Doroteya Raykova Grzegorz Dziurawiec Michaël da Veiga Mendes Sylwia Misiaszek Vasil Savov

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1 Doroteya Raykova Grzegorz Dziurawiec Michaël da Veiga Mendes Sylwia Misiaszek Vasil Savov

2 Definition A genetically modified organism is altered by the means of genetic engineering so that it possesses a foreign gene (called the transgene) deliberately inserted in its genome GMOs can be classified in three broad categories: transgenic animals, plants or microorganisms

3 Isolate the gene from the donor organism Insert in a bacterial plasmid vector and multiply Insert the DNA in the acceptor animal - by direct injection in the fertilized egg - by microinjection in an embryonic stem cell and subsequent insertion in the uterus of a surrogate mother, or: Insert the foreign DNA in the acceptor plant s tissue

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5 To serve as food with improved characteristics e.g. superfish To produce therapeutic substances (transpharmers) e.g. Polly the sheep (factor IX), transgenic pigs (human Hb) As disease models for human disoreders e.g. oncomice As organ donors (xenotransplantation) e.g. pigs As pets e.g. allergy-free cats, glofish

6 For higher crop yields For pure and environmentfriendly production (no use of insecticides) For improved characteristics e.g. bigger size or stronger flavour of fruit and vegetables For production of certain substances e.g. Golden rice

7 Genes can have more than one function and knockout can cause problems Transgenic salmon can put in danger the natural salmon population Trojan gene theory

8 Transgenic corn MON810 disturbs the function of the immune system, lowers the fertility of experimental mice and causes irregularities in the expression of the genes Pollution of non-gm crops by GM plant pollen or viruses Arise of resistant pests with unknown properties Golden rice case Flavr Savr tomato What will happen with damaged food chains?

9 - Life - Rights - Instrumentations - Property

10 Good Wellbeing democratic society

11 Who reflects? What is the most widely discussed? - Use/application of transgenic animals - Welfare of animals - ecology - environment - economy - society - future of the human health

12 - acceptable insignificant consequences - advantages disadvantages - Intrinsic values

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17 Public opinions the worry : safety for the consumers Urgent questions : - dangerous? No notions of risks in the current EU regulations! - security of the food market! Any clear conclusions of researches - future parasites resistant to toxins in transgenic plants?

18 to stop the advance the technology? to protect the environment? to fight for more productive agricutlture? to increase the income for the country? biodiversity? genetic pollution? Who s blame?

19 Mutual compromise?!

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22 Bulgarian scientists (Dr Eva Cherneva, Center for transgenic technologies in the Faculty of veterinary medicine, University of Pennsylvania, USA; Dr Didi Baev, research associate in molecular microbiology and genetics, State University of New York, USA) about GMO in Bulgaria: we are not prepared to deal with GMO, because there are too many variables in this equation. Bulgarian newspapers write that the growing of transgenic crops is the most ecological agriculture, that there haven t been any accidents with GMO until the moment, that these organisms have only positive applications. However, it is impossible to make a long-term prognosis about the effects of GMO on human health they may cause allergies or other problems. Bulgarian society doesn t have enough information on both the negatives and positives of GMO. And finally, ss James Watson putit, We can t play the role of God. Similar situation occurs in Poland. One difference is that the lobby in Poland (e.g. Greenpeace), and the authorities tend to the opposite direction, i.e. inform the public almost exclusively about the disadvantages of GMOs. A very good reflection of this seems to be the proportion in which google.pl gives as a first 100 found pages:

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25 We have to remember that it is clear from various studies on public opinion and biotechnology that when the public judges biotechnological applications there are various levels of acceptability. First comes the priority of purpose. In general, applications intended to generate health and medical benefits are viewed most positively. This is followed by applications for environmental benefits. Food biotechnology has generated more concerns for a variety of reasons. When the technology succeeds in increasing the welfare of society, greater support for the application is elicited rather than when the purpose of transgenesis is seen as beneficial for certain individual (nonutilitarian) pursuits.

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29 We can say that the relation of the majority of Europeans to genetically modified organisms is a result of a lack of interest in the topic or insufficient information. This seems to be extremely paradoxical if we pay attention to the fact that more than half of Europeans openly expressed disagreement, if not hostility to GMOs. The question of why transgenic animals do not produce so negative reactions as GM plants (although the influence of transgenic crops in our daily life appears to be equally significant), seems to have not only one answer. However, few of these reasons seem to stand out, and we would like to repeat them once more. First and foremost, the majority of Europeans have only minimal knowledge about GM animals and plants. Second, people who are trying to find information on this subject encounter great difficulty in reaching independent and reliable sources, which would enable them to develop their own mind. As a third and the last we have to keep in mind that in today's realities, even the biggest skeptics accept GM animals, which are bioreactors of medicines, as creations ethically justified, in opposed to GM plants which are created almost in each case for profit.

30 Thank you for your attention!!!

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