Why intelligent machining

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1 Intelligent Machining What does intelligent machining means? Sensors Process model Dr. J. M. Zhou Avdelningen för mekanisk teknologi och verktygsmaskiner Lund Tekniska Högskola Machining processes - Metal cutting - Grinding -... Intelligent machining Why intelligent machining Typical events in machining process Machining Process Open loop system Stochastic cutting tool fracture Non-stationary tool wear, plastic deformation Correlated Machining Equipment Expensive Highly automatic Tool wear Tool collision Tool breakage Tool missing Issue of intelligent machining Wear of cutting tool, grinding wheel Fracturing of cutting tool Cutting tool plastic deformation Temperature Vibration Chip formation Thermal expansion and error compensation Machining process optimization What can you benefit from intelligent machining? Enhance reliability Increase efficiency Prevent fatal damage Department of Production and Materials Engineering, Lund University, Sweden 1

2 Sensors used in intelligent machining Sensors used in intelligent machining Sensors used in intelligent machining Software structure of intelligent machining system Feature extracting in intelligent machining Structure of intelligent machining system Raw signal normal chipping Band cut or spectral selection Rectify and lowpass Comparator

3 General structure of intelligent machining Cutting Force F A FR F T F F T : Tangential force or primary force F A : Axial force or feed force F R : Radial force or passive force F = F + F + F T A R Cutting Force Cutting forces: induced in the three deformation zones Connection with process phenomenon: Tool wear Tool breakage Cutting edge plastic deformation Measurement: strain gage cell, poezoelectric transducer motor current. Force Dynamometer Force dynamometer based on strain gauge transducer Force dynamometer based on piezoelectric transducer Sensor integrated tool holder based on microsensor Dr. J.M. Zhou, Division of Production and Materials Engineering, Department of Mechanical Technology Principle of Piezoelectric Transducer Under longitudinal load "Piezo" is a Greek term which means "to squeeze. When strained, piezoelectric elements create a charge Crystalline quartz, is a stable and sensitive piezoelectric material Under shear load Three component dynamometer with piezo-electric transducer Dr. J.M. Zhou, Division of Production and Materials Engineering, Department of Mechanical Technology Department of Production & Materials Engineering, Lund University 3

4 Monitoring Three Cutting Forces with 3-D Force Dynamometer in Hard Turning Process 180 Cutting Force Dynamometer Based on Strain Gauge Transducer Fp Forces [N] Fc strain direction base gauge length wire grid sensing axis transverse axis 40 0 Ff 0 leads Workpiece: 100Cr6, Bainitic, 57-60HRC Cutting parameter: v=160m/min, s=0.05mm, a=0.05mm Cutting time 38min, VBmax=0.mm VBmax [mm] x Time [min] R1 R R4 + - e 0 R3 Weatstone Bridge Division of Production and Materials Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Lund University, Sweden Department of Production & Materials Engineering, Lund University Intelligent Tool Drilling Process Using Intelligent Tool Acoustic Emission Acoustic emission (AE): elastic stress waves which generated during cutting process. The wave propagates through machine structure. Frequency range: from 100kHz to 1MHz Measurement: Piezoelectric strain transducer Application of AE in Advanced Manufacturing Process High precision grinding operation - Gap elimination - Cycle analysis and optimization Convenntional and high speed machining process - Wear - Fracture -Collision Sheet metal forming - Friction -Cracking 4

5 Source of Acoustic Emission AE generates from friction on the rake face and flank, plastic deformation in the shear zone, crack formation and propagation, impact of the chip breakage. AE application in milling process Connection with process phenomenon: - Tool breakage generates high amplitude of AE signal - Tool wear Chip Tool Workpiece Application AE in grinding Grinding pattern Normal Workpiece Summary Structure of intelligent machining system Sensors Intelligent machining based on cutting forces Intelligent machining based on AE Grinding wheel Too small infeed resulting longer grinding cycle Bad incoming quality with regard out of roundness 5

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