1 Akademik Sosyal Araştırmalar Dergisi, Yıl: 3, Sayı: 9, Mart 2015, s Halil Orbay ÇOBANOĞLU 1 Mustafa Serdar TEREKLİ 2 STATE ANCIETY IN SOCCER: RESEARCH FOR CORRELATION AMONG YELLOW CARD, COMPETITION'S RESULT and GOALS ALLOWED IN DURING SOCCER COMPETITIONS 3 Abstract The aim of this study was to research correlation among yellow card, goals allowed and soccer competition's result. The research had been performed as a general scanning model. The research sample consisted of the 306 competitions in Turkey Super League in the season The data had been obtained by permission taken Turkey Football Federation Official Web Site. In 306 competition teams totaly received 565 yellow cards and totaly allowed to 429 goals in their own goals. Spearman correlation test was technically used from nonparametric statistical test for correlation and the relationship between the variables were tested with a level of significance of p<0,05. As a result of research a statistically significant (p=0,02) correlation with negative directional low level (-0.09) was found between yellow cards and competition's result and a statistically significant (p=0,00) correlation with positive directional low level (0.13) was found between yellow cards and goals allowed. While yellow card increased, goals allowed increased too, while yellow card increased, winning decreased. Keywords: State Anxiety, Soccer, Yellow Card, Correlation. 1 Doktora Öğrencisi, Anadolu Üniversitesi, Beden Eğitimi ve Spor ABD., 2 Yard.Doç. Dr., Anadolu Üniversitesi, Spor Bilimleri Fakültesi, 3 This research was presented as a poster at the 13th Congress of the International Sports Sciences that was made in Konya/Turkey on 7-9th November in 2014.
2 Halil Orbay Çobanoğlu - Mustafa Serdar Terekli 548 FUTBOLDA DURUMLUK KAYGI: FUTBOL MÜSABAKALARINDA GÖRÜLEN SARI KARTIN YENİLEN GOLE ve SONUCA OLAN ETKİSİNİN İNCELENMESİ Özet Bu çalışmanın amacı futbolda müsabaka sırasında görülen sarı kartın müsabaka sonucuna ve yenilen gole etkisinin incelenmesidir. Araştırma genel tarama modelinde yapılmıştır. Araştırma örneklemini Türkiye Süper Ligi'nde sezonunda yapılan toplam 306 müsabaka oluşturmuştur. Veriler Türkiye Futbol Federasyonu Resmi İnternet Sitesinden izin alınarak elde edilmiştir. 306 müsabakada takımlar toplam 565 sarı kart görürken, toplam 429 gol yemişlerdir. İstatistiksel teknik olarak nonparametrik korelasyon testlerinden spearman korelasyon testi kullanılmış ve değişkenler arasındaki ilişki p<0,05 anlamlılık düzeyi ile test edilmiştir. Araştırma sonucunda sarı kart ile sonuç arasında negatif yönlü düşük düzeyde (-0,09) istatistiksel olarak anlamlı bir ilişki bulunurken (p=0,02), sarı kart ile yenilen gol arasında pozitif yönlü düşük düzeyde (0,13) istatistiksel olarak anlamlı bir ilişki bulunmuştur (p=0,00). Görülen sarı kart artarken yenilen gol artmış, görülen sarı kart artarken galibiyet azalmıştır. Anahtar Kelimeler: Durumluk Kaygı, Futbol, Sarı Kart, Korelasyon. INTRODUCTION Nowadays, in many sports, especially team sports there are many factors affecting the performance of athletes. Anxiety, which can be counted among psychological factors, is one of these factors. Anxiety can be defined as subjective feeling of tension which increased with the perception of threat and evoked by physiological arousal (Özerkan, 2003: 4). Anxiety may adversely affect athletes's ability to make the right decisions in their behavior. As anxiety levels rise, athletes wander off to showcase their talent and make the right decisions. Athletes who are under extreme pressure can make some wrong moves. As a high level of anciety makes soccer players forget some behaviours that they knew very well and repeated many times in their training. This situation creates conflict on their feeelings. It also causes some nagative behaviours which can be done by them (Dönmez, 2013: 245). In sporting competition, can not be said to be completely incurious and passive cases. Because the nature of the competition, there is anxiety within the dynamics of the sport. Findings such as heart beat per minute, muscle tension, irritability that indicates the height of bodily anxiety although they cause to heighten of performance up to a certain level, they cause a loss of performance in more advanced levels (Cerit et al., 2013: 17). Defined as stimulus that without arousing a sense of fear lead to fear responses to some of the alerts concerns, anxiety is divided into two types by Spielberger as trait and state anxiety (Çepikkurt and İnanç, 2012: 43; Varol, 2014: 222). State anxiety can be defined as a form of anxiety that resulting from a stress which depending on the environmental conditions, mostly based on logical reasons, also reason is understandable by others and generally depending on the temporary situation which experiencing by every person (Karabulut et al., 2013: 244). Fear and uneasiness created by dangerous conditions is considered as a temporary and normal
3 549 State Ancıety In Soccer: Research For Correlatıon Among Yellow Card, Competıtıon's Result and Goals Allowed In Durıng Soccer Competıtıons anxiety that experience by the individual. Once the stress is concentrated, the level of state anxiety will rise but when stress disappears the level of state anxiety will fall (Koy, 1999: 31). The presence of extrinsic rewards and fines, the uncertainty of the results, the strength of the opponent, the results of the team and the individual's in last encounter, in terms of the athlete results what extent that seen as important, psychological state of the individual is what level is decisive anxiety level in the competition (Doğan et al., 2004: 11). Anxiety has a universal character and in all sports it can be effected performance as positive or negative. Anxiety in sports performance significantly affects the adaptation capacity of athletes, attention and concentration, stamina and balance, decision making and evaluation, confidence and worthiness, motivation and activation. These effects can also show itself on force, speed, endurance, flexibility, technical and tactical characteristics of athletes's performance. Athletes in the high level of anxiety may doubt their ability to perform tasks and can avoid making complex skills (Gacar and Coşkuner, 2010: 243). During the competitions, concerned extremely intense anxiety level of athletes, the anxiety conditions that cannot be brought under control, can affect negatively the performance of athletes and can lead to failure. Therefore, the level of anxiety and knowing the reason of anxiety of athletes is very important in terms of athletes and coaches who will be aware of it. (Civan et al., 2012: 84). Purpose The aim of this study was to research correlation between yellow card, goals allowed and soccer competition's result. For purposes of the study will be sought answers to the following questions. 1.Has the yellow card shown during the competitions in soccer impact upon the goals allowed? 2.Has the yellow card shown during the competitions in soccer impact upon the soccer competition's result? Materıals and Methods General screening models are screening arrangement on all of the universe or a sample to be taken from, consists of many components in the universe, with the purpose of reaching an overall judgment about the universe, (Karasar, 2005: 79). This research was conducted in the general screening model. Sample The study sample consisted of 306 of the Turkey Super League competition which had been made in the season. Data Collection Tool In Turkey Super League in the season , the team have made a total of 306 events in a season, a total of 9 matches a week. The result of each match, yellow cards and goals allowed datas obtained Turkey Football Federation Official Website with the permission. While teams were taken a total of 565 yellow cards in one season, a total of 429 goals were allowed.
4 Halil Orbay Çobanoğlu - Mustafa Serdar Terekli 550 Analysis and Interpretation of Data Spearman correlation test was used as statistical technique and the correlation between variables was tested with p<0.05 significance level in this analysis. Results As a result of spearman correlation test; a statistically significant (p=0,02) correlation with negative directional low levels (-0.09) was found among yellow cards and competition's result and a statistically significant (p=0,00) correlation with positive directional low levels (0.13) was found among yellow cards and goals allowed. While yellow card increased, goals allowed increased and while yellow card increased, won decreased (Table 1.). Spearman Test Table 1. Yellow Card, Goals Allowed and Result Spearman Correlation Test Correlations Result Goals Allowed Yellow Card Correlation Coefficient Result Goals Allowed Yellow Card 1,000 -,645 -,090 P,000,026* N Correlation Coefficient -,645 1,000,133 P,000,001** N Correlation Coefficient **Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed). *Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed). Dıscussıon -,090,133 1,000 P,026*,001** N In sports literature there are many studies related with anxiety. Most of these studies are about correlation between gender and anxiety. Dönmez (2013: 246) in his study found significant difference between state anxiety levels of athletes and the sexes and emphasized that state anxiety levels of female athletes was higher than male athletes. Özerkan (2003: 5) to aim to investigate the relationship between the competition's anxiety and performance in college girls and boys basketball players in his study emphasized that female basketball players's anxiety scores was higher than male basketball players anxiety scores too. Doğan et al. (2004: 17) to examine the anxiety of soccer players in the competition in their study, they releaved that %50 of soccer players concern the negative criticism of the trainer. In the same study, they reported that the highest level of concern according to the position was goalkeeper and defender. Penas et al. (2011: 139) is his study found significant difference between losing teams and winning teams. They emphasized that losing teams had significantly higher values for yellow cards than winning teams. These findings are similar to the findings in our study.
5 551 State Ancıety In Soccer: Research For Correlatıon Among Yellow Card, Competıtıon's Result and Goals Allowed In Durıng Soccer Competıtıons Conclusıon A good offensive and defensive principles must implement for success in soccer. Lack of one of them will be the negative impact on the success of the team. In soccer in all parts of the field is considered the defence duties of all players, yellow card's effect on the competition's result and goals allowed can be explained that might result from the pressure that players might not to fulfill the pressure which is one of the defensive principles due to the player's anxiety on leave his team. In this context, can be made interpretation on especially defensive players who took the yellow card, may have not to fulfill defensive duties so goals allowed may have increased and this situation affects the results of the competition. If there is a player to fulfill the place of a player who received a yellow card, to change immediately will make a positive impact on the success of the team. SOURCES CERİT, Emrah; GÜMÜŞDAĞ, Hayrettin; EVLİ, Fatih; ŞAHİN, Süleyman; BASTIK, Canan, (2013), Elite Woman Basketball Players Prior To Competition And Performance Of The Relationship Between The Levels Of Anxiety, e-journal of New World Sciences Academy Sports Sciences, 8 (1), CİVAN, Adem; ÖZDEMİR, İlyas; TAŞ, İsmail; ÇELİK, Ayhan, (2012), The Comparison Of State and Trait Anxiety Levels Of Tennis Players Which Physically Handicapped And Non-handicapped People, Selçuk University Journal Of Physical Education and Sport Science, 14 (1), ÇEPİKKURT, Fatma; İNANÇ, Banu Yazgan, (2012), Determining The Role Of Perfectionism And Achievement Goals For Competitive Anxiety Of College Handball Players, Spormetre Journal Of Physical Education and Sport Science, 10 (2), DOĞAN, Mehmet; ÇANKAYA, Cemali; GEZER, Tezcan (2004), Various Anxiety Causes Of B-C Young Team Footballers In Substructure Of Bursaspor, Atatürk University Journal Of Physical Education and Sport Science, 6 (2), 10. DÖNMEZ, Kürşat Han, (2013), Analysis Of State Anxiety And Trait Anxiety Levels Of Athletes Attending Inter-Universities Basketball Competition Held In Samsun, International Journal of Social Science, 6 (5), GACAR, Atalay; COŞKUNER, Zeki, (2010), Wrestlers Trait Anxiety Level Of Some Variables Of The Investigation, e-journal of New World Sciences Academy Sports Sciences, 5 (4), KARABULUT, Olcay; ATASOY, Murat; KAYA, Kazım; KARABULUT, Alparslan, (2013), The Examination Of The State-Trait Anxiety Levels Of The Male Football Players At The Age Of In Terms Of Different Variables, Journal Of Ahi Evran University Kırşehir Education Faculty, 14 (1), KARASAR, Niyazi, (2005), Scientific Research Method, Ankara: Printing 14, Nobel Publication Distribution.
6 Halil Orbay Çobanoğlu - Mustafa Serdar Terekli 552 KOY, Funda, (1999), The Comparison Of Zone Of Optimal Functioning (ZOF) Of State Anxiety and Performance In The Female Basketball Players, Hacettepe Journal of Sport Sciences, 10 (1), ÖZERKAN, Kemal Nuri, (2003), The Relationship Between The Level Of Pre-Competition Anxiety And Performance In Basketball Players, İstanbul University Journal Of Sport Science, 11 (3), 4-6. PENAS, Carlos Lago; BALLESTEROS, Joaquin Lago; REY, Ezequiel, (2011), Differences in performance indicators between winning and losing teams in the UEFA Champions League, Journal of Human Kinetics, 27, VAROL, Yaprak Kalemoğlu, (2014), Turkish Adaptation Of The Physical Education Trait Anxiety Scale: The Validity And Reliability Study, International Journal of Human Sciences, 11 (1),
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