# Ch9 Morphological Image Processing

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1 Ch9 Morphological Image Processing 9.1 Preliminaries Some Basic Concepts form Set Theory If every element of a set A is also an element of another set B, then A is said to be a subset of B, denoted as A (9.1 3) The union of two sets A and B, denoted by B C = A B (9.1 4)

2 The intersection of two sets A and B, denote by D= A B Disjoint or mutually exclusive (9.1.5) A B= (9.1.6)

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4 The complement of a set A is the set of elements not contained in A c A { ωω A} (9.1 7) = The difference of two sets A and B, denoted A - B, is defined as { ωω ω } c A B= A, B = A B (9.1 8)

5 The reflection of set B, denoted,is defined as B = = b, for b B (9.1 9) { ωω } The translation of set A by point z = (z 1,z 2 ), denoted (A) z,,is defined as B { } ( A) = c c= a+ z, for a A (9.1 10) z

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9 9.2 Dilation and Erosion Dilation The dilation of A by B, denoted A B, is defined as A B = z B A (9.2 1) z

10 The dilation of A by B then is the set of all displacements, z, such that B and A overlap by at least one element. A B= z ( B) A ] A (9.2 2) z Set B is commonly referred to as the structuring element.

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12 9.2.2 Erosion The erosion of A by B, denoted,is defined as { ( ) } (9.2 3) AΘ B= z B A z AΘB That the erosion of A by B is the set of all points z such that B, translated by z is contained in A.

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16 9.3 Opening and Closing As we have seen, dilation expands an image and erosion shrinks it. Opening generally smoothes the contour of an object, breaks narrow isthmuses, and eliminates thin protrusions. Closing also tends to smooth sections of contours but, as opposed to opening, it generally fuses narrow breaks and long thin gulfs, eliminates small holes, and fills gaps in the contour.

17 The opening of set A by structuring element B, denoted Ao B Ao B= ( AΘB) B (9.3 1) The closing of set A by structuring element B. denoted A B AB= ( A B) ΘB (9.3 2)

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21 The background noise was completely eliminated in the erosion stage of opening because in the case all noise components are physically smaller than the structuring element. We note in Fig 9.11(d) that the net effect of opening was to eliminate virtually all noise components in both the background and the fingerprint itself. However, new gaps between the fingerprint ridges were created.to counter this undesirable effect, we perform a dilation on the opening.

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23 9.4 The Hit-or-Miss Transformation The morphological hit-or-miss transform is a basic tool for shape detection. The objective is to find the location of one of the shapes, say, X. AΘX may be viewed geometrically as the set of all locations of the origin of X at which X found a match (hit) in A.

24 B denotes the set composed of X and its background, the match (or set of matches) of B in A, denoted A * B c A * B= ( AΘX) A Θ( W X) (9.4 1) A B ( A B1) A B * = Θ 2 (9.4 3) Morphological hit-or-miss transform.

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26 The reason for using a structuring element B 1 associated with objects and an element B 2 associated with the background is based on an assumed definition that two or more objects are distinct only if they form disjoint (disconnected) sets.

27 9.5 Some Basic Morphological Algorithms We are now ready to consider some practical uses of morphology. In particular, we consider morphological algorithms for extracting boundaries, connected components, the convex hull, and the skeleton of a region Boundary Extraction β ( A) = A ( AΘB) (9.5 1)

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30 9.5.2 Region Filling c X = ( X B) A k = 1,2,3...(9.5 2) K K 1 Conditional dilation

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32 9.5.3 Extraction of Connected Components X = ( X B) A k = 1, 2,3 (9.5 3) k k 1 We can make sure that only objects of "significant" size remain by eroding the thresholded image.

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36 9.5.4 Convex Hull A set A is said to be convex if the straight line segment joining any two points in A lies entirely within A. i i X = ( X * B ) A i = 1, 2,3, 4 and k = 1, 2,3...(9.5 4) k k 1 i i i With X 0 = A.Now let D = X conv,where the subscript "conv" i i indicates convergence in the sense that Xk = Xk 1.Then the convex hull of A is 4 i C ( A) = U D (9.5 5) i = 1

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39 9.5.5 Thinning A B= A ( A B) (9.5 6) *

40 9.5.6 Thickening Thinning and is defined by the expression A B= A ( A * B) (9.5 9) As in thinning tickening can be defined as a sequential operation; ((( ) ) ) n A B = A B 1 B 2... B (9.5 10) { } ( )

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43 9.5.7 Skeletons k S( A) = S ( A) (9.5 11) k = 0 k S ( A) = ( AΘkB) ( AΘkB) o B (9.5 12) k U ( AΘ kb) = (...( AΘB) ΘB) Θ...) ΘB (9.5 13) { } K = max k ( AΘkB) (9.5 14)

44 A can be reconstructed from these subsets by using the equation k A= U( Sk ( A) kb) (9.5 15) k = 0

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47 9.5.8 Pruning Pruning methods are an essential complement to thinning and skeletonizing algorithms because these procedures tend to leave parasitic components that need to be cleaned up.

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54 9.6 Extensions to Gray-Scale Image Dilation ( s x),( t y) Df ; ( f b)( s, t) = max f( s x, t y) + b( x, y) (9.6 1) (, xy ) D b

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56 The general effect of performing dilation on a gray-scale image is twofold: (1) If all the values of the structuring element are positive, the output image tends to be brighter than the input. (2)Dark details either are reduced or eliminated, depending on how their values and shapes relate to the structuring element used for dilation.

57 9.6.2 Erosion ( s+ x),( t+ y) Df ; ( fθ b)( s, t) = min f( s+ xt, + y) b( x, y) (9.6 2) (, xy ) D b

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59 The general effect of performing erosion on a grayscale image is twofold: (1) If all the elements of the structuring element are positive, the output image tends to be darker than the input image. (2) The effect of bright details in the input image that are smaller in area than the structuring element is reduced.

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61 9.6.3 Opening and Closing f ob= ( fθb) b (9.6 4) f b= ( f b) Θb (9.6 5) ( f b) c f c = ob (9.6 6)

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63 The gray-scale opening operation satisfies the following properties: (1)( f ob) f. (2) If f f, then ( f ob) ( f ob) (3)( f ob) ob= f ob

64 The closing operation satisfies the following properties: (1)( f b) f. (2) If f f, then ( f b) ( f b) (3)( f b) b= f b

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66 9.6.4 Some Applications of Gray-Scale Morphology Morphological smoothing Morphological gradient Top-hat transformation Textural segmentation

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