1 Contemporary Use of Like and its effects on non-native English speakers Huijin Yan Structure of English Prof. Barr Part I: Introduction One phenomenon in American oral English that can be easily noticed by non-native speakers (NNESs) is the surprisingly broad use of like. The contemporary use of like is far beyond a verb, a noun or a preposition, which is what the NNESs have learned in their traditional English classes. For example: (1) I was walking into the south side, like, Anderson, the front desk, and it was really like, like two o clock in the morning. Some kids was carrying a Natty s can, like, a beer can, and the front desk people were like, what is that in your hand? He was like, oh, that s a soda can. And, he was just really being stupid. And his friend was like, are you dumb? Like, what the hell are you doing? So, it s really funny. (An AU undergraduate student s description of a funny conversation heard on April 15th, 2008) (2) So, we just kissed and then I was like bye. But if I had known he had a girlfriend (Overheard at AU, AU facebook) (3) Declarative sentences so-called because they used to, like, you know, declare things to be true? OK? As opposed to other things that are like, totally, you know, NOT? They ve been infected by their tragically cool and totally hip interrogative tone? As if I m saying, don t think I m a nerd just cauz I ve noticed this, OK? I ve nothing personally invested in my own opinions. I m just like inviting you to join me on the bandwagon of my own uncertainty? (Transcription from Like You Know,Taylor Mali, (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=scnibv87wv4&feature=related) (4) Yeah, you learn a standard language in a class, but when you go abroad, and you study in this country, there s, all these things that you don t know, and you are like, what the heck, like, I ve never learnt it. And you are, like, they don t expect you to learn it, but I guess, as you are like, around, just walking around, you pick it up and you learn it. (Parts of an interview taken on April 15th, 2008) Despite the assertion that it is entirely ungrammatical in standard English and makes sentences seem disjointed to many listeners (Underhill, 1988, p. 234), the non-standard
2 Yan 2 use of like is used pervasively in contemporary English. This stimulates great interest among many linguists, who examine its usage and its functions and have reached a consensus that like has two pragmatic functions in contemporary use: like as a focus marker (Underhill, 1988) and the quotative like (Blyth, Recktenwald & Wang, 1990), which is also referred to as a dialogue introducer ( Johnstone, 1987). As Underhill (1988) pointed out, like functions as a focus marker in many situations to introduce new concepts or identities (p. 236) or to mark focused information (p. 237). It can be located before a variety of constituents: a NP, before a predicated adjective or adjective phrase, before an AP, or before a PP functioning adverbially, before a VP, before an embedded sentence, or before the entire sentence (pp ). We can easily match these functions with our previous examples: I was walking into the south side, like, Anderson ( focus on new concept, before NP) [example (1)] Like, what the hell are you doing? ( focus, emphasis, sentence initial) [example (1)] Declarative sentences so-called because they used to, like, you know, declare things to be true. ( mark focused information, before a VP) [ example (3) ] The second function of like is a dialogue introducer when it is combined with be in reported speech. Be+like is less strongly informative than say or go in reported speech. This is probably because one meaning of like is approximately, as Underhill (1988, p. 235) mentioned when he discussed like as a focus marker. When using be+like, the
3 Yan 3 speaker is less responsible for the exact utterance of the speech and thus is allowed to add his/her own emotional nuance. Unlike say or go, which function as introducers of a real utterance, be+like can function as an introducer of both real utterances and the speaker s inner monologue, thus allowing the speakers to express an attitude, reaction, or thought, as well as something actually said. (Blyth et al., 1990) For example, So, we just kissed and then I was like, bye (example 2) can be something said or only thought by the speaker. Linguists Ferrara and Bell also claim that be+like is a flexible discourse that can introduce internal dialogue, gesture, or speech of first persons as well as third persons. ( Ferrara & Bell, 1995, p. 285). Actually, the use of be+like has spreading to narratives of second-person as well; examples can be found in our previous data: there s, all these things that you don t know, and you are like, what the heck ( example 4) Another difference is that say and go are both punctual verbs, which focus on the action; however, be+like expresses a more continuous and progressive feeling, given that be is a stative verb, and is ambiguous and indicates a speech act that represents either an event or a state. (Blyth et al., 1990). Thus, the effect of his friend was like, are you dumb? (example 1) is equivalent to his friend was saying/going, are you dumb? in semantic meanings but it is less cumbersome syntactically.
4 Yan 4 Part II: Research While lots of studies about the contemporary use of like have been done among native English speakers, linguists have paid comparably little attention to its use among nonnative English speakers ( NNESs). Have these two usages of like, i.e., like as a focus marker and like as a dialogue introducer, been spreading to NNESs? How do the NNESs characterize the people who use these forms of like? Hypothesis: the use of like as a focus marker and as a dialogue introducer is spreading to NNESs and has been added to their oral English. Methodology: I conducted a pilot survey among NNESs at American University, Washington, DC, to help formulate some preliminary answers to these questions, and to guide further research. Data about NNESs use of like oral production were collected from two sources: (1) TESL-527 Cultural Issues in an ESL/EFL classroom on April 15 th, The whole class was audio-recorded. NNESs responses to questions and discussion were selected and transcribed. (2) A short interview designed to elicit narratives of reported speech from NNESs. The interview: 5 NNESs were selected as interviewees on the American University main campus. They were all asked a question: Can you tell me a funny/silly conversation you heard recently? A follow-up question of What do you think of people who use like very frequently in their oral speech? was asked in order to collect views on the contemporary use of like among NNESs.
5 Yan 5 Results: Like as a focus marker has been expanding to oral speech of NNESs, and is frequently used by them when an entirely new information or entity is introduced or some information is especially emphasized. Five out of seven NNESs in our research used like as a focus marker, which is placed in front of a NP, AP, PP, Adverbial Phrase, VP or sentence initial. Examples are shown below: It needs to go like like food for a baby. (before NP) [Appendix 4, (1) ] I guess, it s like, for international students (before PP)[ Appendix 4, (2) ] It s doesn t come on the top of my head, like, it comes spontaneously like this. ( sentence initial) [Appendix 5, (3)] When I heard this, it stops like, just right at that moment. ( before Adverbial Phrase) [Appendix 5, (3)] I didn t hear it, I, like, participated in it. (before VP) [Appendix 5, (5)] However, the use of like as a dialogue introducer is less frequently employed by NNESs. Only 3 out of 7 NNESs in the research used be+like as a dialogue introducer in reported speech, as shown in the following examples: I am like, OK, I understand the words, but, how much it s useful for me? ( inner monologue) [appendix 4 ( 2) ] We were like, what? [appendix 5 (1)] ( first-person, real utterance or inner monologue) And they are like, we are not giving you money. [appendix 5 (5)] ( third-person, real utterance)
6 Yan 6 According to the data, when using reported speech, most NNESs still prefer to use the traditional dialogue introducers say and tell, although like as a dialogue introducer has become a new item in their lexicon for casual speech. For example: Somebody walks up to them and tells them, what is there a manikin sitting there over the table? [appendix 5 (1)] And the guy says, The man sitting there over the table. [appendix 5 (1)] I told her where are you last night? And she said, I spend the night at his house. [appendix 5 (5)] He told her he still loves her, but he doesn t want. [appendix 5 (5)] As for the attitude towards the contemporary use of like, many NNESs consider it as stigmatized, uneducated and causal. They found such use horrible, obnoxious, dumb, inappropriate and annoying, which explains why they still choose to use say or tell in their reported speech. Such strong opinions can be easily found in our follow-up interviews about their attitude towards Americans use of like: It s horrible. The usage of like for every sentence, It s like, um It s, like um.it s like, um is annoying. You know, it s like, come on, spit whatever you have to say. Get your idea straight. You know. It s annoying. It s obnoxious. It s OK, now, can you stopping saying like, especially when you are not part of the conversation. [appendix 5, (1)] I heard two girls speaking in the Valley Accent. And it sounded very dumb. like, like, you know, like When my make-up goes away, like, my short-skirt rides up, like... (Can t stop laughing). [appendix 5, (2)] It s sounds very dumb And it s a shame. It is actually English speakers and you are right. People who get British education wouldn t do that, or do it less frequently. It is a very American thing. [appendix 5, (2)] I don t think it s appropriate, because you don t say it properly. Put like like like like, it doesn t mean anything. It sounds very dumb [appendix 5, (4)]
7 Yan 7 Conclusion: In conclusion, NNESs use of like has been inevitably affected by native English speakers and has acquired more versatile functions. NNESs frequently use like as a focus marker to introduce new information or to emphasize important information. Like native English speakers, NNESs place the focus marker like in various locations: before a NP, VP, PP, AP, Adverbial Phrase, embedded sentences, or before a whole sentence. Despite the fact that many of them find such use to be indicative of casual register and consider it to be a stigmatized form, NNESs also use be+like as a dialogue introducer in their narratives to report an utterance or inner thought (monologue). However, like as a dialogue introducer is employed much less frequently than like as a focus marker by NNESs. I anticipate such a difference will be more significant when more data is collected. Again, because of the limited resources, I was only able to collect data from 7 NNESs, who are all college students at American University. Results might change if the informants were from different educational backgrounds or different age groups. Further research needs to be conducted on a large number of NNESs of various ages, both genders and different social status or educational backgrounds. We will need to collect data from a variety of sources and analyze it to see whether like as a dialogue introducer has become a common use among NNESs, how frequently it is used, and NNESs attitude towards it.
8 Yan 8 Bibliography: Blyth, Carl, Jr., Recktenwald, Sigrid., & Wang, Jenny. (1990). I'm like, "Say What?!": A New Quotative in American Oral Narrative. American Speech, 65(3), Ferrara, Kathleen., & Bell, Barbara. (1995). Sociolinguistic Variation and Discourse Function of Constructed Dialogue Introducers: The Case of Be + like. American Speech, 70(3), Johnstone, Babara He says so I said : Verb Tense Alternation and Narrative Depictions of Authority in American English. Linguistics 25, Underhill, Robert. (1988).Like Is, like, Focus. American Speech, 63(3),
9 Yan 9 Appendix 1. Parts of an interview taken on April 15th, I was walking into the south side, like, Anderson, the front desk, and it was really like, like two o clock in the morning. Some kids was carrying a Nadeas can, like, a beer can, and the front desk people were like, what is that in your hand? He was like, oh, that s a soda can. And, he was just really being stupid. And his friend was like, are you dumb? Like, what the hell are you doing? So, it s really funny. (81 words, 8 like) 2. Parts of an interview taken on April 15th, There is Standard English, like, and there s like slang. I mean, I take Italian, and my professor s like, something we say, She s like, Oh, what is that mean? Like today, we were talking in class and some girl said something. She s like, oh, did you say Dush? And she was like, oh, she s like as in shower, cause that s what it is in Italian. And we were like, no, that means a bad thing, like, like, just like, the limit, like, the line between real English, like standard English, and like, like the slang English, is like, really define(?), because people don t, like, if you come to the United States from another country, you don t understand, like, half the things that they are saying. And then in your country, like, if we learn a language for another country, we learn their standard language. Yeah, you learn a standard language in a class, but when you go abroad, and you study in this country, there s, all these things that you don t know, and you are like, what the heck, like, I ve never learnt it. And you are, like, they don t expect you to learn it, but I guess, as you are like, around, just walking around, you pick it up and you learn it. (215 words, 24 like) 3. Taylor Mali Like_youknow (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=scnibv87wv4&feature=related) In case, you haven t realized it has somehow become uncool to sound like you know what you are talking about? Or believe strongly in what you, like, saying? Invisible question marks and parenthetical you know, you know what I m saying, has been attaching themselves to the ends of our sentences, even when those sentences aren t, like, questions? Declarative sentences-so- called because they used to, like, you know, declare things to be true? OK? As opposed to other things that are like, totally, you know, NOT? They ve been infected by their tragically cool and totally hipp interrogative tone? As if I m saying, don t think I m a nerd just cauz I ve noticed this, OK? I ve nothing personally invested in my own opinions. I m just like inviting you to join me on the bandwagon of my own uncertainty? (6)
10 Yan Transcriptions of two NNESs talking about Embodied Learning from TESL 527- cultural issues in ESL classroom on April 15 th, (1) If you come from other countries, maybe (in) the country you come from, the political organization is very different, like, for example, my country, that are many parties, not just two. In the beginning, it s confusing. It needs to go like like food for a baby...he needs to chew slowly, you know, otherwise, it s confusing. It s my experience here. When I was, like, everyday get the most paper, the subject were like wow so hard for me to understand. (2) I guess, it s like, for international students, when I opened an expert book, I am like, I understand the words, but, it s like, they are taking out of contexts, I am like,ok, I understand the words, but, how much it s useful for me? 5. Interviews with 5 NNESs at American University. (1) NNES from Peru. I was in the copy center working for my Structure of English class. And the people, I work in the copy center. And the people we were working there were telling me that there was a very funny instant happen yesterday.they have been working there for more than 4 hours, somebody works up to them and tells them, what is there a manikin sitting there over the table? We were like, what? And the guy says, The man sitting there over the table. And they just started laughing so hard because they have been working there for more than 4 hours. There had been a man sitting in front of them in front of the table by itself, without moving or doing anything, and they hadn t even realized It s horrible. The usage of like for every sentence, It s like.um.. It s, like um.it s like, um is annoying. You know, it s like, come on, spit whatever you have to say. Get your idea straight. You know. It s annoying. It s obnoxious. It s OK, now, can you stopping saying like, especially when you are not part of the conversation. (2) NNES from Lebanon. You know the Valley Accent? The American Valley Accent? So the other day, I heard two girls speaking in the Valley Accent. And it sounded very dumb. like, like, you know, like When my make-up goes away, like, my short-skirt rides up, like... (Can t stop laughing) It s sounds very dumb. You have this English language, either learn it and expand your vocabulary. And it s a shame. It is actually English speakers and you are right. People who get British education wouldn t do that, or do it less frequently. It is a very American thing.
11 Yan 11 (3) NNES from Vietnam. It s doesn t come on the top of my head, like, it comes spontaneously like this When I heard this, it stops like, just right at that moment, but it doesn t really stay in my head. (4) NNES from Laos. I don t think it s appropriate, because you don t say it properly. Put like like like like, it doesn t mean anything. It sounds very dumb. (5) NNES from Algeria. I didn t hear it, I, like, participated in it. I woke up this morning, and then my roommate was very upset, because she has seen her boyfriend last night for dinner. She was upset, because you know; she still has this feeling for him. She is very sad, and I told her, I told her where are you last night? And she said, I spend the night at his house. And she is very sad, because she still loves him, but he doesn t love her. He told her he still loves her, but he doesn t want. But I don t believe it. He just tells her, Oh, I still like you, but whatever I was telling her, you should not have dinner at his house. You know, cause you are not going out with him. You know, that was not a smart decision, you know I know her, I know, like, how much she loves him Casual Speech: My friend is from Azerbaijan, and he studied at Azerbaijan Association. There s like, 8 (people in that association). And they are like, we are not giving you money. And you know the money for the association budget? They give them, like, 50 dollars.
Lesson: Family Violence CLB 5-6 Instructional Package Family Law: Family Violence (CLB 5-6) CLB Outcomes CLB 5-III: Getting Things Done CLB 6-IV: Comprehending Information CLB5-II: Reproducing Information
Dialog: VIP LESSON 049 - Future of Business A: We really embarrassed ourselves last night at that business function. B: What are you talking about? A: We didn't even have business cards to hand out. We
Sample Process Recording - First Year MSW Student Agency: Surgical Floor, City Hospital Client System: Harold Harper, age 68, retired widower Date: November 18, 20xx Presenting Issues: Cardiologist observed
ROLES TO ASSIGN 1. Judge 2. Courtroom Deputy 3. Prosecutor 1 opening statement 4. Prosecutor 2 direct of Dana Capro 5. Prosecutor 3 direct of Jamie Medina 6. Prosecutor 4 cross of Pat Morton 7. Prosecutor
The following readings have been posted to the Moodle course site: Language Files: Chapter 5 (pp. 194-198, 204-215) Language Instinct: Chapter 4 (pp. 74-99) The System Thus Far The Fundamental Question:
Series 2 Episode 8: Happy New Year Introduction This support pack accompanies: This support pack contains the following materials: Before you listen Comprehension Task Grammar Task Vocabulary Task Audio
THE LANGUAGE OF COLLEGE DATING: A GENDER STUDY Michelle Tomassi INTRODUCTION It s no surprise that the concept of dating takes on a whole new meaning for college students. At Boston College, as well as
Hello and welcome to the vocabulary lesson for the conversation Drunk Driving. In this conversation, Joe and I are just talking about different friends or different people that we ve known that have gotten
Dialog: VIP LESSON 001 - Alimony A: Why is Kevin selling his house? B: He's getting a divorce and says he won't be able to pay for it after he pays alimony and child support. A: Why is he getting a divorce?
Five Basic Sentence Types The predicates of sentences can be structured into five different ways. Some books assign them type numbers (like Types 1-5), but these are not used universally. You need to memorise
ESOL Customer Service Training: Unit 1 1: 1 Unit 1: Talking With Your Customer ESOL Customer Service Training: Unit 1 1: 2 What are your goals? Note to Instructor: If you have permission, use Stand Out
What do you have there? Oh, it s a mystery novel. I m almost at the end! Ooo, sounds interesting. I love a good mystery Agatha Christy, Sherlock Holmes...CSI. Yeah, CSI Crime Scene Investigation I watched
Teaching Your Secondary English Language Learners The Academic Language of Tests Focusing on English Language Arts Contents I. Introduction...1 II. Teaching the Language of the Reading-Objective Questions...3
Hello and welcome to the vocabulary lesson for the conversation called Dating. Now this is a conversation Joe and I were having about some of our friends and the different dates that they have gone on.
GLOSSARY overhead the money a company spends to run its business * Moving to a bigger office building will mean an increase in the company s overhead for upcoming years. to outsource to have company business
Epi Data Tables New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene October 2012, No. 19 Qualitative Data on Young Adult, Non-Daily Smokers in New York City Themes and Associated Quotes Theme 1: 1) Perceived
Successful Cold Call to Business Hi, this is Steve at Waterway Car Wash. Good afternoon, Steve. My name is (first and last name) and I am calling on behalf of (name of yearbook), the yearbook publication
Guide for: Test-takers & Teachers What is the TEA test? TEA is a test of your ability to communicate in English it is not a test of your operational knowledge. TEA is a test of plain English in an aviation
Connectedness and the Emotional Bank Account Directions This is a self-guided activity that can be completed by parents, teens or both. It contains five parts and should take about 45 minutes to complete.
1 MITI Coding: Transcript 5 T: Randy, thanks for coming in today. I wonder if it would be ok if I shared just a few facts with you that I ve gotten from the intake worker. And then we can go on to talk
Adjective Clauses transcript So, adjective clauses. How many of you know what adjective clauses are? Raise your hand if you know. We have one person. Sandra is the only one who knows what adjective clauses
ESOL 94S- Ford Section 3.1 & 3.2: Input Analysis 3.1: Variation in Language The English language, a phrase heard very frequently, gives the impression that English is one uniform system of communication
YAKUP ALMELEK ACT ONE The action unfolds in the suite of a five-star hotel. There may or may not be a door between the two connecting rooms. There should be be a desk, a computer, a fax and a photocopier
BBC Learning English How to Expressing likes Hello, I m Callum Robertson and this is How to, the series from that shows you how to do things in English. In this programme we re going to be looking at different
A Primer in the Semantics of English Some Nuts and Bolts 2000-2010 by Terence Parsons A Primer in the Semantics of English Some Nuts and Bolts Chapter 0: Preliminary Issues 0.1 What Sentences Do 0.2 Standing-for
REPORTED SPEECH USE Reported speech is used to retell or report what other person has actually said. It is a very usual function in everyday language. STRUCTURE Formal aspects We can find different ways
THE STORY OF TRACY BEAKER BACK AND BAD by Mary Morris Where s the butter? Right under your nose. Not in the puddle! Hey, hey, hey! That s not for lunch! Fine time to be defrosting the freezer! You told
Page 1 Table of Content The Psychic Lotto Formula Jackpot to Success System... 4 Part 1 Channeling the Power of Your Mind to Success... 6 Part 2 Visualization... 12 Part 3 Integrating Luck and Making it
Teaching the ESL Learner Transcript of Speaker II. Methods of Sheltered English Introduction, Ruth DeCrescentis, Satrina Chargualaf, Vicki Duerre, Lori Garcia Welcome, everyone. We are going to spend the
Activity 1 Listening for gist The interviewer is talking to a secondary school Law teacher about why she didn t become a lawyer. What does she say about the differences between a barrister s work and a
PREVIEW GUIDE Why Accountability Matters Table of Contents: Sample Pages from Leader s Guide...pgs. 2-8 Program Information and Pricing...pgs. 9-10 Leader s Guide Can We Count on You? CRM Learning s Can
rd 3 5 July 11-12, 2015 Moses Exodus 2-4; Jeremiah 29:11 God has a plan for us. th Connect Time (20 minutes): Five minutes after the service begins, split kids into groups and begin their activity. Remember
http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/learningenglish/business/talkingbusiness /upravila Viera Rybárová/ Telephone Telephone: connecting Imagine you are calling a company and want to speak to someone who works
Negotiation and Refusal Skills Lesson 6 Synopsis Students reflect on their first volunteer project visit. Negotiation and refusal skills are introduced and demonstrated through role plays. Students then
Lesson Plans for English as a Foreign Language (EFL) (Student Edition) Lesson #9 Irregular verbs: present tense Lesson Plan by Catherine Schell & Dr. Gérard Beck Irregular verbs: present tense The goals
Crosscultural Communication Videos: Crosstalk Crosstalk, first broadcast on BBC television May 1, 1979, was a pioneering effort in applied sociolinguistics by John Gumperz. It was one of a series of ten
Name: Course Date: The object of this task is to help you start thinking about language from a foreign learner s point of view, and to begin to consider approaches to the classroom. The task below will
BBC Learning English Business Language To Go Part 1 - Interviews This programme was first broadcast in 2001. This is not a word for word transcript of the programme This series is all about chunks of language
I start work at 8:0 Unit aims In Unit, students learn about: Saying where you re from Reflecting and reaching Describing readiness Describing schedules Viewpoints: Working hours In business: Describe your
Number 35 I: In this interview I will ask you to talk the AIDS. And I want you to know that you don't have to answer all my questions. If you feel uncomfortable with a question, just tell me, and I will
Dialog: LESSON 120 - MBA A: What are you doing tomorrow? B: I'm starting my MBA. A: I thought you hated business. What changed your mind? B: I do hate it, but I need to start making more money. A: MBA's
LESSSON D1 Starting and Ending a Conversation I. WARM-UP Vocabulary Match the phrasal verbs in column A with their definitions in column B. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. A get through get back put through hold on hang
Transcript Tips for Effective Online Composition and Communication with Dr. Gary Burkholder [ MUSIC ] HI, I WANT TO DISCUSS FOR YOU TODAY TIPS FOR EFFECTIVE ONLINE COMPOSITION AND COMMUNICATION. AS WALDEN
My Fresco Snapshots from Today 1. Elementary School 2. Middle School 3. High School Snapshots for Tomorrow 4. College 5. 20s & 30s 6. 40s & 50s 7. 60s I NEED WISDOM What advice would you offer to the following
Mobile phones Topic: Mobile phones and text communications Aims: - To develop students understanding of telephone and text communications - To give students a chance to practise speaking Level: Pre-intermediate
The following are can do statements in four skills: Listening, Speaking, Reading and Writing. Put a in front of each description that applies to your current Thai proficiency (.i.e. what you can do with
5 Texts You Should Be Sending Discover The Texts That Drive Men Wild 1 5 Texts You Should Be Sending When it comes to dating even texting has a technique. Have you ever received a text message from a man
Theory U Toolbook 1.1 Dialogue Interviews for regular updates: www.presencing.com Dialogue Interviews At a Glance Dialogue interviews are intended to engage the interviewee in a reflective and generative
1 Scene: The reception desk at a hotel in England Receptionist : Good afternoon sir. Welcome to the hotel splendido! Tourist : (Big smile) Thank you. Receptionist : (pointing at the tourist) Good heavens!
GOSPEL Mark 10: 35-45 The holy gospel, according to Saint Mark, the tenth chapter. Glory to you, O Lord. 35James and John, the sons of Zebedee, came forward to him and said to him, Teacher, we want you
A BAD BET Mr. and Mrs. Bates had been married for forty years. In those forty years they had never had a fight, much less an argument. They were a happy couple because they always agreed on everything.
1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A. Background of the Study Language is used to communicate with other people. People need to study how to use language especially foreign language. Language can be study in linguistic
Grades 9 to 12 Personal Health Series KidsHealth.org/classroom Teacher s Guide This guide includes: Standards Related Links Discussion Questions Activities for Students Reproducible Materials Standards
Syntax: Phrases Sentences can be divided into phrases. A phrase is a group of words forming a unit and united around a head, the most important part of the phrase. The head can be a noun NP, a verb VP,
HE WHO WRITES THE CHECK IS FREE JOSEPH WOODHOUSE WALL STREET PIONEER Jana B. Woodhouse One of the many reasons I love being affiliated with Transamerica Financial Advisors, Inc. and World Financial Group,
Living with dying Patients and carers experiences of living with lung cancer Dr Donna Fitzsimons, Lesley Rutherford & Jill McAuley Study Aims To explore the experiences of patients living with lung cancer.
Filename: P4P 019 The Facts of Life Insurance Todd: [0:00:18] Hey everybody, welcome to another edition of The Prosperity Podcast, this is No BS Money Guy Todd Strobel. Once again, we re lucky enough to
Little bird Little bird I want to sing a song for you cause you were a witness of a love so new You were sitting there singing your happy tune We were sitting there looking at you Let me ask you something,
New Beginnings: Managing the Emotional Impact of Diabetes Module 1 ALEXIS (AW): Welcome to New Beginnings: Managing the Emotional Impact of Diabetes. MICHELLE (MOG): And I m Dr. Michelle Owens-Gary. AW:
Advice for Recommenders: How to write an effective Letter of Recommendation for applicants to the Stanford MBA Program -- Edited Transcript of Interview updated 27 July 2011 What are some of your responsibilities
Activity 1: Until now, you ve been asked to check the box beside the statements that represent main ideas found in the video. Now that you re an expert at identifying main ideas (thanks to the Spotlight
Three Attributes of Every Successful Merchant Services Program-20140604 1602-1 [Start of recorded material] [Starts Mid Sentence] thank everyone that s joined the call today. I know everybody is busy with
COLD MARKET LEAD SCRIPTS COLD LEAD BUSINESS SCRIPT I use several different introductions when it comes to calling purchased leads or leads that I have generated on my own through different ads. You will
Present continuous tense For actions happening now. When we want to talk about an action that is happening now or at this time (and is unfinished), we use the present continuous tense. We also use this
Todd: [0:00:18] Hey everybody, welcome to another edition of The Prosperity Podcast, this is No BS Money Guy Todd Strobel. Once again, we have my cohost, bestselling financial author Kim Butler with us,
This was a very short story written as an extra for Frostbitten. It takes place before the book begins, and launched the investigation that eventually led Elena and Clay to Alaska. Recruit Have you ever
A Play by Irwin Garcia CHARACTERS Seventeen, an introverted person that doesn t really go out much. His tone of voice is clear and not as dead sounding as you would expect from an introvert. Seventeen,
English Pre-intermediate Portfolio Practice Annie McDonald & Mark Hancock CEF 4 Contents Introduction What is a Language Portfolio? 3 The Language Passport What is a Language Passport? 4 How do I use it?
Worksheet Episode 6 UNIT 1 intermediate Watch the video without sound, and then tick the people, things and actions you see in the sequence. 1. a dog 11. two coloured balls 21. a baseball bat 2. people
Overview of grammar and punctuation skills K 6 The following grammar and punctuation framework indicates those understandings and terms which students might be expected to have control of by the end of
Hello. This is AJ Hoge again. Welcome to the vocabulary lesson for Health Care. Let s start. * * * * * At the beginning of the conversation Joe and Kristin talk about a friend, Joe s friend, whose name
LESSON B1 Planning I. WARM-UP Vocabulary Match the words in A with their meanings in B. A 1. simultaneous 2. business venture 3. presentation 4. second thought 5. invest B a. a formal talk, often in order
Teacher's Guide to Pronunciation in English - High Beginning+ Pronunciation in English - Intermediate+ User Management System Included for all schools at no additional cost Feedback from students After
Language Attitudes What are language attitudes? Language attitudes are the feelings people have about their own language variety or the languages or language varieties of others. 2 What are language attitudes?
Phrase Structure A formal hypothesis for representing constituency Constituents are hierarchically organized TP NP VP The man eats at fancy restaurants. D N V PP the man eats P at AdjP Adj fancy NP N restaurants
I hope you find some helpful things here. These are bits of grammar I ve made. I have been putting together a little notebook for my daughter for a writing reference tool. Some other printouts I have used
Shopping Rebecca talks about her shopping preferences and an item she bought. Todd: So, Rebecca, talking about shopping, is shopping something you enjoy doing? Rebecca: Yes, when I'm in the mood for it.
Lesson Share TEACHER S NOTES Socializing by Gary Jones Age: Level: Time: Aim: Adults Upper intermediate 90 mins To practise making small talk; to learn lexis for active listening Key skills: Speaking Materials:
9 Hi-tech Language focus First conditional 1a Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verb in brackets. Use the Present Simple or will + infinitive. eat 1 If you (eat) cheese late at night,
COURSE SYLLABUS ESU 561 ASPECTS OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE Fall 2014 EDU 561 (85515) Instructor: Bart Weyand Classroom: Online TEL: (207) 985-7140 E-Mail: email@example.com COURSE DESCRIPTION: This is a practical
IC2 Class: Conference Calls / Video Conference Calls - 2016 Technology today is wonderful. That doesn t mean, however, that conferencing calling in a foreign language is easy. In fact, the experience can
I M NOT AN ADDICT How could I be an addict? My life is great. I live in a very good area of Los Angeles, drive a nice sports car, have a good job, pay all my bills, and have a wonderful family. This is
Advanced CB 21 A One level Assess descriptions and narrations of factual and technical materials. Discriminate for accurate information while taking notes of a complex discourse. Assess the essential message
For WASHINGTON STATE Adult LEARNING STANDARDS Level 1-Beginning ESL Literacy Program (CASAS 180 AND below) STANDARD I: Read With Understanding To read with understanding, Washington ESL students should:
Your consent to our cookies if you continue to use this website.