THE INFLUENCE OF STEEL GRADE AND STEEL HARDNESS ON TOOL LIFE WHEN MILLING IN HARDENED TOOL STEEL

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "THE INFLUENCE OF STEEL GRADE AND STEEL HARDNESS ON TOOL LIFE WHEN MILLING IN HARDENED TOOL STEEL"

Transcription

1 THE INFLUENCE OF STEEL GRADE AND STEEL HARDNESS ON TOOL LIFE WHEN MILLING IN HARDENED TOOL STEEL S. Gunnarsson, B. Högman and L. G. Nordh Uddeholm Tooling AB Research and Development Hagfors Sweden Abstract Keywords: The rapid development of cutting tools and machining processes have made it possible to machine hardened tool steel. Milling operations that would have been impossible to carry out only a few years ago are today used in die and mould production. However, the chemical composition of the tool steel and the steel hardness, has a very big influence on which cutting tool life that can be achieved when machining in hardened tool steel. In this investigation coated solid cemented carbide milling cutters have been tested in different tool steels at hardness levels up to 62 HRC. The cutting speed has been varied in an attempt to find the optimal tool life for best productivity. The investigation shows significant difference in production cost between two steels with the same hardness, but different chemical analysis. Hardened Die and Mould Steel, High Speed Machining INTRODUCTION Machining of moulds and dies direct in hardened state is possible today due to the rapid development of cutting tools and machine tools [1]. A common way to machine a die in the past, was first to rough machine the die in soft condition, followed by hardening and then to spark erode the die to the finished dimension. This procedure will create a hard re-melted layer on the mould surface, which, if it is a die casting mould, must be 1199

2 1200 6TH INTERNATIONAL TOOLING CONFERENCE polished away to give an acceptable mould surface. This polishing is a very time consuming operation, and can sometimes be difficult to carry out on the whole surface if the mould has deep grooves and pockets. A typical example is a die casting mould for escalator steps, which contains a lot of ribs and grooves. At one customer who is using our material DIEVAR hardened to 51 HRC, a comparison was done between to spark erode (EDM) the mould and to machine it, using the high speed milling technique (HSM) [2]. It took 300 hours to EDM the mould, which was followed by 400 hours of polishing to get rid of the re-melted layer. To machine the mould direct in hardened state using the HSM technique took 80 hours. The example shows that huge time saving can be achieved when machining with cutting tool direct in hardened tool steel. However to succeed with this new technique, the following factors are of very big importance: Mould and die design Cutting tool Machine tool Tool passes Work material The hardness of the work material This paper shall present what influence the chemical composition of the steel and the hardness has on the tool life when milling with solid cemented carbide milling cutters TEST PERFORMANCE EXPERIMENTAL The tests have been performed in a vertical Modig MD 7200 machining centre at the R & D at Uddeholm Tooling AB, see Fig. 1. The machine has a maximum spindle speed of rpm and the power 20 kw. It is equipped with a HSK 63 taper and the carbide tools were mounted in a collet chuck. The machining trials were made in hardened steel samples with the dimension mm. A cavity was machined with the size mm. The walls of the cavity were angled 45.

3 The Influence of Steel Grade and Steel Hardness on Tool Life when Milling in Figure 1. Machining centre Modig MD7200. The cutting speed used in the trials is the true cutting speed calculated on the working diameter of the milling cutter. When milling with small depth of cut with a ball nose end milling cutter, the working diameter on the cutter is small. In the finishing milling trial the axial depth of cut was 0.15 mm. This means that the working diameter for a 10 mm cutter with radius 5 mm was only 2.4 mm. This explains, why the maximum cutting speed in the finishing milling trial only was 135 m/ min, as this cutting speed represents rpm in spindle speed, which was the maximum limit in the machining centre. Two different kinds of milling operations were investigated, rough milling and finishing milling. The tool paths used in the investigation were of constant Z-level pocketing strategy beginning from the centre of the work piece and out towards the cavity sides. After finishing one level a helical interpolation was done in the centre of the work piece to the next cutting level, see Fig. 2. Compressed air was used to evacuate the chips. The cutting tools used were two fluted coated 10 mm solid carbide ball nose end mills VC2-SSB manufactured by Kobelco. The flank wear was measured frequently during the tests, and the trial was stopped when a

4 1202 6TH INTERNATIONAL TOOLING CONFERENCE flank- or notch wear of 0,2 mm on the milling cutter was reached For rough milling the measuring unit was the machined volume and for the finishing step the machined surface area. The cutting speed was varied, the remaining parameters were kept constant as follows: Rough milling Axial depth of cut, ap: Radial depth of cut, ae: Tooth feed, fz: Finishing milling Axial depth of cut, ap: Radial depth of cut, ae: Tooth feed, fz: 1.0 mm 2.5 mm 0.06 mm/tooth 0.15 mm 0.15 mm 0.15 mm/tooth WORK MATERIAL For the trials, tool steels with different properties and application areas were chosen [1]. The analyses of the materials are given in Table 1. DIEVAR and HOTVAR are steels used for hot work applications such as die casting, extrusion and warm forging of metals. They are conventionally made by ingot casting but also electro slag remelted (ESR), thus they have Figure 2. Milling strategy used in the investigation.

5 The Influence of Steel Grade and Steel Hardness on Tool Life when Milling in Table 1. Analysis and hardness of the investigated tool steels Steel grade C Si Mn Cr Mo V W HRC DIEVAR 0,4 0,3 0,5 5,0 2,3 0,6 51 HOTVAR 0,5 1,0 0,8 2,6 2,2 0,8 56 STAVAX ESR 0,4 0,9 0,5 13,6 0,3 50 CALMAX 0,6 0,3 0,8 4,5 0,5 0,2 54 CALDUR 0,7 1,0 0,8 2,5 2,1 0,5 60 ELMAX 1,7 0,8 0,3 18,0 1,0 3,0 56 VANADIS 6 2,1 1,0 0,5 6,8 1,5 5,4 60 VANADIS 10 2,9 1,0 0,5 8,0 1,5 9,8 62 VANADIS 23 1,3 0,5 0,3 4,2 5,0 3,1 6,4 61 a very low amount of inclusions in the steel structure. Working hardness is in the range HRC for DIEVAR and HRC for HOTVAR. STAVAX ESR is a conventionally made martensitic stainless steel, also ESR-treated, and the steel is used for plastic injection moulds. The working hardness is in the range HRC. CALMAX and CALDUR are conventionally made cold work tool steels, which can be used for punching and pressing of plate. The working hardness is in the range HRC. The chosen materials are of the type with no primary carbides in the microstructure. ELMAX, VANADIS 6, VANADIS 10 and VANADIS 23 are powder metallurgical made tool steels, and they all contain a lot of hard primary carbides in the steel structure. ELMAX is due to its high chromium content, corrosion resistant and is used for plastic moulds where there is a need for good wear resistance. VANADIS 6 and VANADIS 10 are cold work tool steels mainly used for punching of plates and VANADIS 23 is a high speed steel, which can be used for cutting tools. The working hardness for the PM steels is in the range HRC depending on type of steel grade and application. All the tested steels were hardened and tempered to the hardness given in Table 1.

6 1204 6TH INTERNATIONAL TOOLING CONFERENCE RESULTS FINISHING MILLING When finishing milling, the machined surface area in cm 2 as a function of cutting speed was chosen as the unit of comparison. The results can be seen in Fig. 3. In the figure results of two different cutting speeds are given. The values without brackets are the true cutting speed calculated on the working diameter, the values in brackets are the cutting speed calculated on the maximum diameter on the cutter (10 mm). For the PM steels different cutting speeds have a small influence on the tool life when looking at machined surface area. The machined surface area was more or less the same with different cutting speeds. The machined surface area was also quite small, in the range cm 3. Figure 3. Machined surface as function of cutting speed when finishing milling (wear criteria 0,2 mm flank wear). The reason for the short tool life when milling in PM tool steels is firstly, that the steels contain a lot of hard and abrasive carbides that produce a high wear on the cutting tool, secondly, the steels are hardened to a high hardness. The cold work materials containing no primary carbides have a quite high hardness but due to the absence of primary carbides the machined surface area is higher than for the PM steels. The biggest area machined is obtained with the cutting speed 100 m/min. The tool life is longer for CALMAX than for CALDUR probably due to the hardness difference.

7 The Influence of Steel Grade and Steel Hardness on Tool Life when Milling in The plastic mould steel STAVAX ESR gave, in spite of the low hardness, relatively low tool life. The hot work tool steel DIEVAR gave the highest tool life of all the investigated materials. At the cutting speed 100 m/ min, the tool lasted for 20 hours before it was worn out. One of the reasons for the long tool life is probably that this steel had a low hardness. The second hot work tool steel tested, HOTVAR, gave a considerable shorter tool life, which is due to the higher hardness in this material. ROUGH MILLING Some of the materials, which were tested at the finishing milling, have also been tested in rough milling. The results showed big differences between different tool steels even tough the hardness was the same. The results from the rough milling as the removed volume of work material as function of cutting speed can be seen in Fig. 4. The cold work material Figure 4. Machined volume as function of cutting speed when rough milling (wear criteria 0,2 mm flank wear). CALDUR and the PM steel VANADIS 6 have a rather low machinability and the tool life is decreasing when the cutting speed is increased already from m/ min. Even tough the hardness is about the same for the PM steel and CALDUR, the slope is at a lower level for the PM steel. This is mainly due to the high primary carbide content in this material. For the two steels with the lower hardness, DIEVAR and CALMAX, the tool life is longer in CALMAX, which is opposite to the result obtained in

8 1206 6TH INTERNATIONAL TOOLING CONFERENCE the finishing milling trials. The reason for this can be that rough milling gives more heat into the milling cutter. Earlier investigation [3] has shown, that the tool life obtained when milling in DIEVAR is very dependent on the cutting edge temperature. A high cutting edge temperature will give a low tool performance. Nevertheless, for all the materials tested in the rough milling stage, the cutting speed has a rather strong influence on the tool life. If a high cutting speed is chosen it will shorten the tool life considerable. DISCUSSIONS AND ECONOMICAL ASPECTS The investigation has shown that it is a big difference in machinability between different tool steels when machining them in hardened condition. Two materials with the same hardness can give quite different cutting tool life. This means also that the cost to produce a die from PM tool steel will be higher compared to a die produced from low alloyed tool steel. A customer that today is using hot work tool steel for a die, for instance a die for a case for a mobile phone, can have a tool life up to twenty hours on the milling cutter when finishing milling. If he requires a more wear resistant material in the die, for instance the PM steel ELMAX, the tool life will decrease to around 40 minutes. The cost to finish mill a specific surface area in relationship to the cutting speed for the different materials is shown in Fig. 5. In the example it has been calculated with machine costs of 110 Euro/hour and a cost for the milling cutters of 110 Euro/cutter. The time for tool change is assumed to be 10 minutes. For three materials (VANADIS 10, VANADIS 6 and VANADIS 23) 100 m/ min seems to be the cutting speed that gives the lowest production cost for respectively material. For the other materials the lowest cost is at a cutting speed of 135 m/ min or higher. The example shows also the huge difference in cost to produce a specific surface area for different materials. For the steels with the best machinability the cost to mill one square centimetre is about 0,3 Euro, while to machine the same surface in the material VANADIS 10 costs about 1,4 Euro

9 The Influence of Steel Grade and Steel Hardness on Tool Life when Milling in Figure 5. Total cost / cm 2 as function of cutting speed when finishing milling in the different tool steels. CONCLUSION The new technique to machine a mould cavity direct in hardened steel has much to offer regarding shortening of the lead times from design until the mould run in production. This investigation has shown that the production costs to machine a mould or die direct from hardened steel, is very dependent on the work material. Not only the steel hardness has an influence, but also the steel analysis has an important influence on the total cost to produce the mould. In most cases the higher production cost for a mould made from a high alloyed tool steel be can neglected, compared to the better performance and longer life of the mould in production of parts. REFERENCES [1] SANDVIK Coromant; Application Guide, Die & Mould Making. [2] ASM INTERNATIONAL; Metals Handbook, Ninth edition, Volume 16, Machining. [3] Internal report; Forskningsmeddelande, FM

10

High speed machining and conventional die and mould machining

High speed machining and conventional die and mould machining High speed machining and conventional die and mould machining Reprint from HSM - High Speed Machining There are a lot of questions about HSM today and many different, more or less complicated, definitions

More information

RAMAX S Prehardened stainless holder steel

RAMAX S Prehardened stainless holder steel T O O L S T E E L F A C T S RAMAX S Prehardened stainless holder steel Wherever tools are made Wherever tools are used This information is based on our present state of knowledge and is intended to provide

More information

PRELIMINARY BROCHURE. Uddeholm Corrax

PRELIMINARY BROCHURE. Uddeholm Corrax PRELIMINARY BROCHURE Uddeholm Corrax Uddeholm Corrax Uddeholm Corrax stainless moulds steel has a unique set of properties that makes it the ultimate choice in a large number of demanding applications.

More information

AISI O1 Cold work tool steel

AISI O1 Cold work tool steel T OOL STEEL FACTS AISI O1 Cold work tool steel Great Tooling Starts Here! This information is based on our present state of knowledge and is intended to provide general notes on our products and their

More information

MARTENSITIC STAINLESS STEEL RWL-34

MARTENSITIC STAINLESS STEEL RWL-34 MARTENSITIC STAINLESS STEEL RWL-34 RWL 34 is a Rapid Solidified Powder (RSP) Martensitic Stainless Steel, which is variation of the 420 martensitic stainless steel family with minimum 13 percent chromium

More information

PRELIMINARY BROCHURE. Uddeholm Ramax HH

PRELIMINARY BROCHURE. Uddeholm Ramax HH PRELIMINARY BROCHURE Uddeholm Ramax HH Uddeholm Ramax HH Uddeholm Ramax HH provides several benefits: The product offers uniform hardness in all dimensions combined with excellent indentation resistance.

More information

SS-EN ISO 9001 SS-EN ISO 14001

SS-EN ISO 9001 SS-EN ISO 14001 This information is based on our present state of knowledge and is intended to provide general notes on our products and their uses. It should not therefore be construed as a warranty of specific properties

More information

UDDEHOLM COMPONENT BUSINESS

UDDEHOLM COMPONENT BUSINESS UDDEHOLM COMPONENT BUSINESS UDDEHOLM COMPONENT BUSINESS 1 UDDEHOLMS AB No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted for commercial purposes without permission of the copyright holder. This

More information

STAVAX SUPREME. Stainless tool steel

STAVAX SUPREME. Stainless tool steel STAVAX SUPREME Stainless tool steel General Demands placed on plastic mould tooling are increasing. Such conditions require mould steels that possess a unique combination of toughness, corrosion resistance

More information

UDDEHOLM ELMAX SUPERCLEAN

UDDEHOLM ELMAX SUPERCLEAN UDDEHOLM ELMAX SUPERCLEAN UDDEHOLMS AB No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted for commercial purposes without permission of the copyright holder. This information is based on our

More information

UDDEHOLM VANADIS 30 SUPERCLEAN

UDDEHOLM VANADIS 30 SUPERCLEAN UDDEHOLM VANADIS 30 SUPERCLEAN UDDEHOLMS AB No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted for commercial purposes without permission of the copyright holder. This information is based on

More information

EndMills For Hardened Steel

EndMills For Hardened Steel For Hardened Hi-Performance Flute 45 For Tough Features : - Manufactured from premium sub micron grain carbide. - Increased core diameter for added strength. - Use for light finishing cuts - CG coated

More information

Grade C Si Mn Cr Mo V RWL34 1,05 0,50 0, ,2

Grade C Si Mn Cr Mo V RWL34 1,05 0,50 0, ,2 Martensitic stainless RWL 34 Damasteel s martensitic stainless RWL 34 is a Rapid Solidified Powder (RSP) based steel which is a variation of the 420 martensitic stainless steel with > 13 % Chromium. The

More information

U-Max Chamfering endmill SPMT-WL 0.17 (0.08-0.21) -WH 0.35 (0.10-0.42) R215.64. Long edge cutter 215.3 0.17 (0.10-0.20) R215.3 -AAH 0.12 (0.08-0.

U-Max Chamfering endmill SPMT-WL 0.17 (0.08-0.21) -WH 0.35 (0.10-0.42) R215.64. Long edge cutter 215.3 0.17 (0.10-0.20) R215.3 -AAH 0.12 (0.08-0. General Turning PROFILING Feed recommendations Feed per tooth, fz (mm/tooth) Insert geometry Insert size Starting value (min.- max.) U-Max Chamfering endmill SPMT-WL 0.17 (0.08-0.21) -WH 0.35 (0.10-0.42)

More information

Uddeholm Vanadis 4 Extra SuperClean. Uddeholm Vanadis 4 Extra SuperClean

Uddeholm Vanadis 4 Extra SuperClean. Uddeholm Vanadis 4 Extra SuperClean Uddeholm Vanadis 4 Extra SuperClean 1 Uddeholm Vanadis 4 Extra SuperClean CONSISTENT TOOL PERFORMANCE LONG AND RELIABLE TOOL LIFE With an increased demand for just in time deliveries (JIT) and shorter

More information

Milling tools made by JONGEN! Face Milling FP 554

Milling tools made by JONGEN! Face Milling FP 554 Milling tools made by JONGEN! Face Milling FP 554 The Tool Especially efficient face milling cutter for the roughing and finishing machining Axial depth of cut max. 7 mm, with 8 effective cutting edges

More information

COMPAX SUPREME Mold Quality Tool Steel

COMPAX SUPREME Mold Quality Tool Steel T OOL STEEL FACTS COMPAX Mold Quality Tool Steel Great Tooling Starts Here! 2 This information is based on our present state of knowledge and is intended to provide general notes on our products and their

More information

Uddeholm Dievar is a specially developed steel grade by Uddeholm, which provides the best possible performance.

Uddeholm Dievar is a specially developed steel grade by Uddeholm, which provides the best possible performance. Uddeholm Dievar is a specially developed steel grade by Uddeholm, which provides the best possible performance. The chemical composition and the very latest in production technique make the property profile

More information

MOLDMAX HH. High strength beryllium copper mould alloy

MOLDMAX HH. High strength beryllium copper mould alloy High strength beryllium copper mould alloy This information is based on our present state of knowledge and is intended to provide general notes on our products and their uses. It should not therefore be

More information

X15TN TM. A high hardness, corrosion and fatigue resistance martensitic grade CONTINUOUS INNOVATION RESEARCH SERVICE.

X15TN TM. A high hardness, corrosion and fatigue resistance martensitic grade CONTINUOUS INNOVATION RESEARCH SERVICE. TM A high hardness, corrosion and fatigue resistance martensitic grade CONTINUOUS METALLURGICAL SPECIAL STEELS INNOVATION RESEARCH SERVICE DEVELOPMENT Enhancing your performance THE INDUSTRIAL ENVIRONMENT

More information

Uddeholm Sleipner. Uddeholm Sleipner

Uddeholm Sleipner. Uddeholm Sleipner Uddeholm Sleipner 1 UDDEHOLMS AB No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted for commercial purposes without permission of the copyright holder. This information is based on our present

More information

Damasteel s martensitic stainless Nitrobe 77 is a powder based steel which solves two classical knife problems:

Damasteel s martensitic stainless Nitrobe 77 is a powder based steel which solves two classical knife problems: Damasteel s martensitic stainless Nitrobe 77 is a powder based steel which solves two classical knife problems: Sharp edges on chef knives. Nitrobe 77 is dishwasher safe without risk of corrosion or edge

More information

Milling. COPYRIGHT 2008, Seco Tools AB 1/111

Milling. COPYRIGHT 2008, Seco Tools AB 1/111 Milling 1/111 2/111 Milling A simple choice! Experts required? No Just follow some basic rules. 3/111 Face milling 4/111 Square shoulder milling 5/111 Disc milling 6/111 Copy milling 7/111 Plunge milling

More information

Net prices, valid until MORE PERFORMANCE THAN YOU EXPECT. HOLEX ProSteel the latest generation of solid carbide roughing end mills HPC.

Net prices, valid until MORE PERFORMANCE THAN YOU EXPECT. HOLEX ProSteel the latest generation of solid carbide roughing end mills HPC. Net prices, valid until 31. 7. 215 MORE PERFORMANCE THAN YOU EXPECT. HOLEX ProSteel the latest generation of solid carbide roughing end mills. HOLEX ProSteel eshop.hoffmann-group.com MACHINING OF STEELS

More information

AUSTENITIC STAINLESS DAMASCENE STEEL

AUSTENITIC STAINLESS DAMASCENE STEEL AUSTENITIC STAINLESS DAMASCENE STEEL Damasteel s austenitic stainless Damascene Steel is a mix between types 304L and 316L stainless steels which are variations of the 18 percent chromium 8 percent nickel

More information

MATERIALIZING VISIONS. Bohler-Uddeholm P20 Modified

MATERIALIZING VISIONS. Bohler-Uddeholm P20 Modified MATERIALIZING VISIONS Bohler-Uddeholm P20 Modified General Bohler-Uddeholm P20 Modified is a Cr-Mo-alloyed steel which is supplied in the hardened and tempered condition. P20 Modified offers the following

More information

UDDEHOLM IMPAX SUPREME

UDDEHOLM IMPAX SUPREME UDDEHOLM IMPAX SUPREME Uddeholm Impax Supreme is a premium prehardened mould steel with very good polishing and texturing properties. Uddeholm Impax Supreme is available in a very wide dimensional range,

More information

Award winning problem solvers UDDEHOLM STEEL FOR POWDER COMPACTING

Award winning problem solvers UDDEHOLM STEEL FOR POWDER COMPACTING Award winning problem solvers UDDEHOLM STEEL FOR POWDER COMPACTING Keep on going! The life of your tool is crucial in powder compacting processes. With Uddeholm Steel for Powder Compacting, you can increase

More information

Jongen Werkzeugtechnik GmbH & Co. KG. Milling. Face FP 558

Jongen Werkzeugtechnik GmbH & Co. KG. Milling. Face FP 558 Jongen Werkzeugtechnik GmbH & Co. KG FP 558 Face Milling The Tool Especially efficient face milling cutter, for the roughing machining Axial depth of cut max. 5 mm, with 16 effective cutting edges Tools

More information

CUTTING TOOL TECHNOLOGY. 1. Tool life 2. Tool Materials 3. Tool Geometry 4. Cutting fluids

CUTTING TOOL TECHNOLOGY. 1. Tool life 2. Tool Materials 3. Tool Geometry 4. Cutting fluids CUTTING TOOL TECHNOLOGY 1. Tool life 2. Tool Materials 3. Tool Geometry 4. Cutting fluids 1 Introduction Machining is accomplished by cutting tools. Cutting tools undergo high force and temperature and

More information

Think precision, Think HSS REAMING

Think precision, Think HSS REAMING Think precision, Think HSS REAMING SUMMARY REAMING TOOLS 2 Zoom on a reamer 3 Which HSS for maximum efficiency? 4 Coatings for the best performance 5 Vocabulary 6 Choose the right design 7 Types of bevel

More information

UDDEHOLM BALDER UDDEHOLM BALDER UDDEHOLM STEEL FOR INDEXABLE INSERT CUTTING TOOLS

UDDEHOLM BALDER UDDEHOLM BALDER UDDEHOLM STEEL FOR INDEXABLE INSERT CUTTING TOOLS UDDEHOLM BALDER Reliable and efficient steel is essential for good results. The same goes for achieving high productivity and high availability. When choosing the right steel many parameters must be considered,

More information

2. DRILLING MACHINE. 2.1 Introduction. 2.2 Construction of a drilling machine. 2.3 Types of drilling machines Portable drilling machine

2. DRILLING MACHINE. 2.1 Introduction. 2.2 Construction of a drilling machine. 2.3 Types of drilling machines Portable drilling machine 2.1 Introduction 2. DRILLING MACHINE Drilling machine is one of the most important machine tools in a workshop. It was designed to produce a cylindrical hole of required diameter and depth on metal workpieces.

More information

1001 Business Center Drive Mount Prospect, IL 60056-2181 Toll Free: (800) 950-5202 Phone: (847) 635-0044 Fax: (847) 635-7866

1001 Business Center Drive Mount Prospect, IL 60056-2181 Toll Free: (800) 950-5202 Phone: (847) 635-0044 Fax: (847) 635-7866 1001 Business Center Drive Mount Prospect, IL 60056-2181 oll Free: (800) 950-5202 Phone: (847) 635-0044 Fax: (847) 635-7866 http://www.sumicarbide.com Sumitomo offers advanced milling, drilling, and hard

More information

UDDEHOLMS AB No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted for commercial purposes without permission of the copyright holder.

UDDEHOLMS AB No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted for commercial purposes without permission of the copyright holder. UDDEHOLM STAVAX ESR UDDEHOLMS AB No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted for commercial purposes without permission of the copyright holder. This information is based on our present

More information

PHOTO-ETCHING OF TOOL STEEL

PHOTO-ETCHING OF TOOL STEEL Contents The photo-etching process... 3 Advantages of textured surfaces... 3 Test programme... 4 Summary... 7 This information is based on our present state of knowledge and is intended to provide general

More information

Electrical Discharge Machining

Electrical Discharge Machining Training Objectives After watching the video and reviewing this printed material, the viewer will gain knowledge and understanding of electrical discharge machining, or EDM, principles and capabilities.

More information

SPEED PER MINUTE

SPEED PER MINUTE S AND S FOR CARBIDE ENDMILLS UP TO 1/4" UP TO 1/2" UP TO 1" ENDMILL DIAMETER PER TOOTH (INCHES) / ALLOYS 600-1.0002 -.002.002 - - / SOFT 400-700.003 - / HIGH TENSILE 250-400 - / ALLOYS 350-0 0.002.002

More information

Application Blanking of Stainless Steel Sheets for Mass-Production

Application Blanking of Stainless Steel Sheets for Mass-Production Blanking of Stainless Steel Sheets for Mass-Production Cold Pressing 304 Stainless.23 mm Thk. D2 (HRC 59/60) 500 C HRC 62/63 520 C 50mm x 300mm x 420mm Evaluation 110,000 shots 240,000 shots 127% Increase

More information

Module 3 Machinability. Version 2 ME, IIT Kharagpur

Module 3 Machinability. Version 2 ME, IIT Kharagpur Module 3 Machinability Lesson 1 Cutting Tool Materials of common use Instructional Objectives At the end of this lesson, the students will be able to (i) Identify the needs and cite the chronological development

More information

90 Degree Line 4 Corners Insert with High Ramping Application

90 Degree Line 4 Corners Insert with High Ramping Application 1/10 90 Degree Line 4 Corners with High Ramping Application 2/10 TaeguTec has launched a new compact four corners double sided insert the 4NKT 06 insert for end mills, face mills and modular cutters. The

More information

Three Key Elements of a Cutting Tool

Three Key Elements of a Cutting Tool End Mill Training Three Key Elements of a Cutting Tool Geometry Cutting Tool 3 Elements Needed in a Good Cutting Tool Well Balanced For Best Performance Only Good as the Weakest Link End Mill Terms A -

More information

Chapter 2 Fractal Analysis in CNC End Milling

Chapter 2 Fractal Analysis in CNC End Milling Chapter 2 Fractal Analysis in CNC End Milling Abstract This chapter deals with the fractal dimension modeling in CNC end milling operation. Milling operations are carried out for three different materials

More information

Cutting Tools. HI-PERFORMANCE ENDMILLS - SUPER VIPER - Double Helix - Roughers - Aluma.

Cutting Tools. HI-PERFORMANCE ENDMILLS - SUPER VIPER - Double Helix - Roughers - Aluma. ting Tools HI-PERFORMANCE ENDMILLS - SUPER VIPER - Double Helix - Roughers - Aluma info@schwarz-cuttingtools.com SUPER Double Helix EndMills Viper EndMills helps in avoiding resonance which is detrimental

More information

D2 Tool Steel. Unit Display: Identification. Type Analysis. General Information. Properties. Print Now. Datasheet Add to My Materials

D2 Tool Steel. Unit Display: Identification. Type Analysis. General Information. Properties. Print Now.  Datasheet Add to My Materials Unit Display: English D2 Tool Steel UNS Number T30402 AISI Number Type D2 Identification Print Now E-Mail Datasheet Add to My Materials Type Analysis Carbon 1.50 % Manganese 0.50 % Silicon 0.30 % Chromium

More information

Products. EschmannStahlGrades Plastic Mould Steel Hot Work Tool Steel Cold Work Tool Steel Overview

Products. EschmannStahlGrades Plastic Mould Steel Hot Work Tool Steel Cold Work Tool Steel Overview Products EschmannStahlGrades Plastic Mould Steel Hot Work Tool Steel Cold Work Tool Steel Overview High quality, Comprehensive and applicationoriented We Have the Right Solution High Quality and Quickly

More information

Cutting Tool Materials

Cutting Tool Materials Training Objectives After watching the video and reviewing this printed material, the viewer will gain knowledge and understanding of cutting tool metallurgy and specific tool applications for various

More information

Drilling Speeds and Feeds

Drilling Speeds and Feeds EML2322L MAE Design and Manufacturing Laboratory Drilling Speeds and Feeds The speed of a drill is usually measured in terms of the rate at which the outside or periphery of the tool moves in relation

More information

TOOL WEAR, TOOL LIFE, HAND TOOLS AND MACHINE TOOLS. 1

TOOL WEAR, TOOL LIFE, HAND TOOLS AND MACHINE TOOLS.   1 TOOL WEAR, TOOL LIFE, HAND TOOLS AND MACHINE TOOLS email: vkjain@iitk.ac.in 1 PROCESS OF CUTTING TOOL FAILURE Cutting Tool Failure Mechanisms: 1. By Plastic deformation 2. By chipping due to mechanical

More information

GEOMETRY OF SINGLE POINT TURNING TOOLS

GEOMETRY OF SINGLE POINT TURNING TOOLS GEOMETRY OF SINGLE POINT TURNING TOOLS LEARNING OBJECTIVES Introduction to Features of single point cutting tool. Concept of rake and clearance angle and its importance System of description of Tool geometry

More information

Milling 1/111 2/111. COPYRIGHT 2008, Seco Tools AB. COPYRIGHT 2008, Seco Tools AB

Milling 1/111 2/111. COPYRIGHT 2008, Seco Tools AB. COPYRIGHT 2008, Seco Tools AB Milling 1/111 Milling A simple choice! 2/111 Experts required? No Just follow some basic rules. 3/111 Face milling 4/111 Square shoulder milling 5/111 Disc milling 6/111 Copy milling 7/111 Plunge milling

More information

HOME OFFICE SPECIFICATION FOR SEAMLESS ALLOY STEEL CYLINDERS FOR THE CONVEYANCE OF COMPRESSED GASES HOT

HOME OFFICE SPECIFICATION FOR SEAMLESS ALLOY STEEL CYLINDERS FOR THE CONVEYANCE OF COMPRESSED GASES HOT HOME OFFICE SPECIFICATION FOR SEAMLESS ALLOY STEEL CYLINDERS FOR THE CONVEYANCE OF COMPRESSED GASES HOT 1 Cylinders manufactured to these specifications shall be manufactured by a cylinder manufacturer

More information

Die Casting Tooling Grades

Die Casting Tooling Grades Die Casting Tooling Grades Including an introduction to Die Casting Specifications: NADCA 207-2003 NADCA 207-2006 R&D Research and development play a strategic role at Bohler-Uddeholm. We know that in

More information

CNC Applications Speed and Feed Calculations

CNC Applications Speed and Feed Calculations CNC Applications Speed and Feed Calculations Photo courtesy ISCAR Metals. Turning Center Cutters What types of cutters are used on CNC turning Centers? Carbide (and other hard materials) insert turning

More information

UDDEHOLM TOOL STEEL FOR MOULDS

UDDEHOLM TOOL STEEL FOR MOULDS UDDEHOLM TOOL STEEL FOR MOULDS TOOLING APPLICATION PLASTIC MOULDING UDDEHOLM STEEL FOR MOULDS 1 This information is based on our present state of knowledge and is intended to provide general notes on our

More information

ULTRA CLEAN HIGH STRENGTH STEEL FOR POWER TRAIN APPLICATIONS

ULTRA CLEAN HIGH STRENGTH STEEL FOR POWER TRAIN APPLICATIONS ULTRA CLEAN HIGH STRENGTH STEEL FOR POWER TRAIN APPLICATIONS FOR HIGHLY DURABLE COMPONENTS BÖHLER VMR is an ultra high steel for motorsport and advanced engineering applications. Excellent mechanical properties

More information

IC LEARNING SERIES. Metal Cutting Processes 1 - Turning

IC LEARNING SERIES. Metal Cutting Processes 1 - Turning IC LEARNING SERIES Metal Cutting Processes 1 - Turning The Hong Kong Polytechnic University Industrial Centre IC LEARNING SERIES Metal Cutting Processes 1 - Turning Suitable for the following learning

More information

PROVEN SOLUTIONS FLIUD END MACHINING FLUID END MACHINING PROVEN SOLUTIONS & TOOLING

PROVEN SOLUTIONS FLIUD END MACHINING FLUID END MACHINING PROVEN SOLUTIONS & TOOLING PROVEN SOLUTIONS FLIUD END MACHINING FLUID END MACHINING PROVEN SOLUTIONS & TOOLING SECO PROVEN SOLUTIONS WILL IMPROVE YOUR PROCESS When you partner with Seco, our team of metalworking experts evaluate

More information

PRODUCTIVITY IS THE HOLE IDEA. DRILLS & REAMERS. Turning hole technology into productivity.

PRODUCTIVITY IS THE HOLE IDEA. DRILLS & REAMERS. Turning hole technology into productivity. PRODUCTIVITY IS THE HOLE IDEA. DRILLS & REAMERS Turning hole technology into productivity. Better productivity and a hole lot more. Whether you work in composites or stainless steels or anything in between,

More information

Material data sheet. EOS StainlessSteel 316L. Description

Material data sheet. EOS StainlessSteel 316L. Description is a corrosion resistant iron based alloy which has been optimized especially for processing on EOSINT M280 systems. This document provides information and data for parts built using powder (EOS art.-no.

More information

HIGH SPEED MACHINING (HSM) THE EFFECTIVE WAY OF MODERN CUTTING

HIGH SPEED MACHINING (HSM) THE EFFECTIVE WAY OF MODERN CUTTING HIGH SPEED MACHINING (HSM) THE EFFECTIVE WAY OF MODERN CUTTING Pasko, R. - Przybylski, L. & Slodki, B. Rafal Pasko Eng., Research assistant. Lucjan Przybylski Prof. Eng., Cracow University of Technology,

More information

Time is precious Go for a better steel UDDEHOLM HIGH PERFORMANCE STEEL FOR THE MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY

Time is precious Go for a better steel UDDEHOLM HIGH PERFORMANCE STEEL FOR THE MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY Time is precious Go for a better steel UDDEHOLM HIGH PERFORMANCE STEEL FOR THE MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY Effective production demands durable components Machinery and components are subject to extensive wear

More information

5. DIMENSIONS, TOLERANCES AND SURFACE. 5.1 Dimension, Tolerances and Related Attributes 5.2 Surfaces 5.3 Effect of Manufacturing Processes

5. DIMENSIONS, TOLERANCES AND SURFACE. 5.1 Dimension, Tolerances and Related Attributes 5.2 Surfaces 5.3 Effect of Manufacturing Processes 5. DIMENSIONS, TOLERANCES AND SURFACE 5.1 Dimension, Tolerances and Related Attributes 5.2 Surfaces 5.3 Effect of Manufacturing Processes Introduction Dimensions the sizes and geometric features of a component

More information

Castings or Forgings? A Realistic Evaluation

Castings or Forgings? A Realistic Evaluation SFSA: Article Castings or Forgings? A Realistic Evaluation An honest presentation of the advantages and limits of both steel component forms allows users to make informed choices when considering a forged

More information

Mechanical properties can be permanently altered by either thermal or mechanical treatment. Those properties include:

Mechanical properties can be permanently altered by either thermal or mechanical treatment. Those properties include: Training Objective After watching the program and reviewing this printed material, the viewer will become familiar with further aspects of tool design by exploring the materials used in toolmaking. Tool

More information

New cutting tools from Sandvik Coromant

New cutting tools from Sandvik Coromant Supplement to Main Catalogue 2006 New cutting tools from Sandvik Coromant TURNING - MILLING - DRILLING - ORING - TOOLHOLDING CoroPak 2006.1 790 new products introduced! No compromise! With the new generation

More information

COMPARATIVE STUDY IN THE PASSIVE FORCE AND CUTTING TORQUE IN THE MILLING PROCESS OF POLYMER MATRIX COMPOSITES AND ALUMINUM ALLOYS

COMPARATIVE STUDY IN THE PASSIVE FORCE AND CUTTING TORQUE IN THE MILLING PROCESS OF POLYMER MATRIX COMPOSITES AND ALUMINUM ALLOYS Advances in Science and Technology Research Journal Volume 7, No. 18, June 2013, pp. 6 12 DOI: 10.5604/20804075.1049488 Research Article COMPARATIVE STUDY IN THE PASSIVE FORCE AND CUTTING TORQUE IN THE

More information

Lindsay Cutting Tools LCT

Lindsay Cutting Tools LCT Milling operations performed with inserted tooth milling cutters are similar in many ways to that done by turning tools. The primary difference in milling with respect to the cutting edge is that the cut

More information

Duplex Stainless Steel Fabrication. Gary M. Carinci TMR Stainless Consultant for International Molybdenum Association

Duplex Stainless Steel Fabrication. Gary M. Carinci TMR Stainless Consultant for International Molybdenum Association Duplex Stainless Steel Fabrication Gary M. Carinci TMR Stainless Consultant for International Molybdenum Association 1 Promoting molybdenum - as a material with superior properties and performance in a

More information

Lecture Notes on manufacturing Process. Engineering Material

Lecture Notes on manufacturing Process. Engineering Material Engineering Material Ferrous material; A general classification of engineering materials is shown in Figure 1.8. Engineering material can be broadly classified as Metallic and Non-Metallic materials. The

More information

Rolling - Introductory concepts

Rolling - Introductory concepts Rolling - Introductory concepts R. Chandramouli Associate Dean-Research SASTRA University, Thanjavur-613 401 Joint Initiative of IITs and IISc Funded by MHRD Page 1 of 8 Table of Contents 1. Rolling -

More information

Success story. OPEN MIND Cuts a Path To Success In The UK Aero Industry

Success story. OPEN MIND Cuts a Path To Success In The UK Aero Industry OPEN MIND Cuts a Path To Success In The UK Aero Industry The global aerospace industry is undoubtedly at the leading edge of innovation and technology and CAM/CAD developers OPEN MIND Technologies AG is

More information

6.6 GEAR MANUFACTURING. Introduction. Gear forming

6.6 GEAR MANUFACTURING. Introduction. Gear forming Valery Marinov, Manufacturing Technology Gear Manufacturing 123 6.6 GEAR MANUFACTURING Introduction Because of their capability for transmitting motion and power, gears are among the most important of

More information

Diamond and CBN Tools for Internal Grinding

Diamond and CBN Tools for Internal Grinding Diamond and CBN Tools for Internal Grinding 1 Contents This catalogue contains the standard programme of grinding pins and wheels of various bonds, grit sizes and concentrations. Make your choice according

More information

Lecture slides on rolling By: Dr H N Dhakal Lecturer in Mechanical and Marine Engineering, School of Engineering, University of Plymouth

Lecture slides on rolling By: Dr H N Dhakal Lecturer in Mechanical and Marine Engineering, School of Engineering, University of Plymouth Lecture slides on rolling By: Dr H N Dhakal Lecturer in Mechanical and Marine Engineering, School of Engineering, University of Plymouth Bulk deformation forming (rolling) Rolling is the process of reducing

More information

Design of Cast Parts Avoid sharp corners, angles & fillets They act as stress raisers Select fillet radii to reduce stress concentrations and ensure p

Design of Cast Parts Avoid sharp corners, angles & fillets They act as stress raisers Select fillet radii to reduce stress concentrations and ensure p Metal Casting Design, Materials, Economics Text Reference: Manufacturing Engineering and Technology, Kalpakjian & Schmid, 6/e, 2010 Chapter 12 Design of Cast Parts Avoid sharp corners, angles & fillets

More information

Ideal pre-drilling tool for reamers

Ideal pre-drilling tool for reamers RAMPING Very good chip removal With extremely steep plunge angle up to 45 Very good drilling characteristics to 2xD drilling No separate pilot tool necessary Ideal pre-drilling tool for reamers slotting

More information

8.1 HPC for improved efficiency on standard machine tools by using new fluid-driven spindles

8.1 HPC for improved efficiency on standard machine tools by using new fluid-driven spindles 8.1 HPC for improved efficiency on standard machine tools by using new fluid-driven spindles A. Schubert 1, O. Harpaz 2, B. Books 2, U. Eckert 1, R. Wertheim 1 1 Fraunhofer IWU, Reichenhainer Str. 88,

More information

Tvrdé struženie vs. Broušení - ekonomické aspekty. Hard Turning vs. Grinding - economical aspects

Tvrdé struženie vs. Broušení - ekonomické aspekty. Hard Turning vs. Grinding - economical aspects Tvrdé struženie vs. Broušení - ekonomické aspekty Hard Turning vs. Grinding - economical aspects M.Sc Engg Jakub Siwiec Supervisor: dr hab. inż. Wojciech Zębala, prof. PK Abstract New production technologies

More information

Manufacturing Tooling Cutting Tool Design. Elements of Machining. Chip Formation. Nageswara Rao Posinasetti

Manufacturing Tooling Cutting Tool Design. Elements of Machining. Chip Formation. Nageswara Rao Posinasetti Manufacturing Tooling Cutting Tool Design Nageswara Rao Posinasetti Elements of Machining Cutting tool Tool holding Guiding device Work piece Machine tool January 29, 2008 Nageswara Rao Posinasetti 2 Chip

More information

Non-Metallic Inclusions in Steel in Relation With the Formation of Deposited Layers on Rake Face of PVD Coated HSS Tools

Non-Metallic Inclusions in Steel in Relation With the Formation of Deposited Layers on Rake Face of PVD Coated HSS Tools Non-Metallic Inclusions in Steel in Relation With the Formation of Deposited Layers on Rake Face of Pvd Coated HSS Tools Non-Metallic Inclusions in Steel in Relation With the Formation of Deposited Layers

More information

North American Stainless

North American Stainless North American Stainless Long Products Stainless Steel Grade Sheet 2205 UNS S2205 EN 1.4462 2304 UNS S2304 EN 1.4362 INTRODUCTION Types 2205 and 2304 are duplex stainless steel grades with a microstructure,

More information

WELDING OF TOOL STEEL

WELDING OF TOOL STEEL This information is based on our present state of knowledge and is intended to provide general notes on our products and their uses. It should not therefore be construed as a warranty of specific properties

More information

Technical Data. 7. Bearing Fits. 7.1 Interference. 7.2 Calculation of interference F B LLLLLLLLL( A-54

Technical Data. 7. Bearing Fits. 7.1 Interference. 7.2 Calculation of interference F B LLLLLLLLL( A-54 Technical Data 7. Bearing Fits 7.1 Interference For rolling s the rings are fixed on the or in the housing so that slip or movement does not occur between the mated surface during operation or under. This

More information

Product Guide SaraDrill

Product Guide SaraDrill Product Guide SaraDrill SARADRILL / A QUICK GUIDE Drilling from solid - a proven technology to drill large diameter holes on low horse power machines. Drilling from 49mm to 270mm diameter holes from solid

More information

COATED CARBIDE. TiN. Al 2 O 3

COATED CARBIDE. TiN. Al 2 O 3 COATED CARBIDE GENERAL INFORMATION CVD = Chemical Vapour Deposition coated grades GC2015, GC2025, GC2135, GC235, GC3005, GC3015, GC3020, GC3025, GC3115, GC4015, GC4025, GC4035, S05F, and CD1810. PVD =

More information

HOBBING MACHINE TYPE ZFWZ 8000x40

HOBBING MACHINE TYPE ZFWZ 8000x40 Inventory number 416/635 Year of production 1973 Serial number 7160 HOBBING MACHINE TYPE ZFWZ 8000x40 Application The machine is provided for milling cylindrical, helical and helix cogwheels. The tooth

More information

HEAT TREATMENT OF STEEL

HEAT TREATMENT OF STEEL HEAT TREATMENT OF STEEL Heat Treatment of Steel Most heat treating operations begin with heating the alloy into the austenitic phase field to dissolve the carbide in the iron. Steel heat treating practice

More information

Valve Steel. Valve Steel

Valve Steel. Valve Steel Valve Steel Valve Steel BÖHLER-UDDEHOLM Precision Strip AB is one of the world s leading manufacturers of high quality strip steel. More than a century s experience of cold rolling has given us a unique

More information

Cutting Tool Geometries

Cutting Tool Geometries Training Objectives After watching the video and reviewing this printed material, the viewer will gain knowledge and understanding of the shapes, angles, and other geometric aspects of single-point and

More information

Drill Pipe Hard-facing

Drill Pipe Hard-facing Drill Pipe Hard-facing GLOBAL PROTECTION AGAINST WEAR AND TEAR Oxyacetylene Rods Flux- and Metal Cored Wires Electrodes PTA - Welding Oxyacetylene Welding and Spray Powders Flame Spraying FLSP Arc Spraying

More information

Welding of tool steel. Welding of tool steel

Welding of tool steel. Welding of tool steel Welding of tool steel 1 Content Introduction... 3 General information on welding of tool steel... 3 Welding methods for tool steel... 4 The welding bay... 5 Filler-metal characteristics... 6 Be careful

More information

INJECTION MOULD DESIGN: MARPLEX PVC RESINS

INJECTION MOULD DESIGN: MARPLEX PVC RESINS MACHINE RECCOMENDATIONS PVC requires reciprocating screw injection moulding machine with a plasticising screw to produce homogeneous melt. It is recommended that a shot weight of the part should take two

More information

Hardness Testing. Objectives

Hardness Testing. Objectives Laboratory 2 Hardness Testing Objectives Students are required to understand the principles of hardness testing, i.e., Rockwell, Brinell and Vickers hardness tests. Students are able to explain variations

More information

PTFE ROTARY SHAFT SEALS

PTFE ROTARY SHAFT SEALS PTFE ROTARY SHAFT SEALS NONE WEARING LOW FRICTION CHEMICALLY RESISTANT Elring radial lip seals with PTFE lips are sealing elements delivered ready for installation and are ideal for sealing rotating shafts.

More information

Tableting Punch Performance Can Be Improved With Precision Coatings

Tableting Punch Performance Can Be Improved With Precision Coatings Tableting Punch Performance Can Be Improved With Precision Coatings by Arnold H. Deutchman, Ph. D. Director of Research and Development (614) 873-4529 X 114 adeutchman@beamalloy.net Mr. Dale C. Natoli

More information

COLD PRESSING POWDER WITH ASSISTED FRICTION COMPACTION FOR HIGH-SPEED TOOL STEELS

COLD PRESSING POWDER WITH ASSISTED FRICTION COMPACTION FOR HIGH-SPEED TOOL STEELS COLD PRESSING POWDER WITH ASSISTED FRICTION COMPACTION FOR HIGH-SPEED TOOL STEELS I.M. Sas-Boca, T. Canta, D. Frunza Engineering and Materials Processing Department, Technical University of Cluj-Napoca,

More information

Classification and nomenclature of single point cutting tools

Classification and nomenclature of single point cutting tools Classification and nomenclature of single point cutting tools The tool most widely used to remove material in the form of chips is the single-point cutting tool. In fact it is used in all lathes, multi-spindle

More information

Material data sheet. EOS NickelAlloy IN625. Description

Material data sheet. EOS NickelAlloy IN625. Description EOS NickelAlloy IN625 EOS NickelAlloy IN625 is a heat and corrosion resistant nickel alloy powder which has been optimized especially for processing on EOSINT M systems. This document provides information

More information

Types 410, 420, 425 Mod, and 440A

Types 410, 420, 425 Mod, and 440A s 410, 420, 425 Mod, and 440A GENERAL PROPERTIES s 410, 420, 425 Modified, and 440A (see composition on Page 2) are hardenable, straight-chromium stainless steels which combine superior wear resistance

More information