# Lectures on the Dirichlet Class Number Formula for Imaginary Quadratic Fields. Tom Weston

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1 Lectures on the Dirichlet Class Number Formula for Imaginary Quadratic Fields Tom Weston

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3 Contents Introduction 4 Chater 1. Comlex lattices and infinite sums of Legendre symbols 5 1. Comlex lattices 5 2. Homothety 7 3. Comlex multilication L-series Aendix: Lattice oints of bounded absolute value Exercises 22 Chater 2. Ideal factorizations Algebraic integers Irreducibles in Z[ 5] Ideals Unique factorization of ideals Exercises 34 Chater 3. Ideals and lattices The ideal class grou Ideals as comlex lattices Examle: n = Exercises 43 Chater 4. The Riemann Zeta Function Dirichlet series The residue at s = 1 of the Riemann zeta function Euler roducts L-functions Exercises 53 Chater 5. The Dedekind zeta function Ideals of fixed norm Ideals of bounded norm The Dedekind zeta function The class number formula Exercises 62 Bibliograhy 65 3

4 4 CONTENTS Introduction These notes were written to serve as a comanion to a series of five lectures I resented at the Ross mathematics rogram from July 26 to July 30, The first chater is an exanded version of a lecture I have given many times stating the Dirichlet class number formula for imaginary quadratic fields in terms of comlex lattices. The remainder of the notes are a roof of this formula. The rimary motivation behind these notes was the sudden realization that the roof of the class number formula for imaginary quadratic fields is in fact not terribly difficult. As is well known, this is rimarily due to the finiteness of the grou of units in this case. In fact, several toics (most notably Euler roducts) in the notes are not even strictly needed for the roof of the class number formula but are included because they hel to illuminate the key ideas (and also because I had already written u some of the material before realizing that it was unnecessary.) Although most of these notes were written without consulting outside sources, there are a few excetions which I should call attention to. The roof that comlex lattices are classified by the fundamental domain is based on that in [4, Theorem VII.1]. The aroach to the roof of unique factorization of ideals is insired by that of [1, Section XI.8]. The material on Dirichlet series is a synthesis of that in [2, Lemma VII.1] and [3, Theorem 7.11] (rewritten to avoid any exlicit discussion of absolute convergence). Finally, the roof of the key estimate on lattice oints of bounded absolute value is taken from [2, ]. The reader interested in further ursuing these toics is strongly encouraged to begin with [2] and [4]. It is a leasure to thank Rob Benedetto and Keith Conrad for heling me to overcome my inherent inability to do analysis during the rearation of these notes.

5 *+ () &' \$% "#,-./ &' 23 \$% 67 CHAPTER 1 Comlex lattices and infinite sums of Legendre symbols 1. Comlex lattices Definition 1.1. A comlex lattice Λ is a subset Λ C of the comlex numbers for which there exists α, β Λ such that: (1) α, β are not real multiles of one another; (2) Λ is recisely the set of integer linear combinations of α and β: Λ = { mα + nβ ; m, n Z }. Any such air α, β is called a basis of Λ. The basis is said to be normalized if the imaginary art of β/α is ositive. Let α, β be a basis of a comlex lattice Λ. Note that the condition (1) is equivalent to the condition that both α and β are non-zero and that the ratio β/α is not real. In articular, since im ( ) ( ) α = α 2 β β β 2 im α it follows that for a basis α, β of Λ exactly one of the orderings α, β and β, α yields a normalized basis of Λ. (The normalization is really just a convenient choice of ordering and should not be taken too seriously.) Examle 1.2. The simlest way to give examles of comlex lattices is by secifying a basis. Let α, β be non-zero comlex numbers such that the imaginary art of β/α is ositive. Then α, β are a normalized basis of the lattice α, β := { mα + nβ ; m, n Z } ! "# ! FIGURE 1. The lattices 1, i and 2, () *+,-./ 01 5

6 "# 89! 67 RS XY FG HI JK LM NO PQ 6 1. COMPLEX LATTICES AND INFINITE SUMS OF LEGENDRE SYMBOLS \$% &' WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV V WV V V V W V V WV V V WV V V V W V V WV V V WV V V WV V V WV V V V W V V WV V V WV V V V W V V WV W W W W W W W W W W W W W W W W W W W W W W W W W W W W WV W V V WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV T T T T T T WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV U U U U U U () *+,-./ :; <= BC DE FIGURE 2. The lattice 3 + 2i, 4 + 3i As the examle of 1, i and 3 + 2i, 4 + 3i shows, a given comlex lattice has many different normalized bases. It is not difficult to give a comlete descrition of all ossible bases of a comlex lattice. Indeed, let Λ be a comlex lattice with normalized basis α, β. Let α, β be another basis of Λ. Then in articular α, β Λ, so that they can be exressed as integer linear combinations of α and β: that is, there exist integers a, b, c, d such that (1) (2) α = aα + bβ β = cα + dβ. On the other hand, since α, β are a basis of Λ, we can also write α, β as integer linear combinations of α, β : there exist integers a, b, c, d such that (3) (4) α = a α + b β β = c α + d β. Substituting (1) and (2) into (3) we find that α = (a a + b c)α + (a b + b d)β. However, since α, β are assumed to not be real multiles of one another, this can only hold if a a + b c = 1 and a b + b d = 0. Solving these equations for a, b yields a d = ad bc b = b ad bc. (Note that we must have ad bc 0, for otherwise we would have b = d = 0 in which case α and β would both be multilies of α and thus could not ossibly be a basis.) Similarly, substituting (1) and (2) into (4) we find that c = c ad bc d a = ad bc. In articular, ad bc divides the greatest common divisor e of a, b, c, d. On the other hand, clearly e 2 divides ad bc. It follows that e = ±1, so that ad bc = ±1. These stes are reversible, so that we have roven the first half of the next lemma.

7 2. HOMOTHETY 7 Lemma 1.3. Let Λ be a comlex lattice and let α, β be a normalized basis of Λ. Let a, b, c, d Z satisfy ad bc = ±1. Then aα + bβ, cα + dβ is also a basis of Λ and every basis of Λ has this form for some a, b, c, d as above. It is a normalized basis if and only if ad bc = 1. Proof. It remains to rove the last statement. Set j = β/α and let x, y denote the real and imaginary art of j. We comute cα + dβ aα + bβ = c + dj a + bj (c + dj)(a + b j) = (a + bj)(a + b j) = ac + adj + bc j + bdj j a + bj 2 = (ac + adx + bcx + bd j 2 ) + (ad bc)yi a + bj 2. Here j = x yi is the comlex conjugate of j. We thus obtain the crucial formula ( ) c + dj ad bc (5) im = a + bj a + bj 2 im(j). Since im(j) > 0 by assumtion, this shows that aα + bβ, cα + dβ is still normalized if and only if ad bc is ositive, and thus if and only if ad bc = Homothety We now consider the question of determining all ossible shaes of lattices. Here we consider two comlex lattices Λ and Λ to have the same shae if one can be rotated and scaled to yield the other. (There is no need to consider translations since the origin gives a fixed common oint in each lattice.) We can take advantage of the arithmetic of the comlex numbers to give a remarkably simle descrition of this relationshi. To do this we need to consider rotations in the the comlex lane. Let x + yi be a comlex number and let θ be an angle. By simle trigonometry, one finds that the oint obtained from x + yi by rotating counterclockwise about the origin by the angle θ is (x cos θ y sin θ) + (x sin θ + y cos θ)i. This comlex number can also be written as (cos θ + i sin θ) (x + yi). By Euler s formula e iθ = cos θ + i sin θ we can further simlify this to e iθ (x + yi). That is, one can rotate a comlex number by an angle θ simly by multilying by e iθ. Suose now that Λ and Λ have the same shae. This should mean that there is a ositive real number r and an angle θ such that every element of Λ is obtained

8 &' 23 \$% 67 "# "# () ( 45,- &' * COMPLEX LATTICES AND INFINITE SUMS OF LEGENDRE SYMBOLS by rotating by θ and scaling by r some element of Λ. That is, Λ = {re iθ λ ; λ Λ} = re iθ Λ. Since every comlex number can be written in the form re iθ (its olar form), this suggests the following simle definition, which we will use as our recise definition of two lattices having the same shae. Definition 1.4. Two comlex lattices Λ, Λ are homothetic, written Λ Λ, if there is a non-zero comlex number γ such that Λ = γ Λ. One checks immediately that this is an equivalence relation on the set of comlex lattices; that is, the relation of homothety is reflexive, symmetric and transitive.!!!! ! "# /./././ \$ % \$ % () *+,-./ 01 FIGURE 3. The lattices 2, and (1 + i) 2, Our goal in the remainder of this section is to classify all comlex lattices u to homothety. That is, we would like to be able to give a reasonably simle set of comlex lattices such that any given comlex lattice Λ is homothetic to exactly one of the given ones, and we would like to have an algorithm to determine which one it is. A naive solution to this roblem is as follows. Consider a comlex lattice Λ = α, β. Then the lattices homothetic to Λ are recisely the lattices γα, γβ as γ runs through the non-zero comlex numbers. Said differently, α, β is homothetic to α, β if β/α = β /α. While this analysis is correct, it is only half of the story. The other half is the fact that a given lattice has many different bases. In articular, α, β and α, β may well be homothetic even if β/α β /α, since some other air of bases could have the same ratio. We will get around this difficulty in the clumsiest ossible way: rather than considering the ratio of a single basis of Λ, we will consider the ratios of every basis of Λ. Definition 1.5. Let Λ be a comlex lattice. The J -set of Λ is the set { } β J (Λ) := ; α, β normalized basis of Λ. α

9 2. HOMOTHETY 9 Note that J (Λ) is a subset of the set of all comlex numbers with ositive imaginary art. Let Λ be a lattice and choose a normalized basis α, β. Set j = β/α. We determined all ossible bases of Λ in Lemma 1.3, so that the J -set of Λ is simly (6) { cα + dβ J (Λ) = aα + bβ = } ; a, b, c, d Z, ad bc = 1 } { c + dj ; a, b, c, d Z, ad bc = 1 a + bj Taking (a, b, c, d) equal to (1, 0, 1, 1) and (0, 1, 1, 0) shows in articular that (7) j + 1, 1 j J (Λ). (Said differently, this corresonds to the simle fact that if α, β is a normalized basis of Λ, then so are α, α + β and β, α.) Of course, we could have started with a basis α, β of Λ giving rise to any ratio j J (Λ), so that the relation (7) holds for any element j J (Λ): that is, the set J (Λ) is closed under translation by 1 in the real direction (which is not difficult to visualize) and under negative recirocals (which is much harder to visualize). We give two examles of J -sets below.. FIGURE 4. J (1, i)

10 10 1. COMPLEX LATTICES AND INFINITE SUMS OF LEGENDRE SYMBOLS FIGURE 5. J (2, 1 + 5) The next lemma gives the sense in which J -sets are a (rather unsatisfactory) solution to the homothety classification roblem. It shows that two lattices are homothetic if and only if they have identical J -sets. Of course, it is not immediately clear how to verify that two J -sets are identical, so that this lemma is not immediately useful. Lemma 1.6. Let Λ be a comlex lattice. (1) Let j be a comlex number with ositive imaginary art. Then Λ 1, j if and only if j J (Λ). (2) Let Λ a second comlex lattice. Then Λ Λ J (Λ) = J (Λ ) J (Λ) J (Λ ). Proof. (1) Suose first that j J (Λ). Then there is a normalized basis α, β of Λ with j = β/α. Thus Λ = α, β = α 1, j 1, j. Conversely, if Λ 1, j, then there is a comlex number γ such that γ, γj is a normalized basis of Λ. Thus j = γj/γ lies in J (Λ), as desired. (2) Suose first that Λ Λ. Then there is a non-zero comlex number γ such that Λ = γ Λ, so that every normalized basis of Λ is obtained by scaling a normalized basis of Λ by γ. It follows that J (Λ) = J (Λ ). That the second condition imlies the third is obvious. Finally, suose that J (Λ) J (Λ ) and fix j in this intersection. Then by (1) we have as desired. Λ 1, j Λ, Lemma 1.6 roves much more than that homothetic lattices have identical J - sets: it shows that to show that two lattices are homothetic it suffices to find a

11 2. HOMOTHETY 11 single common element in their J -sets. In articular, if we could somehow ick out a articular element of the J -set, in a way which does not deend on the original lattice, then this single element would entirely describe the homothety class of lattices with this J -set. That is, we would like to define a comlex number j(λ) J (Λ) in some way that makes no reference to the lattice Λ but only to the set J (Λ). It will then follow from Lemma 1.6 that two lattices Λ, Λ are homothetic if and only if j(λ) = j(λ ). There are many ossible ways to do this. The one we choose is based on (7) and a visual insection of the J -sets for 1, i and 2, It aears in the examles that the elements of a J -set are clustered near the real axis, becoming more and more sarse as the imaginary art increases, until at some oint a maximum imaginary art is reached. We begin by roving this. Lemma 1.7. Let Λ be a comlex lattice. Then for any j Λ, the set is finite. {im(j ) ; j J (Λ), im(j ) > im(j) Proof. Recall that by (6) we have { } c + dj J (Λ) = ; a, b, c, d Z, ad bc = 1. a + bj By (5) we also have In articular, im ( ) c + dj 1 = a + bj a + bj 2 im(j). im ( ) c + dj > im(j) a + bj if and only if a + bj < 1. However, there are only finitely many integers a, b with this roerty. Indeed, a + bj 1 as soon as b 1/ im(j), while for each of the finitely many b with b < 1/ im(j) there are at most two values of a such that a + bj < 1. Any imaginary art in J (Λ) larger than im(j) must come from one of these finitely many airs (a, b), so that there are at most finitely many such imaginary arts. It follows from Lemma 1.7 that the (infinite) set {im(j) ; j J (Λ)} has a maximum element; indeed, we simly have to choose any j 0 J (Λ) and then select among the finitely many imaginary arts larger than that im(j 0 ). (Note that we are not asserting that there are only finitely many j J (Λ) with im(j) > im(j 0 ), but rather that among the ossibly infinitely many such j there are only finitely many different values of im(j).) Note that if j J (Λ) has maximum imaginary art, then certainly j 1 since otherwise 1/j J (Λ) would have larger imaginary art. Also, j + m J (Λ) also has maximum imaginary art for any m Z. In articular, in our effort to ick out a distinguished element of J (Λ), we might as well require that the real art is as small as ossible: we can certainly obtain a real art between 1 2 and 1 2. Being

12 12 1. COMPLEX LATTICES AND INFINITE SUMS OF LEGENDRE SYMBOLS a bit careful about the boundaries, we are thus led to consider the region F C defined by F = {z C ; im(z) > 0, z 1, 12 < re(z) 12 } and re(z) 0 if z = Re(z)= z =1 Re(z)= 1 2 FIGURE 6. The domain F Proosition 1.8. Let Λ be a comlex lattice. consists of exactly one element, which we call j(λ). The intersection J (Λ) F Proof. We have seen above that J (Λ) F contains at least one element. Suose that it contains two elements j 1, j 2 ; we must show that j 1 = j 2. We may assume without loss of generality that im(j 1 ) im(j 2 ). There exist a, b, c, d Z, ad bc = 1, such that and thus as before im(j 1 ) = j 1 = c + dj 2 a + bj 2 1 a + bj 2 2 im(j 2). Thus a+bj 2 1. However, certainly im(j 2 ) 3/2 since j 2 F. Thus a+bj 2 3b/2, so that we can only have a + bj2 1 if b = 1, 0, 1. If b = 0, then a = ±1; as ad bc = 1, we thus must have d = a. Therefore j 1 = j 2 ± c. Since F does not contain any elements differing by a non-zero integer, it follows that j 1 = j 2, as desired. The cases of b = ±1 are similar and left to the exercises. Proosition 1.8 gives the first art of the classification of comlex lattices u to homothety: every comlex lattice is homothetic to a unique lattice of the form 1, j with j F (namely 1, j(λ) ), and no two lattices 1, j and 1, j with j, j F, j j are homothetic. Our last task is to give a comutational method for determining j(λ) for a lattice Λ. We will give an algorithm that allows one to comute j(λ) given any single element j J (Λ) (which in turn can be obtained as the ratio of a normalized basis of Λ).

13 3. COMPLEX MULTIPLICATION i.1+.7i i i i FIGURE 7. Comuting j(1, i) Proosition 1.9. Let Λ be a lattice and fix j J (Λ). obtained via the following algorithm. (1) Set j 0 = j and k = 0. (2) Let j k+1 = j k + m for the unique m Z such that Then j(λ) can be 1 2 < re(j k + m) 1 2. (3) If j k+1 F, then j(λ) = j k+1. If not, then let j k+2 = 1/j k+1. (4) If j k+2 F, then j(λ) = j k+2. If not, then return to ste 2, relacing k by k + 2. Proof. Note first that j k J (Λ) for all k 0, as j 0 J (Λ) and J (Λ) is closed under integer translation and negative recirocals. It thus suffices to show that for some k we have j k F. We have im(j k+1 ) im(j k ) for all k. Indeed, this is clear for k even (since then im(j k+1 ) = im(j k )), while for k odd it follows from the fact that if j k / F for k odd, then j k 1, so that im(j k+1 ) = 1 j k 2 im(j k) im(j k ). Suose now that there is some odd k such that j k / F and im(j k+1 ) = im(j k ). We must then have j k = j k+1 = 1. However, re(j k ) 1 2 since k is odd. As j k / F, it follows from the definition of the boundary of F that this can only occur if re(j k ) < 0. But then j k+1 = re(j k ) + im(j k )i F, so that the algorithm terminates at this ste. Otherwise we have im(j k+1 ) > im(j k ) for all odd k. But by Lemma 1.7 this can not continue forever, so that we must eventually have j k F. 3. Comlex multilication Let Λ be a comlex lattice and let γ be a comlex number. If γ is an integer, then γ Λ is always a sublattice of Λ (that is, a subset of Λ which is itself a comlex lattice) which is homothetic to Λ. If γ is not an integer, then γ Λ is still homothetic to Λ, but it is robably not a sublattice of Λ. Occasionally, however, γ Λ is still a sublattice of Λ.

14 TU RS VW *+ 23 BC \$% 01 ()./ "# &',- () XY HI \$% 01 &' \$% "# FG NO,-./ BC JK HI PQ DE LM COMPLEX LATTICES AND INFINITE SUMS OF LEGENDRE SYMBOLS Definition Let γ be a comlex number which is not an integer. A comlex lattice Λ is said to have comlex multilication by γ if γ Λ is a sublattice of Λ. We also refer to Λ as a CM lattice and say that it has CM by γ. That is, a CM lattice is a lattice Λ which has a sublattice, different from the obvious sublattices n Λ for n Z, which is homothetic to Λ itself. The examles below show that 1, i has CM by i (note that in this case i 1, i actually equals 1, i. This is quite rare; see Exercise 1.3), 2, has CM by 5, and that 1, i does not have CM by i ! FIGURE 8. The lattices 1, i and i 1, i :; >?! &' () *+,-./ FIGURE 9. The lattices 2, and 5 2, 1 + 5! "# DE FG FG FG FG FG FG :; <= >? FIGURE 10. The lattices 1, i and i 1, i

15 3. COMPLEX MULTIPLICATION 15 One might guess that any lattice has CM by some γ, and that for any γ C Z there are many lattices with CM by γ. Surrisingly, this guess is very far from the truth. Lemma Let Λ be a comlex lattice with CM by γ. Then (8) γ = 1 2 (B ± B 2 4C) for some integers B, C with B 2 4C < 0. Proof. Let α, β be a basis for Λ. Since γ Λ is a sublattice of Λ, both γ α and γ β must lie in Λ. That is, there are integers a, b, c, d such that γ α = a α + b β γ β = c α + d β. (Note that this immediately imlies that γ is not real: if it were, then we must have b = 0 since β is not a real multile of α. But then γ = a is an integer, which is not allowed.) Thus Therefore so that γ = a + b β α γ = c α β + d. γ a b = c γ d γ 2 (a + d)γ + (ad bc) = 0. Taking B = a + d and C = ad bc and alying the quadratic formula now gives the above formula. We can imrove somewhat on Lemma By Exercise 1.2 a lattice Λ has CM by γ if and only if it has CM by γ + n for any integer n. If B in (8) is even, we thus may relace γ by (B ) 2 C, 2 while if B is odd we may relace γ by B2 4C 2 where B 2 4C 1 (mod 4). That is, it suffices to consider lattices with CM by numbers of the form 1 + n n or for n 3 (mod 4) 2 with n a ositive integer. For the remainder of this chater we will focus on the case of CM by n with n 1, 2 (mod 4) squarefree. The other case of secial interest is that of CM by 1+ n 2 for n 3 (mod 4) squarefree; we leave this case to the exercises. For n 1, 2 (mod 4) let Λ be a lattice with CM by n: that is, n Λ Λ.

16 16 1. COMPLEX LATTICES AND INFINITE SUMS OF LEGENDRE SYMBOLS If γ Λ is homothetic to Λ, then n (γ Λ) = γ ( n Λ) γ Λ so that γ Λ also has CM by n. That is, comlex multilication is reserved by homothety. It thus makes sense to look for all homothety classes of lattices with CM by n. Equivalently, since any lattice is homothetic to a unique lattice 1, j with j F, it is the same to find all j F such that 1, j has CM by n. This is an easy alication of the results of the revious section. We have n 1, j 1, j if and only if there exist integers a, b, c, d such that n = a + bj n j = c + dj. (The reason for the extraneous sign will become clear momentarily.) Thus j = a + n. b Solving the second equation for c we also find that ad + n + d a n = c. b b Since c is an integer and n is imaginary, this means that we must have a = d and a 2 + n must be divisible by b. The stes above are reversible, so that we have obtained the following theorem. Theorem Let n 1, 2 (mod 4) be a squarefree ositive integer. Then every lattice with CM by n is homothetic to a unique lattice of the form 1, a + n b with: (1) a, b Z; (2) 0 < b 2 n 3 ; (3) b < 2a b; (4) a 2 + n b 2 (and a 0 if a 2 + n = b 2 ); (5) b divides a 2 + n. Proof. We saw above that every lattice with CM by n is homothetic to a unique lattice 1, a+ n b with a, b Z, a 2 + n divisible by b and a+ n b F. The conditions (3) and (4) simly exress the latter fact. Condition (2) is in fact redundant (it is imlied by (3) and (4)) but is convenient to have written down anyway. Definition Let n be a squarefree ositive integer which is congruent to 1 or 2 modulo 4. We define the class grou Cl( n) to be the set of comlex numbers a+ n b satisfying the above conditions (1) (5). We will see later that Cl( n) indeed has a natural (although not at all obvious) structure of abelian grou. For the time being we content ourselves with the following fact. Corollary The class grou Cl( n) is finite.

17 4. L-SERIES 17 Proof. It is clear from (2) and (3) that there are at most finitely many airs of integers a, b satisfying the conditions (1) (5) of Theorem We define the class number h( n) to be the size of Cl( n): that is, it is the number of homothety classes of lattices with CM by n. (This is not really the otimal definition if n is not of the form we have been considering, which is why we have restricted to this case.) Examle We comute Cl( 5) using Theorem By (2) we must have 1 b 2 < 3. For b = 1 we must have a = 0 by (2). The air (0, 1) satisfies (4) 5 3 and (5), so that it yields one element of Cl( 5). For b = 2 we must have a = 0, 1 by (2), but only the air (1, 2) satisfies (5). Thus { 5, 1 + } 5 Cl( 5) = 2 so that h( 5) = 2. The first j-invariant corresonds to the rectangular lattice 1, 5, while the second corresonds to the lattice 2, of Figure 1. Examle We comute Cl( 14) using Theorem By (2) we have 1 b 2 < 5. For b = 1, by (3) we must have a = 0. The air (0, 1) satisfies 14 3 (4) and (5), so that this gives one element of Cl( 14). For b = 2 we must have a = 0, 1, but only (0, 2) satisfies (5). For b = 3 we must have a = 1, 0, 1, but only ( 1, 3) and (1, 3) satisfy (5). Finally, for b = 4 we have a = 1, 0, 1, 2, but none of these airs satisfy both (4) and (5). We conclude that and thus h( 14) = 4. { 14, 14 Cl( 14) =, , 1 + } For later reference we give a brief table of class numbers h( n) for selected squarefree n 1, 2 (mod 4). These are all easily comuted using Theorem 1.12 (and a comuter rogram for the last two). n h( n) L-series We now turn to something comletely different. For a squarefree integer n let ( ) n L( n) = 1 m m. ( ) Here is the extended Legendre symbol: for a rime 2, ( ) a = 1 a a non-zero square modulo 1 a not a square modulo 0 a

18 18 1. COMPLEX LATTICES AND INFINITE SUMS OF LEGENDRE SYMBOLS while ( a ) 1 a 1 (mod 8) = 1 a 5 (mod 8) 2 0 otherwise. ( ) (We give a unified definition of in Chater 4.) For a general ositive integer m = e1 1 er r we set a ( ( a a = m) 1 ) e1 ( ) er a. r The convergence of L( n) is far from obvious and quite slow; nevertheless, it does converge, as we will rove in Chater 4. For examle, we have L( 5) = Summing this for m one finds that L( 5) We include also a table of L( n) for several other values of n; the value given is the sum over m n L( n) In fact, there is a second interesting formula for L( n), L( n) = ( rime ), n as an infinite roduct over rimes. However, the only roofs of this formula of which the author is aware involve comlex analysis and are beyond the scoe of these notes. (We will almost, but not quite, rove this formula in Chater 4.) Let us return to the value L( 5) This number is close to, but slightly less than, the square root of 2. This is reminiscent of another famous coincidence of numbers: π is close to, but slightly less

19 4. L-SERIES 19 than, the square root of 10. At this oint we become curious and comute This is no accident. Theorem 1.17 (Dirichlet). π L( 5) = π 5. At this oint it is hard to resist comaring the values L( n) with to get the most striking result we ll throw in an extra factor of 2. π n. In fact, n L( n) L( n)/ π 2 n The numbers in the right-hand column are remarkably close to integers. In fact, they are remarkably close to integers we have seen before. Theorem 1.18 (Dirichlet). Let n 1, 2 (mod 4) be a squarefree integer greater than 1. Then L( n) = π 2 n h( n). The same formula holds for n 3 (mod 4), n > 3, with h( n) as in Exercise 1.5, excet that the factor of 2 in the denominator disaears. There are also similar formulas for n = 1, 3 with slightly different denominators. In fact, Dirichlet s formula for n = 1 reduces to the familiar formula π 4 = obtained from the ower series for tan 1 (x). This is one of the most remarkable and beautiful formulas in mathematics. In this chater we have given the fastest aroach to defining the relevant quantities in terms of comlex lattices and infinite sums. In order to actually rove the theorem, however, it is necessary to relate both sides to the arithmetic of the ring Z[ n]. This is the goal of the remaining chaters.

20 20 1. COMPLEX LATTICES AND INFINITE SUMS OF LEGENDRE SYMBOLS 5. Aendix: Lattice oints of bounded absolute value In this section we rove a result about lattice oints which will be crucial in Chater 5. We include the roof here since the result can be stated and roved entirely in the framework of comlex lattices. Let Λ = α, β be a comlex lattice. Let P denote the arallelogram with vertices at the origin, α, β, and α + β. Let A denote the area of P ; we leave it to the reader to check that A is indeendent of the choice of basis (although this fact will also follow from Lemma 1.19 below). Fix t > 0. Our goal is to estimate how many oints of Λ have absolute value at most t. Alternately, if C t = {z C ; z t}, then we wish to determine the size of Λ C t. It is not difficult to formulate a guess. For any λ Λ let P λ denote the translate of P by λ; it is a arallelogram congruent to P with one vertex at λ. Since C t has area πt 2 and since the arallelograms P λ tile the lane, we would exect C t to contain aroximately πt 2 /A of the translates P λ and thus aroximately πt 2 /A of the oints λ. Our goal in this section is to determine the error in this aroximation. P 1+ ϖ P 5 1+ ϖ P 5 3+ ϖ 5 P P0 P2 P 3 ϖ 5 P 1 ϖ 5 P1 ϖ 5 FIGURE 11. Some lattice arallelograms for 2, Lemma There is a constant C deending only on Λ such that #Λ C t πt2 A C t for all t 1. The recise value of the constant C will not be relevant in the alications. This is quite common when using estimates: the crucial thing is that the quantity we are counting grows like a constant times t 2 and the error grows like a constant times t, so that for large t the aroximation becomes relatively accurate. We note that this estimate does not hold for t near zero since the origin always lies in Λ C t. Nevertheless, this failure is uniquely uninteresting and will not be a roblem in the alications.

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