1 Contemporary Use of Like and its effects on non-native English speakers Huijin Yan Structure of English Prof. Barr Part I: Introduction One phenomenon in American oral English that can be easily noticed by non-native speakers (NNESs) is the surprisingly broad use of like. The contemporary use of like is far beyond a verb, a noun or a preposition, which is what the NNESs have learned in their traditional English classes. For example: (1) I was walking into the south side, like, Anderson, the front desk, and it was really like, like two o clock in the morning. Some kids was carrying a Natty s can, like, a beer can, and the front desk people were like, what is that in your hand? He was like, oh, that s a soda can. And, he was just really being stupid. And his friend was like, are you dumb? Like, what the hell are you doing? So, it s really funny. (An AU undergraduate student s description of a funny conversation heard on April 15th, 2008) (2) So, we just kissed and then I was like bye. But if I had known he had a girlfriend (Overheard at AU, AU facebook) (3) Declarative sentences so-called because they used to, like, you know, declare things to be true? OK? As opposed to other things that are like, totally, you know, NOT? They ve been infected by their tragically cool and totally hip interrogative tone? As if I m saying, don t think I m a nerd just cauz I ve noticed this, OK? I ve nothing personally invested in my own opinions. I m just like inviting you to join me on the bandwagon of my own uncertainty? (Transcription from Like You Know,Taylor Mali, (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=scnibv87wv4&feature=related) (4) Yeah, you learn a standard language in a class, but when you go abroad, and you study in this country, there s, all these things that you don t know, and you are like, what the heck, like, I ve never learnt it. And you are, like, they don t expect you to learn it, but I guess, as you are like, around, just walking around, you pick it up and you learn it. (Parts of an interview taken on April 15th, 2008) Despite the assertion that it is entirely ungrammatical in standard English and makes sentences seem disjointed to many listeners (Underhill, 1988, p. 234), the non-standard
2 Yan 2 use of like is used pervasively in contemporary English. This stimulates great interest among many linguists, who examine its usage and its functions and have reached a consensus that like has two pragmatic functions in contemporary use: like as a focus marker (Underhill, 1988) and the quotative like (Blyth, Recktenwald & Wang, 1990), which is also referred to as a dialogue introducer ( Johnstone, 1987). As Underhill (1988) pointed out, like functions as a focus marker in many situations to introduce new concepts or identities (p. 236) or to mark focused information (p. 237). It can be located before a variety of constituents: a NP, before a predicated adjective or adjective phrase, before an AP, or before a PP functioning adverbially, before a VP, before an embedded sentence, or before the entire sentence (pp ). We can easily match these functions with our previous examples: I was walking into the south side, like, Anderson ( focus on new concept, before NP) [example (1)] Like, what the hell are you doing? ( focus, emphasis, sentence initial) [example (1)] Declarative sentences so-called because they used to, like, you know, declare things to be true. ( mark focused information, before a VP) [ example (3) ] The second function of like is a dialogue introducer when it is combined with be in reported speech. Be+like is less strongly informative than say or go in reported speech. This is probably because one meaning of like is approximately, as Underhill (1988, p. 235) mentioned when he discussed like as a focus marker. When using be+like, the
3 Yan 3 speaker is less responsible for the exact utterance of the speech and thus is allowed to add his/her own emotional nuance. Unlike say or go, which function as introducers of a real utterance, be+like can function as an introducer of both real utterances and the speaker s inner monologue, thus allowing the speakers to express an attitude, reaction, or thought, as well as something actually said. (Blyth et al., 1990) For example, So, we just kissed and then I was like, bye (example 2) can be something said or only thought by the speaker. Linguists Ferrara and Bell also claim that be+like is a flexible discourse that can introduce internal dialogue, gesture, or speech of first persons as well as third persons. ( Ferrara & Bell, 1995, p. 285). Actually, the use of be+like has spreading to narratives of second-person as well; examples can be found in our previous data: there s, all these things that you don t know, and you are like, what the heck ( example 4) Another difference is that say and go are both punctual verbs, which focus on the action; however, be+like expresses a more continuous and progressive feeling, given that be is a stative verb, and is ambiguous and indicates a speech act that represents either an event or a state. (Blyth et al., 1990). Thus, the effect of his friend was like, are you dumb? (example 1) is equivalent to his friend was saying/going, are you dumb? in semantic meanings but it is less cumbersome syntactically.
4 Yan 4 Part II: Research While lots of studies about the contemporary use of like have been done among native English speakers, linguists have paid comparably little attention to its use among nonnative English speakers ( NNESs). Have these two usages of like, i.e., like as a focus marker and like as a dialogue introducer, been spreading to NNESs? How do the NNESs characterize the people who use these forms of like? Hypothesis: the use of like as a focus marker and as a dialogue introducer is spreading to NNESs and has been added to their oral English. Methodology: I conducted a pilot survey among NNESs at American University, Washington, DC, to help formulate some preliminary answers to these questions, and to guide further research. Data about NNESs use of like oral production were collected from two sources: (1) TESL-527 Cultural Issues in an ESL/EFL classroom on April 15 th, The whole class was audio-recorded. NNESs responses to questions and discussion were selected and transcribed. (2) A short interview designed to elicit narratives of reported speech from NNESs. The interview: 5 NNESs were selected as interviewees on the American University main campus. They were all asked a question: Can you tell me a funny/silly conversation you heard recently? A follow-up question of What do you think of people who use like very frequently in their oral speech? was asked in order to collect views on the contemporary use of like among NNESs.
5 Yan 5 Results: Like as a focus marker has been expanding to oral speech of NNESs, and is frequently used by them when an entirely new information or entity is introduced or some information is especially emphasized. Five out of seven NNESs in our research used like as a focus marker, which is placed in front of a NP, AP, PP, Adverbial Phrase, VP or sentence initial. Examples are shown below: It needs to go like like food for a baby. (before NP) [Appendix 4, (1) ] I guess, it s like, for international students (before PP)[ Appendix 4, (2) ] It s doesn t come on the top of my head, like, it comes spontaneously like this. ( sentence initial) [Appendix 5, (3)] When I heard this, it stops like, just right at that moment. ( before Adverbial Phrase) [Appendix 5, (3)] I didn t hear it, I, like, participated in it. (before VP) [Appendix 5, (5)] However, the use of like as a dialogue introducer is less frequently employed by NNESs. Only 3 out of 7 NNESs in the research used be+like as a dialogue introducer in reported speech, as shown in the following examples: I am like, OK, I understand the words, but, how much it s useful for me? ( inner monologue) [appendix 4 ( 2) ] We were like, what? [appendix 5 (1)] ( first-person, real utterance or inner monologue) And they are like, we are not giving you money. [appendix 5 (5)] ( third-person, real utterance)
6 Yan 6 According to the data, when using reported speech, most NNESs still prefer to use the traditional dialogue introducers say and tell, although like as a dialogue introducer has become a new item in their lexicon for casual speech. For example: Somebody walks up to them and tells them, what is there a manikin sitting there over the table? [appendix 5 (1)] And the guy says, The man sitting there over the table. [appendix 5 (1)] I told her where are you last night? And she said, I spend the night at his house. [appendix 5 (5)] He told her he still loves her, but he doesn t want. [appendix 5 (5)] As for the attitude towards the contemporary use of like, many NNESs consider it as stigmatized, uneducated and causal. They found such use horrible, obnoxious, dumb, inappropriate and annoying, which explains why they still choose to use say or tell in their reported speech. Such strong opinions can be easily found in our follow-up interviews about their attitude towards Americans use of like: It s horrible. The usage of like for every sentence, It s like, um It s, like um.it s like, um is annoying. You know, it s like, come on, spit whatever you have to say. Get your idea straight. You know. It s annoying. It s obnoxious. It s OK, now, can you stopping saying like, especially when you are not part of the conversation. [appendix 5, (1)] I heard two girls speaking in the Valley Accent. And it sounded very dumb. like, like, you know, like When my make-up goes away, like, my short-skirt rides up, like... (Can t stop laughing). [appendix 5, (2)] It s sounds very dumb And it s a shame. It is actually English speakers and you are right. People who get British education wouldn t do that, or do it less frequently. It is a very American thing. [appendix 5, (2)] I don t think it s appropriate, because you don t say it properly. Put like like like like, it doesn t mean anything. It sounds very dumb [appendix 5, (4)]
7 Yan 7 Conclusion: In conclusion, NNESs use of like has been inevitably affected by native English speakers and has acquired more versatile functions. NNESs frequently use like as a focus marker to introduce new information or to emphasize important information. Like native English speakers, NNESs place the focus marker like in various locations: before a NP, VP, PP, AP, Adverbial Phrase, embedded sentences, or before a whole sentence. Despite the fact that many of them find such use to be indicative of casual register and consider it to be a stigmatized form, NNESs also use be+like as a dialogue introducer in their narratives to report an utterance or inner thought (monologue). However, like as a dialogue introducer is employed much less frequently than like as a focus marker by NNESs. I anticipate such a difference will be more significant when more data is collected. Again, because of the limited resources, I was only able to collect data from 7 NNESs, who are all college students at American University. Results might change if the informants were from different educational backgrounds or different age groups. Further research needs to be conducted on a large number of NNESs of various ages, both genders and different social status or educational backgrounds. We will need to collect data from a variety of sources and analyze it to see whether like as a dialogue introducer has become a common use among NNESs, how frequently it is used, and NNESs attitude towards it.
8 Yan 8 Bibliography: Blyth, Carl, Jr., Recktenwald, Sigrid., & Wang, Jenny. (1990). I'm like, "Say What?!": A New Quotative in American Oral Narrative. American Speech, 65(3), Ferrara, Kathleen., & Bell, Barbara. (1995). Sociolinguistic Variation and Discourse Function of Constructed Dialogue Introducers: The Case of Be + like. American Speech, 70(3), Johnstone, Babara He says so I said : Verb Tense Alternation and Narrative Depictions of Authority in American English. Linguistics 25, Underhill, Robert. (1988).Like Is, like, Focus. American Speech, 63(3),
9 Yan 9 Appendix 1. Parts of an interview taken on April 15th, I was walking into the south side, like, Anderson, the front desk, and it was really like, like two o clock in the morning. Some kids was carrying a Nadeas can, like, a beer can, and the front desk people were like, what is that in your hand? He was like, oh, that s a soda can. And, he was just really being stupid. And his friend was like, are you dumb? Like, what the hell are you doing? So, it s really funny. (81 words, 8 like) 2. Parts of an interview taken on April 15th, There is Standard English, like, and there s like slang. I mean, I take Italian, and my professor s like, something we say, She s like, Oh, what is that mean? Like today, we were talking in class and some girl said something. She s like, oh, did you say Dush? And she was like, oh, she s like as in shower, cause that s what it is in Italian. And we were like, no, that means a bad thing, like, like, just like, the limit, like, the line between real English, like standard English, and like, like the slang English, is like, really define(?), because people don t, like, if you come to the United States from another country, you don t understand, like, half the things that they are saying. And then in your country, like, if we learn a language for another country, we learn their standard language. Yeah, you learn a standard language in a class, but when you go abroad, and you study in this country, there s, all these things that you don t know, and you are like, what the heck, like, I ve never learnt it. And you are, like, they don t expect you to learn it, but I guess, as you are like, around, just walking around, you pick it up and you learn it. (215 words, 24 like) 3. Taylor Mali Like_youknow (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=scnibv87wv4&feature=related) In case, you haven t realized it has somehow become uncool to sound like you know what you are talking about? Or believe strongly in what you, like, saying? Invisible question marks and parenthetical you know, you know what I m saying, has been attaching themselves to the ends of our sentences, even when those sentences aren t, like, questions? Declarative sentences-so- called because they used to, like, you know, declare things to be true? OK? As opposed to other things that are like, totally, you know, NOT? They ve been infected by their tragically cool and totally hipp interrogative tone? As if I m saying, don t think I m a nerd just cauz I ve noticed this, OK? I ve nothing personally invested in my own opinions. I m just like inviting you to join me on the bandwagon of my own uncertainty? (6)
10 Yan Transcriptions of two NNESs talking about Embodied Learning from TESL 527- cultural issues in ESL classroom on April 15 th, (1) If you come from other countries, maybe (in) the country you come from, the political organization is very different, like, for example, my country, that are many parties, not just two. In the beginning, it s confusing. It needs to go like like food for a baby...he needs to chew slowly, you know, otherwise, it s confusing. It s my experience here. When I was, like, everyday get the most paper, the subject were like wow so hard for me to understand. (2) I guess, it s like, for international students, when I opened an expert book, I am like, I understand the words, but, it s like, they are taking out of contexts, I am like,ok, I understand the words, but, how much it s useful for me? 5. Interviews with 5 NNESs at American University. (1) NNES from Peru. I was in the copy center working for my Structure of English class. And the people, I work in the copy center. And the people we were working there were telling me that there was a very funny instant happen yesterday.they have been working there for more than 4 hours, somebody works up to them and tells them, what is there a manikin sitting there over the table? We were like, what? And the guy says, The man sitting there over the table. And they just started laughing so hard because they have been working there for more than 4 hours. There had been a man sitting in front of them in front of the table by itself, without moving or doing anything, and they hadn t even realized It s horrible. The usage of like for every sentence, It s like.um.. It s, like um.it s like, um is annoying. You know, it s like, come on, spit whatever you have to say. Get your idea straight. You know. It s annoying. It s obnoxious. It s OK, now, can you stopping saying like, especially when you are not part of the conversation. (2) NNES from Lebanon. You know the Valley Accent? The American Valley Accent? So the other day, I heard two girls speaking in the Valley Accent. And it sounded very dumb. like, like, you know, like When my make-up goes away, like, my short-skirt rides up, like... (Can t stop laughing) It s sounds very dumb. You have this English language, either learn it and expand your vocabulary. And it s a shame. It is actually English speakers and you are right. People who get British education wouldn t do that, or do it less frequently. It is a very American thing.
11 Yan 11 (3) NNES from Vietnam. It s doesn t come on the top of my head, like, it comes spontaneously like this When I heard this, it stops like, just right at that moment, but it doesn t really stay in my head. (4) NNES from Laos. I don t think it s appropriate, because you don t say it properly. Put like like like like, it doesn t mean anything. It sounds very dumb. (5) NNES from Algeria. I didn t hear it, I, like, participated in it. I woke up this morning, and then my roommate was very upset, because she has seen her boyfriend last night for dinner. She was upset, because you know; she still has this feeling for him. She is very sad, and I told her, I told her where are you last night? And she said, I spend the night at his house. And she is very sad, because she still loves him, but he doesn t love her. He told her he still loves her, but he doesn t want. But I don t believe it. He just tells her, Oh, I still like you, but whatever I was telling her, you should not have dinner at his house. You know, cause you are not going out with him. You know, that was not a smart decision, you know I know her, I know, like, how much she loves him Casual Speech: My friend is from Azerbaijan, and he studied at Azerbaijan Association. There s like, 8 (people in that association). And they are like, we are not giving you money. And you know the money for the association budget? They give them, like, 50 dollars.
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Who Knows Best? Sharing Care of Infants and Toddlers (Part 2) Operator: Please stand by. Good day and welcome to the Who Knows Best? Sharing Care of Infants and Toddlers conference call. Today s conference
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Three Attributes of Every Successful Merchant Services Program-20140604 1602-1 [Start of recorded material] [Starts Mid Sentence] thank everyone that s joined the call today. I know everybody is busy with
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Step Three B1.2 READING & TRAINING Robert Louis Stevenson The Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde audio CD PART TWO The Search for Mr Hyde Mr Utterson was unhappy after his walk with Richard Enfield.