# COMPANIES INTERPRETATION OF FINANCIAL STATEMENTS 13 MARCH 2014

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1 COMPANIES INTERPRETATION OF FINANCIAL STATEMENTS 13 MARCH 2014 In this lesson we: Introduction Lesson Description Look at analysing financial statements and its purpose Consider users of financial statements Discuss ratios that need to be calculated Summary There are a number of ratios that can be used to allow users of financial statements to interpret financial information more accurately and make informed decisions. The ratios help us to: Check whether there is growth or stagnation in the business Compare current results to previous results Check results with competitors results Compare results to alternate investments Determine the degree of financial risk by investors/creditors Stakeholders who use Financial Statements Ratios Board of Directors and Managers Suppliers Banks/Financial Institutions Investors Potential Investors Competitors Employees The ratios used can be classified under the following categories 1. Liquidity (The ability of the business to pay its short term debt) a.) Current ratio b.) Acid test ratio c.) Debtors average collection period d.) Creditors average payment period e.) No. of days stock on hand f.) Stock turnover rate 2. Risk (The degree of financial risk) a.) Debt/equity ratio b.) Return on Total Capital Employed

2 3. Returns (What the shareholders are getting back in return for their investment) a.) Return on shareholder s equity b.) Return on Total capital employed c.) Net Asset Value per share d.) Dividends per share e.) Earnings per share 4. Profitability/Operating Efficiency (Indicates how profitable the business is and how well expenses are controlled) a.) % Gross Profit on b.) % Gross Profit on Cost of sales c.) % Operating Profit on Turnover d.) % Net Profit on e.) % Operating expenses on 5. Solvency (Can the business settle all its debts) a.) Current Assets : Current Liabilities REMEMBER YOU MUST LEARN THE FORMULAS BELOW IN ORDER TO BE ABLE TO CALCULATE RATIOS. RATIO FORMULA 1. % Gross Profit on sales Gross Profit x % Gross Profit on cost of sales Gross Profit x 100 Cost of sales 3. % Net Profit on Turnover (sales) Net Profit x % Operating expenses on sales Operating expenses x Solvency ratio Total Assets : Total Liabilities 6. Current ratio Current assets : Current Liabilities 7. Acid-test ratio Current assets Inventory : Current liabilities 8. Rate of stock turnover Cost of sales = times per year Average stock 9. Number of months of stock on hand/(months/days) Average stock x 12 (or 365) Cost of sales 10. Debtors ave collection period Ave debtors x 365 Credit sales 11. Creditors ave payment period Ave creditors x 365 Credit purchases 12. Debt/equity ratio Non-current liabilities : shareholders equity 13. Return on total capital employed Net profit before tax + interest on loans x 100 Average Capital employed 14. Return on shareholders equity Net profit after tax x 100 Ave shareholder s equity 15. Earnings per share Net profit after tax x 100c 16. Dividends per share Ordinary share dividends x 100c 17. Net asset value per share Shareholder s equity x 100c

3 Question 1 Test Yourself Which of the following ratios is not a Liquidity ratio? A. Debtors collection period B. Current ratio C. No. of days stock on hand D. Total assets: Total Liabilities Question 2 Which of the following ratios is an indication that the business is high-geared? A. 1,2 : 1 B. 0, 5: 1 C. 0,9 : 1 D. 0, 1 : 1 Question 3 Earnings per share is calculated by using the following formula: A. Net Profit before tax divided by no. of shares issued multiplied by 100c B. Net Profit after tax divided by no. of shares issued multiplied by 100c C. Operating profit divided by share capital multiplied by 100c D. None of the above Question 4 CC LTD provided you will the following information as at 1 July Non- current liability Mortgage loan: R Share Capital: R Retained income: R CC LTD decided increase their long term loan by R on the 1 December The business issued additional shares at R2 each on the same day. All monies were received and shares were allotted. 4.1 Calculate the Gearing ratio as at 1 July 2013? A. 0,44: 1 B. 1 : 0,44 C. 0,5 : 1 D. 1 : 0,5 4.2 Calculate the Gearing ratio as at 31 December 2013? A. 1 : 0,6 B. 0,6 : 1 C. 0,44 : 1 D. 1 : 1 Question 5 Solvency ratio determines A. The ability of the business to pay its short term debt B. The ability of the business to pay its long term debt

4 C. The ability of the business to pay its total debt i.e. long term + short term. D. Current assets + non-current assets : Current liability + non-current liability E. (c) and (d) Question 6 Mr Smith owns shares in BGH LTD. He wants to sell his shares but is not sure about the selling price. The following financial indicator will determine the selling price of shares by Mr Smith: A. Debt/equity ratio B. NAV C. DPS D. JSE E. (b) and (d) Question 1 Improve your Skills (Adapted from November 2009, Question 5) CASH-FLOW STATEMENT AND RATIO ANALYSIS The information given below was extracted from the financial statements of Sports Ltd, distributors of various sporting equipment. Required 1.1 Calculate the following for 2009: Current ratio (3) Acid-test ratio (4) Net asset value per share (4) Debt/Equity ratio (Gearing ratio) (3) 1.2 Explain why the directors decided to reduce the long-term loan significantly during the current financial year. In your opinion, was this a wise decision? Explain, quoting evidence (figures/financial indicators) from the question. (6) 1.3 Comment on the return on shareholders' equity, earnings and dividends earned by the shareholders. Quote evidence (figures/financial indicators) from the question. (6) 1.4 The existing shareholders are unhappy with the price at which the additional shares were sold. Discuss, quoting ONE figure or financial indicator to support your answer. (3) Information 1. Extract from the Income Statement R Depreciation Interest expense Net profit before tax Income tax (rate 30% of net profit)?

5 2. BALANCE SHEET 28 February February 2008 ASSETS Non-current assets Fixed/Tangible assets at carrying value Fixed deposit at PDV Bank Current assets Inventories Trade debtors Cash and cash equivalents SARS Income tax TOTAL ASSETS EQUITY AND LIABILITIES Capital and reserves Ordinary share capital Share premium Retained income Non-current liabilities Loan: Enid Bank at 15% p.a Current liabilities Trade creditors Bank overdraft Shareholders for dividends SARS Income tax TOTAL EQUITY AND LIABILITIES Additional Information A shares were sold during the financial year at R6,30. B. Earnings and dividends per share were as follows: Earnings per share 189 cents per share 135 cents per share Total dividends 72 cents per share 105 cents per share Interim dividends 40 cents per share 80 cents per share Final dividends 32 cents per share 25 cents per share C. You are also provided with the following financial indicators: % return on shareholders' equity 26% 21% % return on capital employed (after tax) 24% 10% Net asset value per share? 687 cents E. The price of the shares on the Johannesburg Securities Exchange (JSE) has fluctuated between 680 cents and 780 cents over the past year.

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