apart K. Appendix K: Multiplication if Numbers that are One Apart L. Appendix L: Review Quiz M. Appendix M: Multiplication of Numbers that are Two Apart N. Appendix N: Multiplication Relay for Numbers that are One Apart and Two Apart O. Appendix O: Review Drill Sheet P. Appendix P: Review Drill Answer Sheet Q. Appendix Q: Multiplication of Five Final Facts R. Appendix R: Multiple Group Comic Strip S. Appendix S: Rubric for Multiplication Comic Strip BIBLIOGRAPHY A. Crawford, Donald B. Mastering Math Facts In Your 1-8 Classroom. Eau Claire, WI: Otter Creek Institute, B. Goldish, Meish. Making Multiplication Easy. New York City, NY: Scholastic Inc ISBN C. McGrath, Barbara B. More M&M s Math. Watertown, MA: Charlesbridge Publishing, IBSN D. Miller, M., & Lee, M. The Mega-Fun Multiplication Facts Activity Book. New York City, NY: Scholastic Inc., ISBN E. Pallotta, Jerry. The Hershey s Milk Chocolate Multiplication Book. New York City, NY: Scholastic Inc., IBSN F. Wickelgren, W.A. & Wickelgren, I. Math Coach. New York City, NY: Berkley Books, IBSN Third Grade, M & M: Multiplication Madness 2002 Colorado Summer Writing Institute 12

13 Appendix A Sets Third Grade, M & M: Multiplication Madness 2002 Colorado Summer Writing Institute 13

14 Appendix B Quiz over 0 s, 1 s & 2 s Name x 2 x 0 x 1 x 0 x 1 x x 2 x 0 x 1 x 2 x 1 x x 2 x 1 x 2 x 0 x 2 x Total Correct x 0 x 2 Total Problems Third Grade, M & M: Multiplication Madness 2002 Colorado Summer Writing Institute 14

15 Appendix C Adapted from Making Multiplication Easy by Meish Goldish A Rule for the Fives A good rule for the fives is: Five times an odd number will end in five; five times an even number will end in zero. On the overhead we will demonstrate how separating the odds from the evens works. The odds pattern: x 5 x 5 x 5 x 5 x The evens pattern: x 5 x 5 x 5 x 5 x Third Grade, M & M: Multiplication Madness 2002 Colorado Summer Writing Institute 15

16 Starting with heart 5, write the numbers of the x5 family in order. Appendix D Practice Worksheet for the Fives 5 Fill in the table with the correct products. X Draw a circle around the eight numbers that are NOT members of the x5 family Third Grade, M & M: Multiplication Madness 2002 Colorado Summer Writing Institute 16

17 Appendix E Multiplication of the 5 s Name x 5 x 5 x 5 x 5 x 5 x x 5 x 5 x 5 x 5 x 5 x x 5 x 5 x5 x 5 x 5 x x 2= x 6= x 10= x 8= x 4= x 9= Third Grade, M & M: Multiplication Madness 2002 Colorado Summer Writing Institute 17

18 Appendix F A Handy Trick for the 9 s Third Grade, M & M: Multiplication Madness 2002 Colorado Summer Writing Institute 18

19 Appendix G Multiplication of the 9 s Name x 9 x 9 x 9 x 9 x 9 x x 9 x 9 x 9 x 9 x 9 x x 9 x 9 x9 x 9 x 9 x x 2= x 6= x 10= x 8= x 4= x 9= Third Grade, M & M: Multiplication Madness 2002 Colorado Summer Writing Institute 19

20 Appendix H Multiplication Chart for Like Numbers X Third Grade, M & M: Multiplication Madness 2002 Colorado Summer Writing Institute 20

21 Appendix I Multiplication of Like Numbers Name x 1 x 2 x 9 x 5 x 8 x x 7 x 9 x 3 x 6 x 2 x x 5 x 9 x8 x 4 x 3 x x 2= x 6= x 10= x 8= x 4= x 9= Third Grade, M & M: Multiplication Madness 2002 Colorado Summer Writing Institute 21

22 Appendix J Multiplication Bingo for Numbers that are One Apart Third Grade, M & M: Multiplication Madness 2002 Colorado Summer Writing Institute 22

23 Appendix K Multiplication of Numbers that are One Apart Name x 3 x 5 x 5 x 7 x 9 x x 8 x 8 x 4 x 5 x 7 x x 4 x 8 x7 x 5 x 2 x x 2= x 6= x 10= x 8= x 4= x 9= Third Grade, M & M: Multiplication Madness 2002 Colorado Summer Writing Institute 23

24 Appendix L Review Quiz Name x 5 x 2 x 5 x 5 x 7 x x 7 x 2 x 4 x10 x 5 x x 5 x 8 x 9 x 9 x 2 x x 2= x 6= x 10= x 8= x 9= x 10= Total Correct x 8= Total Problems Third Grade, M & M: Multiplication Madness 2002 Colorado Summer Writing Institute 24

25 Appendix M Multiplication of Numbers that are Two Apart Name x 5 x 4 x 5 x 3 x 6 x x 9 x 7 x 5 x 4 x 2 x x 7 x 9 x 8 x 2 x 5 x x 7= x 3= x 6= x 8= x 4= x 9= Third Grade, M & M: Multiplication Madness 2002 Colorado Summer Writing Institute 25

26 Appendix N Multiplication Relay for Numbers that are One Apart and Two Apart x 4 x 7 x 0 x 2 x 3 x x 4 x 7 x 2 x 8 x 5 x x 3 x 4 x 3 x 5 x 8 x 6 Third Grade, M & M: Multiplication Madness 2002 Colorado Summer Writing Institute 26

27 Appendix O Review Drill Sheet x 7 x 3 x 8 x 7 x 4 x x 4 x 6 x 7 x 8 x 8 x x 3 x 8 x 3 x 7 x 7 x 6 Third Grade, M & M: Multiplication Madness 2002 Colorado Summer Writing Institute 27

28 Appendix P Review Drill Answer Sheet x 7 x 3 x 8 x 7 x 4 x x 4 x 6 x 7 x 8 x 8 x x 3 x 8 x 3 x 7 x 7 x Third Grade, M & M: Multiplication Madness 2002 Colorado Summer Writing Institute 28

29 Appendix Q Multiplication of Five Final Facts Name x 7 x 3 x 8 x 7 x 4 x x 4 x 6 x 7 x 8 x 8 x x 3 x 8 x 3 x 7 x 7 x x 7= x 3= x 8= x 6= x 3= x 8= Third Grade, M & M: Multiplication Madness 2002 Colorado Summer Writing Institute 29

30 Appendix R Multiple Group Comic Strip Third Grade, M & M: Multiplication Madness 2002 Colorado Summer Writing Institute 30

31 Appendix S Rubric for Multiplication Comic Strip Five points per criteria 25 points total Multiplication problem stated clearly Answer is clearly given Creativity Spelling Six cartoon blocks included Total Third Grade, M & M: Multiplication Madness 2002 Colorado Summer Writing Institute 31

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