1 Working definitions GENETICALLY MODIFIED (GM) CROPS, LOW LEVEL PRESENCE (LLP) AND ADVENTITIOUS PRESENCE (AP) Masami Takeuchi Food Safety Officer, Agriculture and Consumer Protection Department, FAO
2 The issue of definitions In the area of food safety, FAO uses technical terms and acronyms that are generally applied in various Codex documents The definitions of many terms and acronyms often differ among countries Translations in various languages: may increase the confusion associated with the terms and acronyms Pragmatic solution is necessary for using terms that do not have internationally harmonized definitions
3 Working definition 1: Genetically Modified (GM) Crops In this meeting, a GM Crop refers to: A recombinant-deoxyribounucleic acid (r-dna) plant. An r-dna plant is a plant in which the genetic material has been changed through in vitro nucleic acid techniques, including r-dna injection and direct injection of nucleic acid into cells or organelles. In the context of trade issues, crops often mean commodities (maize, soy, rice, etc). In some countries, the term, Genetically Engineered (GE) crop, is used. This is not an official FAO definition. This term is used in the background papers as well as during the meeting in an attempt to minimize possible
4 Working definition 2: Low Level Presence (LLP) Let us see various definitions
5 Codex Alimentarius Low levels of recombinant DNA plant materials that have passed a food safety assessment according to the Codex Guideline for the conduct of Food Safety Assessment of Foods Derived from Recombinant-DNA Plants (CAC/GL ) (Codex Plant Guideline) in one or more countries that may on occasion be present in food in importing countries in which the food safety of the relevant recombinant-dna plants has not been determined.
6 OECD For the purposes of this document, a low level presence (LLP) situation is one where seed or commodities that can function biologically as seed occasionally contain low levels of recombinant DNA plant materials that have been reviewed for environmental risk/safety in one or more countries and are present in seed in importing countries in which the environmental risk/safety of the relevant recombinant-dna plants has not been determined
7 USA The low-level mixing of genes and gene products from unintended plant sources. This can occur with both conventionally bred plants as well as biotechnology-derived plants. These occurrences can result from natural process such as the movement of seeds or pollen, or humanmediated processes associated with field testing, plant breeding, or seed production ology/content/printable_version/fs_llppolicy pdf
8 European Union Traces of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in imports of feed materials from third countries not covered by EU authorizations. eference=memo/11/451
9 Canada The term Low Level Presence (LLP) refers to the unintended presence, at low levels, of a genetically modified crop that is authorized for commercial use or sale in one or more countries but is not yet authorized in an importing country.
10 Industry (CropLife Intl) Low level presence (LLP) refers to incidental presence of GM material in food, feed or grain at levels that are consistent with generally accepted agricultural and manufacturing
11 An academic definition The term Low Level Presence or LLP has been adopted to describe the accidental presence of small amounts of biotech events that have undergone full safety assessment and have receive regulatory approval for all possible uses in one or more countries but are still unauthorized in other due do regulatory asynchronicity or expiration of their approvals (Kalaitzandonakes, 2011)
12 Working definition 2: Low Level Presence (LLP) So in this meeting, LLP refers to: The detection of low approved in at least one country. Approval is relevant Codex guidelines. LLP is not Codex guidelines, it is referred to There is no international agreement defining or quantifying low level, therefore the interpretation varies from country to country. In many countries it is interpreted as any level at which detection is possible i.e. very low trace levels while in other countries case-by-case decisions are taken on what level is acceptable.
13 Working definition 3: Adventitious Presence (AP) In this meeting, AP refers to: Detection of the unintentional presence of GM crops that have not been approved in any countries. In all countries with GMO policies and regulations, AP is clearly an unlawful event. Once again, there is no international agreement defining or quantifying any levels of AP. However since any AP is unlawful in almost all countries, any levels of detection of AP, even the lowest molecular level, could create a problem. Therefore, it is a common understanding between countries that AP should not occur.
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