# Ratio Analysis CHAPTER LEARNING OVERVIEW. Ratio basics

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1 Analysis basics Analysis compares one figure in one financial statement (say P&L account or Balance Sheet) with another figure in the same financial statement or in another financial statement of the company. A ratio is expressed in the numerator denominator format. Thus the numerator and denominator can be either from the P&L account or the Balance sheet of the same company. s give colour to absolute figures. For example a profit of Rs.100 lakhs means very little to an analyst because he needs to know what the sales was or what the networth was against which the Rs.100 lakhs was earned. More than the profit, the ratio of profit to sales and the ratio of profit to networth is useful to understand the performance of a company. Thus if profit grew from Rs 100 lakhs to Rs 125 lakhs, while it is good, what is more important is how it stacked up against the sales achieved or the networth deployed. CHAPTER 4 LEARNING OVERVIEW 1. basics 2. Computing ratios a. Short term solvency b. Long term solvency c. Asset management d. Profitability e. Market 3. Interpreting ratios a. Common size analysis b. Trend analysis c. DuPont chart d. Limitations

3 Analysis 3 A major advantage of looking at current assets and current liabilities is that their book values approximate towards their market values. Often these assets and liabilities do not live long enough for the two to step out of line. 1. Current : This is the ratio of current assets to current liabilities. Current Assets / Current Liabilities Because current assets are convertible to cash in one year and current liabilities are payable within one year, the current ratio is an indicator of short term solvency. The unit of measure is times. For instance if the current ratio is 1.4 we say that the ratio is 1.4 times. It means that current assets are 1.4 times the current liabilities. To a short term lender, including a creditor, a high current ratio is a source of comfort. To the firm, a high current ratio indicates liquidity, but it also may mean inefficient use of cash and other current assets. A ratio of 1.33 is considered welcome. The current radio is affected by various types of transactions. For example suppose the firm borrows over the long term to raise money. The short term effect would be an increase in cash and an increase in long term debt. So the current ratio would rise. Finally, a low current ratio is not necessarily bad for a company which has a large reservoir of untapped borrowing. 2. Quick or Acid test : This is the ratio of quick assets to current liabilities or to quick liabilities. Quick Assets / Current Liabilities Quick Assets / Quick Liabilities Three points merit attention. a. Inventory: The book values of inventory are least reliable as measures of realisable value because over time they may become lost, damaged or obsolete. Further, to an external analyst the market value of inventory may not be available since they are carried in the books at cost. Large inventories are often a sign of short-term trouble. The firm may have overestimated sales and consequently may have overbought or overproduced leading to a substantial part of the liquidity locked in low moving inventory. Hence inventory is eliminated from current assets to arrive at quick assets. b. Prepaid expenses. Prepaid expenses too are deducted from current assets since they are not really convertible into cash. They are only adjustments against future payments. c. Overdraft: In practice, overdraft is not exactly repayable within 12 months because it is almost always renewed. Therefore there is a view that in computing quick liabilities we must deduct overdraft from current liabilities.

4 4 Analysis 3. Cash Reservoir : Does a company have enough cash or cash equivalents to meet its current liabilities? The Cash reservoir ratio measures this. Cash Reservoir / Current Liabilities Cash Reservoir = Cash + Bank + Marketable securities. Alternatively, Cash Reservoir = Current Assets Inventory. But the former one is more appropriate. A very short term creditor (one who gives money for say a week or 15 days) should be interested in this ratio. B: Capital Structure or Long Term Solvency s Long term solvency ratios measure the firm s long term ability to meet its payment obligations. They are also referred to as leverage ratios. Back in the chapter Capital Structure Planning you learnt about financial leverage as arising out of the existence of debt in the capital structure. In Introduction to Financial Management we understood this as being the first quadrant of the balance sheet. 4. Total debt ratio: This is the ratio of total debt to total assets. Total Debt / Total assets The term total debt means all debt; both long term and short term i.e. it includes current liabilities. The term total assets means all assets; both fixed assets and current assets. There are two variants to this ratio namely debt-equity ratio and equity multiplier. a. The debt equity ratio is measured as total debt to total equity. b. The equity multiplier is the ratio of total assets to total equity The equity multiplier is 1 plus debt equity ratio. Given any one of these three ratios, you can immediately compute the other two so they all say the same thing. 5. Times interest earned (Interest coverage ratio): This is the ratio of EBIT to Interest. EBIT / Interest The interest referred to here is the interest on both long term and short term loan. The ratio measures how much earnings are available to cover interest obligations. If coverage is computed only for long term interest then only long term interest should be considered in the denominator and the EBIT will mean earnings before long term interest and taxes. There are various variants to the above ratio. For instance, there is a view that the earning should be recorded after tax i.e. earnings before interest but after tax. And that the denominator will be unchanged at Interest. However we have stuck to the more traditional and more popular view.

5 Analysis 5 6. Cash coverage: This is the ratio of EBIT plus depreciation to Interest. (EBIT + Depreciation ) / Interest Need to compute cash cover While interest is a cash measure, EBIT is not. That s because it has taken into account depreciation which is a non-cash charge. This ratio is considered as a measure of the firm s ability to generate cash from operations and is used as a measure of cash flow available to meet financial obligations. C: Asset Management or Turnover s The Asset management ratios (a k a Asset turnover ratios) measure the efficiency with which a company deploys its assets to generate sales. 7. Total Assets turnover ratio: This is the ratio of sales to total assets. / Total Assets While total assets is technically more correct, average assets could also be used. Average asset is the simple average of opening and closing assets. If the total assets turnover ratio is 4, it means that for every rupee invested we have generated Rs.4 of sales. The term total assets would be the sum of fixed assets and current assets. The higher the ratio the better it is for the company. The reciprocal of the total assets turnover ratio is the Capital Intensity ratio. It can be interpreted as the rupee invested in assets needed to generate Re.1 of sales. High values correspond to capital intensive industries. 1 / Total assets turnover ratio The total assets turnover ratio can be split into FATO and WCTO ratio. 8. Fixed Assets turnover ratio (FATO): This is the ratio of sales to fixed assets. The fixed assets should typically be on net basis i.e. net of accumulated depreciation. / Net fixed assets Average fixed assets i.e. the simple average of opening and closing fixed assets can also be used. If the fixed assets turnover ratio is 3, it means that for every rupee invested in fixed assets we have generated Rs.3 of sales. The higher the ratio the better it is for the company.

6 6 Analysis 9. Working capital turnover ratio (WCTO): This is the ratio of sales to net working capital. Net working capital would mean current assets less current liabilities. / Net Working Capital Average working capital i.e. the simple average of opening and closing working capital can also be used. If the working capital turnover ratio is 6, it means that for every rupee invested in working capital we have generated Rs.6 of sales. The higher the ratio the better it is for the company. This ratio becomes more understandable if we convert it into number of days. If we turned over our working capital 6 times a year, it means that the working capital was unlocked every 60 days. This is called the working capital days ratio and is given by the following formula: 365 / Working capital turnover ratio The lower this ratio, the better it is for the company. The working capital turnover ratio can now be broken into its component parts. 10. Inventory turnover ratio: This is the ratio of cost of goods sold to closing inventory. Cost of goods sold / Inventory It can also be expressed as the ratio of cost of goods sold to average inventory. While closing inventory is technically more correct, average inventory could be used since an external analyst is unsure whether the year end numbers are dressed up. The numerator is Cost of goods sold and not sales because inventory is valued at cost. However to use in the numerator is also a practice that many adopt. If the inventory turnover ratio is 3, it means that we sold off the entire inventory thrice. As long as we are not running out of stock and hence losing sales, the higher this ratio is, the more efficient is the management of inventory. If we turned over inventory over 3 times during the year, then we can say that we held inventory for approximately 121 days before selling it. This is called the average days sales in Inventory and is given by the following formula: 365 / Inventory turnover ratio The ratio measures how fast we sold our products. Note that inventory turnover ratio and average days sales in inventory measure the same thing. 11. Receivable / Debtors turnover ratio: This is the ratio of sales to closing debtors. / Debtors

7 Analysis 7 While closing debtors is technically more correct, average debtors could be used since an external analyst is unsure whether the year end numbers are dressed up. If the debtors turnover ratio is 8, it means that we collected our outstanding 8 times a year. As long as we do not miss out sales, the higher this ratio is, the more efficient is the management of debtors. This ratio is far easier to grasp if we converted it into number of days. If we turned over debtors 8 times a year, we can say that debtors on an average were 45 days. This is called the average days sales in receivable and is given by the following formula: 365 / Receivable turnover ratio The ratio is often called the Average Collection period. 12. Payables / Creditors turnover ratio: In so far as we wanted to know how well we used our debtors we must also know how well we utilise the creditors. Towards this we compute the Creditors turnover ratio which is the ratio of purchases to closing creditors. Credit Purchases / Creditors Average creditors could also be used since an external analyst is unsure whether the year end numbers are dressed up. If the creditors turnover ratio is 5, it means that we paid our outstanding 5 times a year. As long as we do not miss out purchases, the smaller this ratio is, the more efficient is the management of creditors. This ratio becomes more understandable if we convert it into number of days. If we turned over creditors 5 times a year, we can say that creditors on an average were 73 days. This is called the average days purchases in payables and is given by the following formula: 365 / Creditors turnover ratio The ratio is often called the Average Payment period. D: Profitability s The profitability ratios measure how efficiently a company manages it assets and how efficiently it manages its operation. The focus is on profits. All of these ratios are expressed in terms of a percentage. 13. Gross profit margin: This is the ratio of gross profit to sales. Gross Profit / The term gross profit refers to the difference between sales and works cost. Higher the percentage the better it is for the company.

8 8 Analysis 14. Operating profit margin: This is the ratio of operating profit to sales. Operating Profit / The term operating profit is the difference between gross profit and administration and selling overheads. Non operating income and expenses are excluded. Interest expenditure is also excluded because interest is the reward for a particular form of financing and has nothing to do with operational excellence. Higher the percentage the better it is for the company. 15. Net profit margin: This is the ratio of net profit to sales. Net Profit / The term net profit refers to the final profit of the company. It takes into account all incomes and all expenses including interest costs. Higher the percentage the better it is for the company. 16. Return on total assets: This is the ratio of EBIT to Total Assets. EBIT / Total Assets The term total assets refers to all assets namely net fixed assets and current assets. Higher the percentage the better it is for the company. 17. Return on capital employed (ROCE): This is the more popular ratio and is the ratio of EBIT to capital employed EBIT / Capital employed The term capital employed refers to the sum of net fixed assets and net working capital. This ratio measures the productivity of money. Higher the percentage the better it is for the company. 18. Return on net-worth: This is the ratio of PAT to Net worth. PAT / Net worth The term Net-worth means money belonging to equity share holders and includes reserves net of fictitious assets awaiting write off. It measures how much income a firm generates for each rupee stockholders have invested. Higher the percentage the better it is for the company. E: Market s As these ratios are based on the market price they become crucial numbers to analyse a company.

9 Analysis Earnings per share: This is the ratio of profit after tax and preference dividends to number of equity shares outstanding. (Profit after tax Preference dividend) / No. of equity shares outstanding This measures the amount of money available per share to equity shareholders. The EPS has to be used with care. Two companies raising identical amounts of money and making identical after tax profits can report substantially different EPS. Consider this example. A Ltd. raises Rs.100 lakhs of equity with each share having a face value of Rs.10. The premium on issue is Rs.90 implying that 1,00,000 shares are raised. In accounting speak, Rs.10 lakhs goes to equity account and Rs.90 lakhs goes to share premium account. Suppose the company makes a profit after tax of Rs.50 lakhs. Since there are 1 lakhs shares outstanding the EPS is Rs.50. The return on net-worth is 50%. Now B Ltd. raises Rs.100 lakhs of equity with each share having a face value of Rs.10. The premium on issue is Rs.40 implying that 2,00,000 shares are raised. In accounting speak, Rs.20 lakhs goes to equity account and Rs.80 lakhs goes to share premium account. Suppose the company makes a profit after tax of Rs.50 lakhs. Since there are 2 lakhs shares outstanding the EPS is Rs.25. The return on net-worth is 50%. Both companies have the same RONW, the same face value per share, but the first company returns an EPS of Rs.50 and the second an EPS of Rs Payout and retention ratio: The payout ratio is the ratio of dividend per share to earnings per share. Dividend per share / EPS Retention ratio is 1 - Payout ratio. 21. Price Earnings ratio: This is the ratio of market price per equity share to earning per share. Also known as the PE multiple, the following is the formula: Market price per share / Earnings per share. Suppose the PEM is 12. Typically, this means that if all earnings are distributed as dividends then it would take the investor 12 long years before he recovers his initial investment. If that be so, why do investors invest in companies with high PEM? Reason: Investors expect the company s earnings to grow. The PEM can hence be looked upon as an investor s confidence in the growth prospects of the company. 22. Market to book ratio: This is the ratio of market price per equity share to book value per equity share. The following is the formula: Market price per share / Book value per share.

10 10 Analysis Book value refers to net-worth. Since book value is an accounting number it reflects historical costs. If the value is less than 1 it means that the firm has not been successful overall in creating value for the shareholders. Interpreting s We would like to compare the performance of one company with another (Peer review). If we do that we could immediately run into a problem. For instance, if you wanted to compare Infosys with Satyam you will have to reckon with the fact that Infosys is by far a much larger company. It is difficult to even compare Infosys 2002 with Infosys 2007 as the company s size would have changed. If you compare Infosys with Microsoft, you have both a size problem (Infosys is a pigmy compared to Microsoft) and a currency problem (Infosys reports in Rs. and Microsoft reports in dollars). The solution lies in standardising the financial statements and this is done by converting all the items from Rs. to percentages. Such statements are called common size statements. Common Size Balance sheet: All items in the Balance sheet are expressed as a percentage of total assets. Common size Income statement: All items in the Profit and Loss account are expressed as a percentage of total sales. This statement tells us what happens to each Rupee of sales. Trend Analysis: One could fall back on the past. Like, take a look at the ratios across the last five years to understand whether liquidity, solvency, profitability etc. have gone up or come down. This is at the heart of inter-firm comparison. Peer Review: The benchmark could be the industry leader or some company in the industry which your company wants to catch up with. By comparing your ratios with the benchmark company, you understand whether you are performing better than the benchmark company or not. What is most important in the case of ratio analysis is that not all ratios would indicate things in the same direction. Some would be healthy; others wouldn t be all that healthy. It takes practice and experience to ascertain trend and interpret. In other words you need to become a good financial doctor. It is hence important that one becomes thorough in the computation, understanding and interpretation of a few select ratios than in trying to crack them all. Analysis is more an art than a science. Limitations 1. The RONW is a sacred ratio. But imagine a year when the company decides to write off a major part of its manufacturing facility. Both PAT and Net worth will come down by identical amounts thereby increasing the ratio! 2. Then there is the issue of book value. Book value is dangerously susceptible to accounting jugglery and pyro-techniques.

11 Analysis There is very little theory to help us identify which ratios to look at and to guide us in establishing benchmarks. 4. Very little theory is available to suggest what constitutes a high ratio or a low ratio. 5. Different firms use different accounting procedure. Like valuation of inventory. 6. Different firms end their fiscal year at different times. 7. Trouble with ratios: Different people compute a ratio differently leading to confusion. The specific definitions we use must be spelt out. Those which we are using in this book are the popular usage. When you use ratios to do peer review make sure that the ratios in the two companies are computed in the same way. The DuPont Identity s by themselves mean precious little. If you can understand the link between ratios and how some ratios can be decomposed to identify the underlying linkages your appreciation of financial statements and corporate performance will be total. The DuPont Company used to do just that. We present below a few famous DuPont identities. 1. Return on Equity The Return on Assets or its cousin the Return on Capital Employed talks about the productivity of money. The Return on Equity is generally higher than the Return on Capital Employed. This is on account of the use of debt financing. For instance, if the ROCE is 15%, it means that both debt money and equity money are earning 15%. Now, if debt is rewarded at 8%, it means that the surplus or balance 7% accrues to the equity shareholders. If the debt equity ratio is 1:1 the Return on equity will turn out to be the 15% it earns plus the 7% surplus that it pockets from debt namely 22%. Return on Equity is decomposed as under: ROE = PAT/Net-worth = PAT / Net-worth x Assets / Assets = PAT / Assets x Assets / Net-worth = PAT / Assets x Equity Multiplier ROE = ROA x (1+Debt-Equity ratio) 2. Return on Equity A second decomposition works as under: ROE = PAT / Net-worth = PAT / Net-worth x Assets / Assets = PAT / Assets x Assets / Net-worth = PAT / Assets x / x Assets / Net-worth = Pat / x / Assets x Assets / Net-worth

12 12 Analysis ROE = Profit Margin x TATO x Equity multiplier The ROE is thus the function of operating efficiency (as measured by profit margin), Asset use efficiency (as measure by total asset turnover) and financial leverage (as measured by equity multiplier. ROA, ROE and Growth Is it possible to know how rapidly a firm can grow! We must remember that over the long haul, if sales have to grow assets too have to grow because there is only so much that you can milk out of an asset. If assets are to grow the firm must find money to fund these purchases. The money can come either from internal sources (retention) or external sources (debt or fresh equity). Internal growth rate: If a company does not want to tap external sources of financing and uses only retained earnings to fund new assets, the rate at which sales can grow is given by the following formula: ROA x b Internal growth rate = 1 ROA x b Sustainable growth rate (SGR): If a firm relies only on internal financing, over time, the debt equity ratio will decline. Many companies would like to maintain a target debt equity ratio. With this in mind we now lay down the sustainable growth rate on the twin assumptions that (a) company wishes to maintain a target debt-equity ratio and (b) it is unwilling to raise fresh equity. Given these assumptions the maximum growth rate will be ROE x b Sustainable growth rate = 1 ROE x b Piecing all these together, we now identify the four drivers of sales growth. 1. Profit margin: If the profit margin increases, the internal resources go up. This increases the SGR. 2. TATO: An increase in TATO increases the sales per rupee of investment. This decreases the firm s need for new assets as sales grow and thus increases the sustainable growth rate. 3. Financial policy: An increase in the debt equity ratio makes additional If SGR debt financing is to available, thus increasing the SGR. 4. `Dividend policy: A reduction in dividend payout increases Profit the margin retention ratio. This increases internally generated funds and thus increases the TATO SGR. Debt Equity DP

13 Analysis 13 Categories Liquidity ratios Capital Structure Profitability ratios Coverage ratios Turnover ratios Capital Market ratio Box-1 What they Measure Short term solvency Long term solvency Ability to make profit Adequacy of money for payments Usage of Assets Wealth maximisation Box -2 s Formulae Measures Standard I. Liquidity s: 1. Current 2. Quick 3. Cash Reservoir 4. Interval Measure II. Capital Structure s: Current assets The ability of the Current Liabilitie s Quick assets Quick Liabilities Quick assets Current Liabilities Cash reservoir Current Liabilities Cash reservoir Average daily cash operating expenses company to use the short term money to repay short term liabilities. The ability of the company to use quick money to repay quick liabilities. The readily available cash to meet current liabilities. The no. of days upto which cash operating expenses can be met with available cash reservoir

14 14 Analysis 5. Debt Equity (i) as ratio (ii) as percentage Debt Equity Debt Debt Equity The financial risk involved. High debt-equity ratio is risky Capital Gearing Debt Preference Equity Debt Preference Equity The financial risk involved Proprietary III. Profitability s: (a)turnover Related s: 8. Gross Profit 9. Operating Profit 10. Net Profit (b) Investment Related s 11. Return on Capital employed / Return on Investment (i) Pre tax Equity Funds High ratio less is the risk. - Net Fixed Assets Gross Profit Efficiency of the factory. 21% Operating Profit Net Profit Operating efficiency of the company after taking into account the selling & administration cost. Overall efficiency of the company. Employed Capital EBIT How productively the company utilises its money. 4.7%

15 Analysis 15 (ii) Post tax 12. Return on Equity IV. Coverage ratios: 13. Interest coverage ratio PAT Interest Capital Employed EBIT (1- Tax Rate) Capital Employed How productively the company utilises its money. PAT - Preference dividend How much the shareholders earn. Shereholders Funds PAT Interest Intrest No. of times earnings are available to pay interest. 12.7% 4.23 PAT Interest Depreciation Non cash charges Intrest No. of times cash is available out of earnings to pay interest. 14. Debt - service coverage ratio PAT Interest Depreciation Non cash charges Principal Interest No. of times cash is available to pay out of principle. 1:2 1:3 V. Turnover s 15. Assets Turnover 16. Fixed Assets Turnover 17. Working Capital Turnover Total Assets Capital Employed Net Fixed Assets - Working Capital

16 16 Analysis 18. Inventory Turnover 19. Debtors Turnover 20. Creditors Turnover VI. Velocity s 21. Inventory Velocity 22. Debtors Velocity 23. Creditors Velocity VII. Capital Market s Average Invenory Cost of Goods Sold Average Invenory Average Debtors Cost of sales Average Debtors Purchases Average Creditors 365 No. of times inventory is Inventory Turnover blocked in a year. 365 How much money are Debtors Turnover blocked in Debtors. 365 How many days for which the purchases are Creditors Turnover outstanding days 24. EPS PAT - Preference No. of dividend Shares Earning in a year per share. 25. PE Multiple Market price EPS No. of times a share is being quoted in relation to its earnings. 9.55% 26. Dividend Yield Dividend Dividend received per Market price per share share 14.0% 27. Payout Dividend per share EPS How much paid for every rupee earned.

17 Analysis 17 Numerator and Denominator s Formulae Numerator Denominator I. Liquidity s: 1. Current 2. Quick 3. Cash Reservoir 4.Interval Measure II. Capital Current assets Inventories + sundry Current Liabilitie s Quick assets Quick Liabilities Quick assets Current Liabilities debtors + cash + Bank + receivables/ accruals + Prepaid expenses + loans and advances + Marketable Investments Current assets - Inventories - Prepaid expenses Current assets - Inventories - Prepaid expenses Cash reservoir Cash + Bank + Current Liabilities Marketable securities + Short term investment Current assets - inventories Quick assets Current assets - Average daily Inventories - Prepaid expenses operating expenses Sundry creditors + short term loans + Bank OD+ Cash credit + Outstanding expenses + Provision for Taxation + Proposed dividends + Unclaimed dividends + other provisions Current liabilities - Bank OD - Cash credit Current liabilities Current liabilities Cost of goods sold + selling, administrative & general expenses - depreciation - other non cash expenditures 360 days

18 18 Analysis Structure s: 5. Debt - Equity (i) as ratio (ii) as percentage Debt Equity Debt Debt Equity Long term loan + Short term loan: if it is not payable within a year even otherwise when the question is silent If it is not protected by securities Equity share capital + Preference share capital + Reserves & Surplus - Fictitious assets 6. Capital Gearing Debt Preference Equity Debt Preference Equity Preference share capital + Debentures + Long term loans Equity share capital + Reserves & Surplus - P & L account (Dr. balance) 7.Proprietary Proprietary Funds Equity share capital + Preference hare capital + Total Assets Reserves & Surplus - Accumulated loss III. Profitability s: (a)turnover Related s: 8. Gross Profit Gross Profit Gross profit as per (as %) x 100 Trading Account 9. Operating Profit (as %) 10. Net Profit (as %) (b) Investment Related s 11. Return on Capital employed / Return on Investment Operating Profit x 100 Gross profit - Nonopearting expenses + Non-opearating income Net Profit x 100 Net profit as per Profit & Loss account Fixed Assets + Current assets (excluding fictitious assets) net of returns net of returns net of returns

19 Analysis 19 (i) Pre- tax (ii) Post - tax 12. Return on Equity IV. Coverage ratios: 13. Interest coverage ratio 14. Debt - service coverage ratio V. Turnover s EBIT Net Profit after Tax + Tax + Interest + Non - Capital Employed trading Expenses + Non - operating Incomes. PAT Interest Capital Employed EBIT (1- Tax Rate) Capital Employed dividend Shereholders Funds Profit after Tax + Interest PAT - Preference Profit after Tax - PAT Interest Intrest PAT Interest Depreciation Non cash charges Intrest PAT Interest Depreciati on Non cash charges Principal Interest Preference dividend (Equity earnings) Net Profit after Tax + Tax + Interest + Non - trading Expenses + Non - operating Incomes. Net profit as per P & L account - Tax + Interest + Non - trading Expenses + Non - operating Incomes. Equity Share Capital + Preference Share Capital + Reserves & Surplus + Debentures - Loss - Non-trading investment. Equity Share Capital + Preference Share Capital + Reserves & Surplus + Debentures - Loss - Non-trading investment.- Preliminary expenses Equity Share Capital + Preference Share Capital + Reserves & Surplus - Loss Interest on Loan (Long term & short tem) Interest on debt + installment of debt

20 20 Analysis 15. Assets Turnover 16. Fixed Assets Turnover 17. Working Capital Turnover 18. Inventory Turnover Total Assets Capital Employed net of return Net fixed Assets + Current assets (excluding fictitious assets) net of return Net fixed Assets Net Fixed Assets (Fixed assets - Depreciation) net of return Current assets - Working Capital current liabilities Average Invenory Cost of Goods Sold Average Invenory net of return Cost of production - Closing stock of finished goods Opening stock + Closing stock Debtors Turnover Average Debtors Cost of sales Average Debtors Net credit sales Cost of goods sold + Administration exp. + Selling & Distribution exp. Opening debtors + Closing debtors Creditors Turnover VI. Velocity s 21. Inventory Velocity Purchases Net credit purchases Opening creditors + Average Creditors Closing creditors Inventory Turnover

21 Analysis Debtors Velocity 23. Creditors Velocity VII. Capital Market s 24. EPS 25. PE Multiple 26. Dividend Yield 27. Payout 365 Debtors Turnover 365. Creditors Turnover PAT - Preference dividend No. of Shares Market price EPS PAT - Preference dividend Current market price of equity share No. of equity shares EPS Dividend Dividend Current market price of equity Market price per share share Dividend per share Dividend per share EPS EPS Analysis compares one financial figure with another. The current ratio is affected by various types of transactions. For example suppose the form borrows

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