Technique and Safety of. by Pierluigi Castellone, Electronics Engineer Brain Products General Manager

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Technique and Safety of. by Pierluigi Castellone, Electronics Engineer Brain Products General Manager"

Transcription

1 Technique and Safety of performing EEG/fMRI measurements by Pierluigi Castellone, Electronics Engineer Brain Products General Manager

2 Contents of the presentation Why recording simultaneous EEG and fmri? Challenges in recording EEG in the MRI: Safety issues Challenges in recording EEG in the MRI: Technical issues Brain Products solutions and recommendations Four steps to successful EEG/fMRI measurement

3 Why recording EEG? The activation of neurons produces an electrical signal which can be detected by using electrodes placed on the scalp. Being an electrical signal, any change in the neural activation is detected very quickly. The EEG has time resolution in the order of milliseconds but bad spatial resolution (inverse problem not solvable).

4 Why recording fmri? Stimulation of the brain causes a local increase in blood flow. To the increase of oxygen in the activated areas does not correspond an increase of the used oxygen. This results in a net increase of oxygen in the area activated. We can recognize two phases related to the brain activation: (1) Deoxygenated blood (Paramagnetic distortions in the MRI signal) increases due to areas activated. T2 and T1 are shorter. (2) Oxygenated blood (Diamagnetic no distortions in the MRI signal) flows in the activated areas. T2 and T1 are longer. By scanning the brain over time repeatedly, it s possible to detect the BOLD (Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent) signal.

5 Why recording fmri? The fmri can detect local brain activations with an extremely fine spatial resolution (order of millimetres). Nevertheless it has bad temporal resolution (1 sec in the best case).

6 Why recording simultaneously EEG and fmri? Oz [µv] [ms]

7 Why recording simultaneously EEG and fmri? In every cognitive experiment, the EEG/fMRI co-registration offers the unique chance to record the brain activity originated by a specific stimulation under the SAME experimental conditions! The validity of data acquired for the EEG and fmri domains in separate sessions is not only dependent on aspects related to the experimental paradigm, but also depends on differences in the measurement environment. The restricted space available in the scanner bore, the position of the experiment subject during the simultaneous recording (supine rather than sitting upright) and the loud noise caused by the MRI gradient system are all factors altering the experimental effects.

8 Why recording simultaneous EEG and fmri? In every cognitive experiment, the EEG/fMRI co-registration offers the unique chance to record the brain activity originated by a specific stimulation under the SAME experimental conditions! To reduce the costs related to the experiments To reduce the working time

9 Challenges in recording EEG in the fmri: Safety Issues

10 The MRI scanner

11 The MRI scanner EPI sequence design

12 Challenges in recording EEG in the MRI: Safety issues (1) Static magnetic field (2) Gradients (3) Radio frequency pulses The strength of the magnetic field of a scanner is measured in units of Tesla. Today, a normal magnet would be a 1.5 or 3T scanner, where 3T means that the magnetic field is roughly x stronger than the earth s natural magnetic field of.00005t! This static magnetic field is ALWAYS on!

13 Challenges in recording EEG in the MRI: Safety issues Complete patient monitoring system wedged in the opening of a 1.5 T MR scanner system It is normally not possible to remove such an object since simple human power and force is insufficient for removal. In most of the cases the scanner has to be quenched, completely shutting off the power and the Helium cooling system. The cost of this is approximately $!

14 Challenges in recording EEG in the MRI: Safety issues Acoustic noise: During MR imaging, the slowly-varying gradient fields are continuously turned on and off at variable rates and cause a loud noise (mechanical resonance). Ear plugs and passive noise reduction are needed. Neural activation: The gradients being switched are so strong that they can lead to peripheral nerve stimulation and peripheral muscle contraction.

15 Challenges in recording EEG in the MRI: Safety issues According to the Faraday s Law, the RF field used in MR imaging induces currents into an electrically conductive object. The induced current also changes its direction continuously. The RF energy emitted during slice acquisition is coupled onto the electrode leads and dissipated at the points of highest thermal resistance, which is typically the contact point between the electrode pin and the scalp across the conductive gel. The RF energy is dissipated also on the first stage of the amplifier.

16 Challenges in recording EEG in the MRI: Safety issues

17 Brain Products solutions and recommendations BrainAmp MR systems are the only commercially available solutions designed to work directly INSIDE the MRI bore: There is no ferrite in the amplifier The system is powered by MRI-compatible batteries The first stage of the amplifier filters out high frequencies potentially very dangerous for the hardware Most of the more sensitive electronics circuitry needed to operate the system are in the control room (USB interface)

18 Brain Products solutions and recommendations The electrical connections from the cap to the amplifier s input stage are shorter and thereby the influence of the MRI gradient switching system on the acquired data is minimized. Furthermore, shorter cables massively reduce the likelihood to spoil the data acquisition with artifacts induced by cable motion and other types of noise in the MRI environment.

19 Brain Products solutions and recommendations The BrainCap MR transmits the electrophysiological signals from the subject s head through a short distance of about 50 cm right into the BrainAmp MR/MR plus which is also placed directly in the scanner. BrainCap MR BrainAmp MR BrainVision professional Recorder Stimulation

20 Brain Products solutions and recommendations BrainCap MR features (1): In the combined EEG/fMRI acquisition the electrodes should never touch the skin. Our electrodes are pin type sensors which are placed inside a plastic holder mounted on the cap. Gel will be filled into the holder to reduce skin conductance and to establish a contact between the sensor and the subject's skin. Every electrode contains safety resistors between the sensor and the connection wire. Connection between the components is performed by gluing, not soldering. Additional safety resistors are placed inside the cap connector, acting like an additional RF-filter. Wires are located at the outside of the cap to ensure isolation between skin and wire according to the FDA patient safety regulations.

21 Brain Products solutions and recommendations BrainCap MR features (2): High temperature isolating tubes wrapped around the ECG electrode cable avoid creating contact between skin and wire. Drop-down electrodes contain higher resistors than normal electrodes to compensate the technical characteristics of longer wires. All wires are fixed onto the cap to avoid loops. Wire length from electrode to the amplifier s input is fixed to a maximum of 1.5m not to match the Larmor frequency. Wire outlets for the cable tree at central positions avoid creating loops due to cable routing.

22 Brain Products solutions and recommendations Picture from Veera Merilainen s thesis Helsinki University of Technology MRI sequence: The picture shows temperature changes induced by three different MR sequences in a frontopolar EEG electrode on a sheep s head. MR scanning was performed for 900 seconds with each sequence.

23 Brain Products solutions and recommendations Strict restriction to low SAR sequences GE-Localizer GE-Structural sequences (MP-RAGE) GE-EPI Whenever the subject wears a EEG cap: No Spin-Echo No Turbo-Spin-Echo No Spiral-EPI Avoid Body-Coil Tx!! Use whenever available head coil TxRx

24 What not to do

25 Otherwise

26 Challenges in recording EEG in the fmri: Technical Issues

27 Challenges in recording EEG in the MRI: Technical issues When an object with the susceptibility* different from that of surrounding tissues is placed in a homogeneous magnetic field, it distorts the field and causes local inhomogeneties. *In physics and electrical engineering, the magnetic susceptibility is the degree of magnetization of a material

28 Challenges in recording EEG in the MRI: Technical issues Two clear artifacts are visible in the EEG during the combined experiment: (1) Gradient artifact (2) Pulse artifact

29 Challenges in recording EEG in the MRI: Technical issues The gradient artefact is caused by the variation over time in the strength and polarity of the electromagnetic field used in MR imaging. Fp1 Fp2 F3 F4 C3 C4 P3 P4 O1 O2 F7 F8 T7 T8 P7 P8 Iz Cz Pz FC1 FC2 CP1 CP2 FC5 FC6 CP5 CP6 TP9 TP10 Eog Ecg 100 µv S 2 S 1 S 2 S 2 S 1 S 3 S 1 S 2 S 3 S 1 S 3

30 Challenges in recording EEG in the MRI: Technical issues If the position of the conductor changes relatively to the magnetic field (motion artifact, ballistocardiogram artifact) Fp1 Fp2 F3 F4 C3 C4 P3 P4 O1 O2 F7 F8 T7 T8 P7 P8 Fz Cz Pz Oz FC1 FC2 CP1 CP2 FC5 FC6 CP5 CP6 TP9 TP10 EOG ECG Scan Start Scan Start Scan Start Scan Start

31 Challenges in recording EEG in the MRI: Technical issues Four steps to successful EEG/fMRI measurement (1) Safe Subject Preparation (2) Trigger Setup / Synchronization (3) Proper Measurement Settings (4) Correct Data Preparation

32 Challenges in recording EEG in the MRI: Technical issues (1) Safe subject preparation Informed consent must be obtained from all subjects! It must be established that the subject does not have any implants that are ferrous or magnetizable. The subject must be free from claustrophobia. The subject has to fully understand the procedure and also any potential causes of harm such as the ambient noise, gradient induced peripheral effects and the difficulty of fast exiting.

33 Challenges in recording EEG in the MRI: Technical issues (2) Trigger Setup Scanner artifacts are technical in nature, meaning that they are always the same from acquisition to acquisition. In order to correct the EEG data for these artifacts we must find the onset of each of these episodes very exactly. This can either be done in software by detecting features or values or it can be done with the help of the scanner system, which can normally issue a trigger at the exact time point of slice or volume acquisition. On BrainAmp MR systems, the normal stimulation system trigger cable is complemented with a BNC trigger input that is internally connected to Bit 15, thus giving a trigger of type Response and with the code R128 for every pulse the scanner sends. Most scanners are set up to send such a pulse with every slice or with every volume onset by default.

34 Challenges in recording EEG in the MRI: Technical issues (2) Synchronization Most scanners provide the service technicians with a diagnostic output that is phase synchronous with the gradient clock itself. This mechanism allows for easy synchronization between the scanner gradient system and the BrainAmp sample clock. The scanner has to provide a signal that is an integer multiple of 5000 Hz, such as 20 khz, 1 MHz, 20 MHz,

35 Challenges in recording EEG in the MRI: Technical issues

36 Challenges in recording EEG in the MRI: Technical issues (3) Proper Measurement Settings The sample rate has to be set to The amplifier bandwidth should be adjusted according to the characteristics of the system used [DC or Hz]. The vertical resolution should be set at 0.5 µv/lsb. Only if it is known that the system has weak and low gradients 0.1µV/LSB should be used.

Functional neuroimaging. Imaging brain function in real time (not just the structure of the brain).

Functional neuroimaging. Imaging brain function in real time (not just the structure of the brain). Functional neuroimaging Imaging brain function in real time (not just the structure of the brain). The brain is bloody & electric Blood increase in neuronal activity increase in metabolic demand for glucose

More information

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Electromagnetic Fields (EMF)

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Electromagnetic Fields (EMF) Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Electromagnetic Fields (EMF) Georg Frese, Hans Engels Introduction The European Parliament and the Council of the European Union have published a draft directive on

More information

FDA Guidelines for Magnetic Resonance Equipment Safety

FDA Guidelines for Magnetic Resonance Equipment Safety FDA Guidelines for Magnetic Resonance Equipment Safety Loren A. Zaremba, Ph.D. Center for Devices and Radiological Health Food and Drug Administration Outline I. Introduction II. Static Magnetic Field

More information

Methods in Cognitive Neuroscience. Methods for studying the brain. Single Cell Recording

Methods in Cognitive Neuroscience. Methods for studying the brain. Single Cell Recording Methods in Cognitive Neuroscience Dr. Sukhvinder Obhi Department of Psychology & Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience 1 Methods for studying the brain Single Cell Recording Lesion Method Human Psychophysiology

More information

MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING Sytil Murphy

MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING Sytil Murphy MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING Sytil Murphy Modern Miracle Medical Machines When you go to the doctor s office with an injury, what diagnostic tools is the doctor likely to use to determine your injury? If

More information

Toshiba Excelart Vantage 1.5T MRI Tech Specs (Technical Specifications)

Toshiba Excelart Vantage 1.5T MRI Tech Specs (Technical Specifications) Toshiba Excelart Vantage 1.5T MRI Tech Specs (Technical Specifications) Excelart Vantage Magnet Configuration: Ultra-short-bore Strength (or W x H): 1.5 T Homogeneity, ppm V-RMS: Dimensions of maximum

More information

Projects at the Danish Research Centre for Magnetic Resonance

Projects at the Danish Research Centre for Magnetic Resonance Projects at the Danish Research Centre for Magnetic Resonance Five projects involving Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Hvidovre Hospital Example: [1-13C]Pyruvate signal enhanced by ~50,000x! Magnetic Resonance

More information

MRI SAFETY JEOPARDY (Technologist Edition) Questions

MRI SAFETY JEOPARDY (Technologist Edition) Questions MRI SAFETY JEOPARDY (Technologist Edition) Questions For MRI Safety Week, 2009 Provided, Inc. www.mednovus.com PowerPoint MRI Safety Quiz available for free download from http://mrimetaldetector.com/media/proving_grounds/mri_safety_week.html

More information

runl I IUI%I/\L Magnetic Resonance Imaging

runl I IUI%I/\L Magnetic Resonance Imaging runl I IUI%I/\L Magnetic Resonance Imaging SECOND EDITION Scott A. HuetteS Brain Imaging and Analysis Center, Duke University Allen W. Song Brain Imaging and Analysis Center, Duke University Gregory McCarthy

More information

PRODUCT SHEET OUT1 SPECIFICATIONS

PRODUCT SHEET OUT1 SPECIFICATIONS OUT SERIES Headphones OUT2 BNC Output Adapter OUT1 High Fidelity Headphones OUT1A Ultra-Wide Frequency Response Headphones OUT3 see Stimulators OUT100 Monaural Headphone 40HP Monaural Headphones OUT101

More information

Building a Simulink model for real-time analysis V1.15.00. Copyright g.tec medical engineering GmbH

Building a Simulink model for real-time analysis V1.15.00. Copyright g.tec medical engineering GmbH g.tec medical engineering GmbH Sierningstrasse 14, A-4521 Schiedlberg Austria - Europe Tel.: (43)-7251-22240-0 Fax: (43)-7251-22240-39 office@gtec.at, http://www.gtec.at Building a Simulink model for real-time

More information

Current Probes. User Manual

Current Probes. User Manual Current Probes User Manual ETS-Lindgren L.P. reserves the right to make changes to any product described herein in order to improve function, design, or for any other reason. Nothing contained herein shall

More information

EMC Near-field Probes + Wideband Amplifier

EMC Near-field Probes + Wideband Amplifier 1 Introduction The H20, H10, H5 and E5 are magnetic field (H) and electric field (E) probes for radiated emissions EMC precompliance measurements. The probes are used in the near field of sources of electromagnetic

More information

Designing interface electronics for zirconium dioxide oxygen sensors of the XYA series

Designing interface electronics for zirconium dioxide oxygen sensors of the XYA series 1 CIRCUIT DESIGN If not using one of First Sensors ZBXYA interface boards for sensor control and conditioning, this section describes the basic building blocks required to create an interface circuit Before

More information

PH0101 Unit 2 Lecture 6 Klystron Oscillator Reflex Klystron Traveling Wave Tube Biological effect of microwaves

PH0101 Unit 2 Lecture 6 Klystron Oscillator Reflex Klystron Traveling Wave Tube Biological effect of microwaves PH0101 Unit 2 Lecture 6 Klystron Oscillator Reflex Klystron Traveling Wave Tube Biological effect of microwaves 1 Klystron Oscillator A klystron is a vacuum tube that can be used either as a generator

More information

Advanced MRI methods in diagnostics of spinal cord pathology

Advanced MRI methods in diagnostics of spinal cord pathology Advanced MRI methods in diagnostics of spinal cord pathology Stanisław Kwieciński Department of Magnetic Resonance MR IMAGING LAB MRI /MRS IN BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH ON HUMANS AND ANIMAL MODELS IN VIVO Equipment:

More information

EMC Near-field Probes + Wideband Amplifier

EMC Near-field Probes + Wideband Amplifier 1 Introduction The H20, H10, H5 and E5 are magnetic field (H) and electric field (E) probes for radiated emissions EMC precompliance measurements. The probes are used in the near field of sources of electromagnetic

More information

REVEAL LINQ LNQ11. Insertable Cardiac Monitor MRI procedural information. MRI Technical Manual

REVEAL LINQ LNQ11. Insertable Cardiac Monitor MRI procedural information. MRI Technical Manual REVEAL LINQ LNQ11 Insertable Cardiac Monitor MRI procedural information MRI Technical Manual Caution: Federal law (USA) restricts this device to sale by or on the order of a physician. The following list

More information

Adding Heart to Your Technology

Adding Heart to Your Technology RMCM-01 Heart Rate Receiver Component Product code #: 39025074 KEY FEATURES High Filtering Unit Designed to work well on constant noise fields SMD component: To be installed as a standard component to

More information

Physiological Basis of the BOLD Signal. Kerstin Preuschoff Social and Neural systems Lab University of Zurich

Physiological Basis of the BOLD Signal. Kerstin Preuschoff Social and Neural systems Lab University of Zurich Physiological Basis of the BOLD Signal Kerstin Preuschoff Social and Neural systems Lab University of Zurich Source: Arthurs & Boniface, 2002 From Stimulus to Bold Overview Physics of BOLD signal - Magnetic

More information

Magnetic Resonance imaging (MRI) and Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) Victor R. Lazar PhD

Magnetic Resonance imaging (MRI) and Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) Victor R. Lazar PhD Magnetic Resonance imaging (MRI) and Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) Victor R. Lazar PhD MRI Instrumentation Part I Equipment Main Magnet (B 0 ) Magnet Shielding Chiller RF Transmitter (B 1 ) RF

More information

Glossary of RTLS/RFID Terms

Glossary of RTLS/RFID Terms Glossary of RTLS/RFID Terms A Active tag: An RFID tag that has a transmitter to send back information, rather than reflecting back a signal from the reader, as a passive tag does. Most active tags use

More information

E. K. A. ADVANCED PHYSICS LABORATORY PHYSICS 3081, 4051 NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE

E. K. A. ADVANCED PHYSICS LABORATORY PHYSICS 3081, 4051 NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE E. K. A. ADVANCED PHYSICS LABORATORY PHYSICS 3081, 4051 NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE References for Nuclear Magnetic Resonance 1. Slichter, Principles of Magnetic Resonance, Harper and Row, 1963. chapter

More information

Benefits and Potential Dangers of Using USB for Test & Measurement Applications. Benefits of Using USB for Test and Measurement

Benefits and Potential Dangers of Using USB for Test & Measurement Applications. Benefits of Using USB for Test and Measurement Benefits and Potential Dangers of Using USB for Test & Measurement Applications What is USB? USB (Universal Serial Bus) is a standard that was developed by a group of manufacturers (including Intel, Microsoft,

More information

GE Medical Systems Training in Partnership. Module 8: IQ: Acquisition Time

GE Medical Systems Training in Partnership. Module 8: IQ: Acquisition Time Module 8: IQ: Acquisition Time IQ : Acquisition Time Objectives...Describe types of data acquisition modes....compute acquisition times for 2D and 3D scans. 2D Acquisitions The 2D mode acquires and reconstructs

More information

Technical Note Series

Technical Note Series Technical Note Series SKIN CONDUCTANCE SENSOR (SA9309M) S TN0 0 0 8-0 0 S k i n C o n d u c t a n c e S e n s o r Page 2 IMPORTANT OPERATION INFORMATION WARNING Type BF Equipment Internally powered equipment

More information

14.5GHZ 2.2KW CW GENERATOR. GKP 22KP 14.5GHz WR62 3x400V

14.5GHZ 2.2KW CW GENERATOR. GKP 22KP 14.5GHz WR62 3x400V 14.5GHZ 2.2KW CW GENERATOR GKP 22KP 14.5GHz WR62 3x400V UTILIZATION OF GKP 22KP GENERATOR With its characteristics of power stability whatever the load, very fast response time at a pulse, low ripple,

More information

User and installation manual

User and installation manual User and installation manual aquaero 5 The information contained in this manual is subject to change without prior notice. All rights reserved. Current as of April 2011 ENGLISH: PAGE 1 DEUTSCH: SEITE 13

More information

EE 417 Notes Fall

EE 417 Notes Fall EE 417 Notes Fall 2010 1 Audio Electrical Wiring Basic branch circuits in homes and businesses (U.S.) Service Panel Circuit Breaker Black Wire ("hot") (from power company and power meter) White Wire (neutral)

More information

MRI Hardware: magnet, gradient, and RF coils

MRI Hardware: magnet, gradient, and RF coils MRI Hardware: magnet, gradient, and RF coils Hsiao-Wen Chung ( 鍾孝文 ), Ph.D., Professor Dept. Electrical Engineering, National Taiwan Univ. Dept. Radiology, Tri-Service General Hospital 1 of 96 The Main

More information

Obtaining Knowledge. Lecture 7 Methods of Scientific Observation and Analysis in Behavioral Psychology and Neuropsychology.

Obtaining Knowledge. Lecture 7 Methods of Scientific Observation and Analysis in Behavioral Psychology and Neuropsychology. Lecture 7 Methods of Scientific Observation and Analysis in Behavioral Psychology and Neuropsychology 1.Obtaining Knowledge 1. Correlation 2. Causation 2.Hypothesis Generation & Measures 3.Looking into

More information

MRC High Resolution. MR-compatible digital HD video camera. User manual

MRC High Resolution. MR-compatible digital HD video camera. User manual MRC High Resolution MR-compatible digital HD video camera User manual page 1 of 12 Contents 1. Intended use...2 2. System components...3 3. Video camera and lens...4 4. Interface...4 5. Installation...5

More information

Investigation of Magnetic Resonance Imaging Effects when Using Bone Conduction Implants

Investigation of Magnetic Resonance Imaging Effects when Using Bone Conduction Implants Investigation of Magnetic Resonance Imaging Effects when Using Bone Conduction Implants Master of Science Thesis in Biomedical Engineering, MPBME Karl-Johan Fredén Jansson Department of Signals and Systems

More information

EELE 250 Notes Fall

EELE 250 Notes Fall EELE 250 Notes Fall 2013 1 Electrical Wiring Electric shock and electrocution A voltage applied to the human body will produce an electrical current, which depends on the resistance of the skin and body

More information

CFMRI Physiological Monitoring System. Operator s Manual

CFMRI Physiological Monitoring System. Operator s Manual CFMRI Physiological Monitoring System Operator s Manual This manual provides a quick guidance to using the physiological monitoring system during an MRI session. It is not intended as a substitute for

More information

Near field probes & Wideband Amplifier

Near field probes & Wideband Amplifier powered by Near field probes & Wideband Amplifier More Infos: www.alldaq.com/tekbox Email: info@alldaq.com Sales hotline: +49 (0)89/894 222 74 We like to help you! ALLDAQ a division of ALLNET GmbH Maistraße

More information

Basic Principles of Magnetic Resonance

Basic Principles of Magnetic Resonance Basic Principles of Magnetic Resonance Contents: Jorge Jovicich jovicich@mit.edu I) Historical Background II) An MR experiment - Overview - Can we scan the subject? - The subject goes into the magnet -

More information

ImageReady MRI Full Body Guidelines for Precision Montage MRI Spinal Cord Stimulator System

ImageReady MRI Full Body Guidelines for Precision Montage MRI Spinal Cord Stimulator System ImageReady MRI Full Body Guidelines for Precision Montage MRI Spinal Cord Stimulator System CAUTION: Federal law restricts this device to sale, distribution and use by or on the order of a physician. 91035972-01

More information

MRI guidelines for Medtronic deep brain stimulation systems

MRI guidelines for Medtronic deep brain stimulation systems MRI guidelines for Medtronic deep brain stimulation systems Instructions for use! USA Rx only Explanation of symbols on product or package labeling Refer to the appropriate product for symbols that apply.

More information

MH - Gesellschaft für Hardware/Software mbh

MH - Gesellschaft für Hardware/Software mbh E.d.a.s.VX Data acquisition on board road and track vehicles The E.d.a.s.VX System is designed for portable applications running on 12 Volts DC, and is capable of measuring at selectable rates up to 30,000,000

More information

MODEL 2202IQ (1991-MSRP $549.00)

MODEL 2202IQ (1991-MSRP $549.00) F O R T H E L O V E O F M U S I C F O R T H E L O V E O F M U S I C MODEL 2202IQ (1991-MSRP $549.00) OWNER'S MANUAL AND INSTALLATION GUIDE INTRODUCTION Congratulations on your decision to purchase a LINEAR

More information

Gary Green. January 8, 2014

Gary Green. January 8, 2014 s Arrays of s Ultra Sensitive York NeuroImaging Centre, UK January 8, 2014 s Arrays of s 1 s 2 3 4 5 Arrays of s 6 7 8 s - a bit of history s Arrays of s Oersted (1819) demonstrated an electric current

More information

Numerical Modelling of E-M Occupational Exposures associated with MRI

Numerical Modelling of E-M Occupational Exposures associated with MRI Numerical Modelling of E-M Occupational Exposures associated with MRI Jeff Hand and Yan Li Imaging Sciences Dept, Imperial College London, Hammersmith Hospital Campus Physical Agents Directive (EMFs) 2004/40/EC

More information

Daker DK 1, 2, 3 kva. Manuel d installation Installation manual. Part. LE05334AC-07/13-01 GF

Daker DK 1, 2, 3 kva. Manuel d installation Installation manual. Part. LE05334AC-07/13-01 GF Daker DK 1, 2, 3 kva Manuel d installation Installation manual Part. LE05334AC-07/13-01 GF Daker DK 1, 2, 3 kva Index 1 Introduction 24 2 Conditions of use 24 3 LCD Panel 25 4 Installation 28 5 UPS communicator

More information

Experiment 2: Faraday Ice Pail

Experiment 2: Faraday Ice Pail MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Department of Physics 8.02 Spring 2009 OBJECTIVES Experiment 2: Faraday Ice Pail 1. To explore the charging of objects by friction and by contact. 2. To explore the

More information

1. E&M induction requires change, of the intensity of a magnetic field or of motion in a magnetic field.

1. E&M induction requires change, of the intensity of a magnetic field or of motion in a magnetic field. Chapter 25 EXERCISE key 1. E&M induction requires change, of the intensity of a magnetic field or of motion in a magnetic field. 2. Magnetic induction will not occur in nylon, since it has no magnetic

More information

NEW. EVEN MORE data acquisition and test stand automation

NEW. EVEN MORE data acquisition and test stand automation NEW EVEN MORE data acquisition and test stand automation the new class of data The plug&play complete package User benefits Expert Series is the latest generation of data acquisition Complete hardware

More information

APPLICATION NOTE - 016

APPLICATION NOTE - 016 APPLICATION NOTE - 016 Testing RFI Line Filters Frequency Response Analysis Testing RFI line filters Radio frequency interference (RFI) is unwanted electromagnetic noise within a radio communications frequency

More information

Note monitors controlled by analog signals CRT monitors are controlled by analog voltage. i. e. the level of analog signal delivered through the

Note monitors controlled by analog signals CRT monitors are controlled by analog voltage. i. e. the level of analog signal delivered through the DVI Interface The outline: The reasons for digital interface of a monitor the transfer from VGA to DVI. DVI v. analog interface. The principles of LCD control through DVI interface. The link between DVI

More information

Magnetism & MR Magnets & other MR system components: shim systems, RF system, gradient system, other components

Magnetism & MR Magnets & other MR system components: shim systems, RF system, gradient system, other components Outline 2.1 Instrumentation Magnetism & MR Magnets & other MR system components: shim systems, RF system, gradient system, other components Carolyn Kaut Roth, RT (R)(MR)(CT)(M)(CV) FSMRT CEO Imaging Education

More information

CHARGING and DISCHARGING CAPACITORS

CHARGING and DISCHARGING CAPACITORS Lab 4 Oscilloscopes, Electrocardiograms, Discharging Capacitors LAB 4a LAB 4b Lab 4c THE OSCILLOSCOPE ELECTROCARDIOGRAMS (ECG or EKG) CHARGING and DISCHARGING CAPACITORS EXPERIMENTAL QUESTION In this lab,

More information

Pulsed Power Engineering Diagnostics

Pulsed Power Engineering Diagnostics Pulsed Power Engineering Diagnostics January 12-16, 2009 Craig Burkhart, PhD Power Conversion Department SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory Diagnostic Techniques and Considerations in Pulsed Power Systems

More information

EECS 100/43 Lab 2 Function Generator and Oscilloscope

EECS 100/43 Lab 2 Function Generator and Oscilloscope 1. Objective EECS 100/43 Lab 2 Function Generator and Oscilloscope In this lab you learn how to use the oscilloscope and function generator 2. Equipment a. Breadboard b. Wire cutters c. Wires d. Oscilloscope

More information

An Overview of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Academic Resource Center

An Overview of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Academic Resource Center An Overview of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Academic Resource Center Table of Contents What is MRI? General MRI Machine Who is it for? How does it work? Magnetization vector Magnetization gradients

More information

GE 3.0T NPW,TRF,FAST,F R NPW,TRF,FAST,F R

GE 3.0T NPW,TRF,FAST,F R NPW,TRF,FAST,F R GE 3.0T 3.0T WRIST Invivo 8CH Wrist Coil Sequence Ax T2 Cor PD Cor PDFS Cor T1 Cor PD (Small FOV) FOV (mm) 80 80 80 80 40 Matrix 384x224 384x256 320x256 384x320 320x192 Phase Direction RL RL RL RL RL #

More information

Cognitive Neuroscience. Questions. Multiple Methods. Electrophysiology. Multiple Methods. Approaches to Thinking about the Mind

Cognitive Neuroscience. Questions. Multiple Methods. Electrophysiology. Multiple Methods. Approaches to Thinking about the Mind Cognitive Neuroscience Approaches to Thinking about the Mind Cognitive Neuroscience Evolutionary Approach Sept 20-22, 2004 Interdisciplinary approach Rapidly changing How does the brain enable cognition?

More information

Type-D EEG System for Regular EEG Clinic

Type-D EEG System for Regular EEG Clinic Type-D EEG System for Regular EEG Clinic Type-D EEG amplifier Specifications 1. For Type-D Amplifier Input channels: 12/24/36/48 Monopolar EEG + 12channels Bipolar EEG+12 channels PSG. Power supply: Internal

More information

Measuring Temperature withthermistors a Tutorial David Potter

Measuring Temperature withthermistors a Tutorial David Potter NATIONAL INSTRUMENTS The Software is the Instrument Application Note 065 Measuring Temperature withthermistors a Tutorial David Potter Introduction Thermistors are thermally sensitive resistors used in

More information

MoTeC USA GPS. Part # M GPS BL Available in 10 Hz or 20 Hz. USER MANUAL Version 1.4

MoTeC USA GPS. Part # M GPS BL Available in 10 Hz or 20 Hz. USER MANUAL Version 1.4 MoTeC USA GPS Part # M GPS BL Available in 10 Hz or 20 Hz. USER MANUAL Version 1.4 MoTeC USA GPS Copyright Motec Systems USA 2008 The information in this document is subject to change without notice. While

More information

MAGNETISM MAGNETISM. Principles of Imaging Science II (120)

MAGNETISM MAGNETISM. Principles of Imaging Science II (120) Principles of Imaging Science II (120) Magnetism & Electromagnetism MAGNETISM Magnetism is a property in nature that is present when charged particles are in motion. Any charged particle in motion creates

More information

Design Online. Welcome Welcome Introduction Knowing the Essentials How to Take this Course Quizzes, Section Tests and Course Completion

Design Online. Welcome Welcome Introduction Knowing the Essentials How to Take this Course Quizzes, Section Tests and Course Completion Design Online Welcome Welcome Introduction Knowing the Essentials How to Take this Course Quizzes, Section Tests and Course Completion The Principals of Applied AV Design Introduction to Design Design

More information

QUICK START GUIDE FOR DEMONSTRATION CIRCUIT 956 24-BIT DIFFERENTIAL ADC WITH I2C LTC2485 DESCRIPTION

QUICK START GUIDE FOR DEMONSTRATION CIRCUIT 956 24-BIT DIFFERENTIAL ADC WITH I2C LTC2485 DESCRIPTION LTC2485 DESCRIPTION Demonstration circuit 956 features the LTC2485, a 24-Bit high performance Σ analog-to-digital converter (ADC). The LTC2485 features 2ppm linearity, 0.5µV offset, and 600nV RMS noise.

More information

Asסס they cross a check point by detecting tags or label that resonate with: -- Radio Frequency field in RF systems

Asסס they cross a check point by detecting tags or label that resonate with: -- Radio Frequency field in RF systems ELECTRONIC ARTICLE SURVEILLANCE Overview EAS: Shrinkage accounts for any loss of inventory due to shoplifting, employee theft, administrative error or vendor fraud. Sources of retail shrinkage are: shoplifting

More information

MYTHBUSTING Takes on Shielded Cabling

MYTHBUSTING Takes on Shielded Cabling MYTHBUSTING Takes on Shielded Cabling Herb Congdon Brian Davis Objectives Take on myths of shielded cabling and use modern-day science to show what's real and what's fiction - through trial and error actually

More information

Use of COMSOL Multiphysics to Simulate RF Heating of Passive Conductive Implants in MRI Scanners

Use of COMSOL Multiphysics to Simulate RF Heating of Passive Conductive Implants in MRI Scanners Use of COMSOL Multiphysics to Simulate RF Heating of Passive Conductive Implants in MRI Scanners Alan Leewood, PhD MED Institute, Inc. West Lafayette, IN COMSOL Users Conference Boston, MA October 3, 2012

More information

Very-Near-Field Scanning Solutions for Pinpoint Diagnosis of EMC Compliance Problems

Very-Near-Field Scanning Solutions for Pinpoint Diagnosis of EMC Compliance Problems Very-Near-Field Scanning Solutions for Pinpoint Diagnosis of EMC Compliance Problems Agenda Introduction to Very-Near-Field Very-Near-Field Implementation High Resolution Scanner Sample Results Case Study

More information

Efficient Metal Detection and Inductive Sensor Monitoring in sub-µa Deep Sleep Mode

Efficient Metal Detection and Inductive Sensor Monitoring in sub-µa Deep Sleep Mode Efficient Metal Detection and Inductive Sensor Monitoring in sub-µa Deep Sleep Mode Introduction With the Low Energy Sensor Interface (LESENSE), the EFM32 microcontrollers are able to monitor a wide variety

More information

The basic set up for your K2 to run PSK31 By Glenn Maclean WA7SPY

The basic set up for your K2 to run PSK31 By Glenn Maclean WA7SPY The basic set up for your K2 to run PSK31 By Glenn Maclean WA7SPY I am by no means an expert on PSK31. This article is intended to help someone get on PSK31 with a K2. These are the things I did to get

More information

Amplifier for Small Magnetic and Electric Wideband Receiving Antennas (model AAA-1B)

Amplifier for Small Magnetic and Electric Wideband Receiving Antennas (model AAA-1B) Amplifier for Small Magnetic and Electric Wideband Receiving Antennas (model AAA-1B) 1. Description and Specifications Contents 1.1 Description 1.2 1.2 Specifications 1.3 1.3 Tested parameters in production

More information

Passive RFID Basics INTRODUCTION DEFINITIONS. Modulation. Reader. Tag. Carrier. Microchip Technology Inc.

Passive RFID Basics INTRODUCTION DEFINITIONS. Modulation. Reader. Tag. Carrier. Microchip Technology Inc. Passive RFID Basics INTRODUCTION Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) systems use radio frequency to identify, locate and track people, assets, and animals. Passive RFID systems are composed of three

More information

Timing Errors and Jitter

Timing Errors and Jitter Timing Errors and Jitter Background Mike Story In a sampled (digital) system, samples have to be accurate in level and time. The digital system uses the two bits of information the signal was this big

More information

Induction Heating Principles

Induction Heating Principles Induction Heating Principles PRESENTATION www.ceia-power.com Main Applications of Induction Heating Hard (Silver) Brazing Tin Soldering Heat Treatment (Hardening, Annealing, Tempering, ) Melting Applications

More information

SUPPRESSION OF POWER LINE NOISE WITH ISOLATION TRANSFORMERS. Dr. Bruce C. Gabrielson and Mark J. Reimold. Sachs/Freeman Associates Landover, Maryland

SUPPRESSION OF POWER LINE NOISE WITH ISOLATION TRANSFORMERS. Dr. Bruce C. Gabrielson and Mark J. Reimold. Sachs/Freeman Associates Landover, Maryland Abstract SUPPRESSION OF POWER LINE NOISE WITH ISOLATION TRANSFORMERS Dr. Bruce C. Gabrielson and Mark J. Reimold Sachs/Freeman Associates Landover, Maryland Isolation transformers have often been considered

More information

Instruction Manual Service Program ULTRA-PROG-IR

Instruction Manual Service Program ULTRA-PROG-IR Instruction Manual Service Program ULTRA-PROG-IR Parameterizing Software for Ultrasonic Sensors with Infrared Interface Contents 1 Installation of the Software ULTRA-PROG-IR... 4 1.1 System Requirements...

More information

DATA SHEET. TDA8560Q 2 40 W/2 Ω stereo BTL car radio power amplifier with diagnostic facility INTEGRATED CIRCUITS. 1996 Jan 08

DATA SHEET. TDA8560Q 2 40 W/2 Ω stereo BTL car radio power amplifier with diagnostic facility INTEGRATED CIRCUITS. 1996 Jan 08 INTEGRATED CIRCUITS DATA SHEET power amplifier with diagnostic facility Supersedes data of March 1994 File under Integrated Circuits, IC01 1996 Jan 08 FEATURES Requires very few external components High

More information

INTRODUCTION TO COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS AND TRANSMISSION MEDIA

INTRODUCTION TO COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS AND TRANSMISSION MEDIA COMM.ENG INTRODUCTION TO COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS AND TRANSMISSION MEDIA 9/6/2014 LECTURES 1 Objectives To give a background on Communication system components and channels (media) A distinction between analogue

More information

Analog modules - Analog input SM 331

Analog modules - Analog input SM 331 Overview Analog inputs For connection of voltage and current sensors, thermocouples, resistors and resistance s Application Analog input modules can be used to connect the PLC to analog process signals.

More information

The range of RF spans 3 KHz (3000 Hz) to 300 GHz (300 million Hz)

The range of RF spans 3 KHz (3000 Hz) to 300 GHz (300 million Hz) 1 2 The range of RF spans 3 KHz (3000 Hz) to 300 GHz (300 million Hz) Frequencies of RF devices range from the low frequency AM broadcasts (80 MHz) to higher frequency mobile phones (1900 MHz) smart meters

More information

Precise Measurement FAQs

Precise Measurement FAQs Precise Measurement FAQs Here are some Frequently Asked Questions and Answers associated with low level measurements. If you don t find answers to your questions here, you can send a specific question

More information

6ES7313-5BF03-0AB0. Supply voltages Rated value 24 V DC Yes permissible range, upper limit (DC) circuit breaker type B, min. 4 A

6ES7313-5BF03-0AB0. Supply voltages Rated value 24 V DC Yes permissible range, upper limit (DC) circuit breaker type B, min. 4 A 6ES7313-5BF03-0AB0 Page 1 Product data sheet 6ES7313-5BF03-0AB0 SIMATIC S7-300, CPU 313C, COMPACT CPU WITH MPI, 24 DI/16 DO, 4AI, 2AO 1 PT100, 3 FAST COUNTERS (30 KHZ), INTEGRATED 24V DC POWER SUPPLY,

More information

E6486. User Manual. The New Vision of Touch

E6486. User Manual. The New Vision of Touch E6486 User Manual The New Vision of Touch QT60486 and QT60326 QMatrix IC Evaluation and Development Kit OVERVIEW This kit is designed for evaluation and development of QT60486 and QT60326-based glass touch

More information

MRI screening questions at the time of the confirmation call

MRI screening questions at the time of the confirmation call MRI Patient Preparation Topics Patient Preparation and Management for MRI Clinical Exams Clarian Health 2009 Laurie Owens BSRT (MR) JACHO Patient Safety Goal MRI patient safety screening prior to the appointment

More information

Standards Converter for Mechanical Television. Model s SC. User and Technical Manual

Standards Converter for Mechanical Television. Model s SC. User and Technical Manual Standards Converter for Mechanical Television Model s SC User and Technical Manual Copyright 2006-9 Aurora Design LLC. Revision 1.0 23 April, 2007 All specifications subject to change www.tech-retro.com

More information

HIGH RELIABILITY POWER SUPPLY TESTING

HIGH RELIABILITY POWER SUPPLY TESTING HIGH RELIABILITY POWER SUPPLY TESTING Dale Cigoy Keithley Instruments, Inc. The reliability of a power supply must match or exceed the rest of the system in which it is installed. Generally, this requires

More information

Cognitive Neuroscience

Cognitive Neuroscience Cognitive Neuroscience Exploring Brain/Behavior relations Neuroscience Psychology Cognitive Neuroscience Computational Sciences / Artificial intelligence Franz Joseph Gall & J. C. Spurzheim localization

More information

Table 11: Pros and Cons of 1.5 T MRI vs. 3.0 T MRI; Safety and Technical Issues, and Clinical Applications

Table 11: Pros and Cons of 1.5 T MRI vs. 3.0 T MRI; Safety and Technical Issues, and Clinical Applications Safety Issue 3.0 T MRI Pro 3.0 T MRI Con Immediate fringe field surrounding magnet A ferromagnetic object inadvertently brought into the scan room will experience a sharp increase in attraction toward

More information

CHAPTER 6 INSTRUMENTATION AND MEASUREMENTS 6.1 MEASUREMENTS

CHAPTER 6 INSTRUMENTATION AND MEASUREMENTS 6.1 MEASUREMENTS CHAPTER 6 INSTRUMENTATION AND MEASUREMENTS 6.1 MEASUREMENTS Atmospheric electricity is a field that is very easy to get into because it does not require a large capital investment for measuring equipment.

More information

Improving high-end active speaker performance using digital active crossover filters

Improving high-end active speaker performance using digital active crossover filters Improving high-end active speaker performance using digital active crossover filters Dave Brotton - May 21, 2013 Consumer requirement for fewer wires connecting their home entertainment systems is driving

More information

9 2339A The Three Basics of Electric Circuits: Voltage, Current, and Resistance

9 2339A The Three Basics of Electric Circuits: Voltage, Current, and Resistance PROGRESS RECORD Study your lessons in the order listed below. Electronics Technology and Advanced Troubleshooting I & II Number of Lessons: 118 Completion Time: 36 months 1 2330A Current and Voltage 2

More information

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Practical Course M I. Physikalisches Institut Universität zu Köln May 15, 2014 Abstract Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques are widely used in physics, chemistry, and

More information

Specifications Summary 1. Array Size (pixels) Pixel Size. Sensor Size. Dark Current 2. Pixel Well Depth (typical) e e -

Specifications Summary 1. Array Size (pixels) Pixel Size. Sensor Size. Dark Current 2. Pixel Well Depth (typical) e e - AVAILABLE WITH LOW NOISE & HIGH DYNAMIC RANGE sensor options Apogee Alta Series System Features 1 High Resolution Sensors 1.0 Megapixel sensor with large 24 mm pixels deliver a large field of view with

More information

Specifications: I/F TX Input 28MHz - 144MHz Up to 3Watts Maximum Input. 200mS 10uF Capacitor / 10kohm Resistor

Specifications: I/F TX Input 28MHz - 144MHz Up to 3Watts Maximum Input. 200mS 10uF Capacitor / 10kohm Resistor Mini-kits TRANSVERTER SEQUENCER KIT EME66B Specifications: I/F TX Input 8MHz - 44MHz Up to 3Watts Maximum Input TX/RX Delay 00mS 0uF Capacitor / ohm Resistor DESCRIPTION: The complete Sequencer is built

More information

a leap ahead in analog

a leap ahead in analog EMV Contactless Payment Systems based on AS3911 Overview and System Simulations Giuliano Manzi, PhD Mannheim, May 23 25, 2012 CST EUROPEAN USER CONFERENCE 2012 a leap ahead in analog OUTLINE AS3911 OVERVIEW

More information

A.4 Specifications for the CPU 224

A.4 Specifications for the CPU 224 A.4 Specifications for the CPU 224 Specifications for and Physical Size Dimensions (W x H x D) Weight Power loss (dissipation) CPU Features On-Board digital inputs On-Board digital outputs High speed counters

More information

Whale 3. User Manual and Installation Guide. DC Servo drive. Contents. 1. Safety, policy and warranty. 1.1. Safety notes. 1.2. Policy. 1.3. Warranty.

Whale 3. User Manual and Installation Guide. DC Servo drive. Contents. 1. Safety, policy and warranty. 1.1. Safety notes. 1.2. Policy. 1.3. Warranty. Whale 3 DC Servo drive User Manual and Installation Guide Contents 1. Safety, policy and warranty. 1.1. Safety notes. 1.2. Policy. 1.3. Warranty. 2. Electric specifications. 2.1.Operation ranges. 3. Connections

More information

Cirrus 0.2T. MRI for Everyone. North America, Asia, Europe. contact: kturek@mri-tech.pl

Cirrus 0.2T. MRI for Everyone. North America, Asia, Europe. contact: kturek@mri-tech.pl Cirrus 0.2T MRI for Everyone North America, Asia, Europe contact: kturek@mri-tech.pl MRI-TECH inc. Cirrus MRI system for all your needs: Low costs Low maintenance High quality Open geometry Imaging of

More information

Time and Frequency Synchronizations in Broadcast Video

Time and Frequency Synchronizations in Broadcast Video Time and Frequency Synchronizations in Broadcast Video Introduction Synchronization has always been important in broadcast video. Even analog TVs relied on synchronization pulses embedded into analog video

More information

physics 112N electromagnetic induction

physics 112N electromagnetic induction physics 112N electromagnetic induction experimental basis of induction! seems we can induce a current in a loop with a changing magnetic field physics 112N 2 magnetic flux! useful to define a quantity

More information

Data Sheet SIMATIC S7-200 CPU 226 DC/DC/DC and CPU 226 AC/DC/Relay

Data Sheet SIMATIC S7-200 CPU 226 DC/DC/DC and CPU 226 AC/DC/Relay SIMATIC S7-200 and Table 1 Specifications for and Physical Size Dimensions (W x H x D) Weight Power loss (dissipation) CPU Features On-board digital inputs On-board digital outputs High speed counters

More information