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1 The Sport Psychology Professional Model - Inside Team Denmark s Sports Psychology support The sports psychology profession in Denmark has been characterized by a diversity of approaches and has acted as a tool-based discipline. International research suggests that an optimal sport psychological intervention requires a coherent service delivery model that integrates the entire efforts of the consultant's professional philosophy from intervention methods to the specific tools. This text describes Team Denmark profession model for sport psychology. The model describes the background of, and the structure and content of the sport psychology work. Objectives of the model are: To make visible a field of professionalism To create an overall framework for the sport psychology work in Team Denmark To create a uniformity in the consultants' work Creating expectations visible to any external partners. The model is built around four hierarchical levels that move from the fundamental and theoretical to the concrete and practical: The first level is the Psychology Team s consultant s basic beliefs and values regarding the world and human behaviour. This level describes the understanding of elite athletes and the central underpinning processes. The second level describes the theoretical paradigms which action is based. In particular, intervention theories. That is, theories about how the sport psychological consultant can best help and develop athletes and coaches. The third level defines the targets for intervention The fourth level describes what athletes need to learn, and practical aspects of work, such as tools and organisation. The idea of the model is that a good intervention requires consistency between all these four levels. A tool-oriented sports psychologist will go directly to level four and describe a number of practical skills and tools to teach them. The Team Denmark Sport Psychology team's position is that the content and tools only make sense in the context of a fundamental professional philosophy. 1

2 Level 1 Basic beliefs and values The foundation for action is the psychologist s fundamental beliefs about elite athletes, elite coaches and their performance. This level contains assumptions we are not always aware of and do not talk about in the daily work, but which govern our approach to the field. We have defined 10 fundamental beliefs that pervade our work. 1. Elite athletes and coaches operate from an interplay of thoughts, feelings, physiology and actions. This interaction is crucial for performance and wellbeing. 2. Elite athletes and coaches have a personality and identity (values, motives, self-esteem, and typical behaviours) that shape their lives and actions. However, many people act differently in different situations, because they are also affected by the surroundings and adapt to different situations. 3. Elite athletes are embedded in an environment. One can not understand an athlete without understanding the environment and relationships with people within this environment. 4. Elite athletes are motivated and learn better when they are allowed to think and take responsibility for their own development. 5. Elite athletes are elite athletes 24 hours a day. It requires dedication and commitment. However, the development and performance of elite athletes is best in the long run, when their identity has broader meaning than the sport and when their self-esteem is not only dependent on sporting performance. 2

3 6. A sports career is a progression through a series of natural phases that possess unique challenges. The transition between (or progression through) these phases is a key challenge for the athlete and the potential for crisis or growth. 7. Adversity is a part of sport. Athletes must learn to view adversity as a natural part of sport and therefore develop strategies to manage and cope with them. 8. The way to top results is through a focus on the process. 9. The mental component plays a major role in both training and competition. Quality performances require quality training. A sports psychologist s core mission is to build quality into the daily training as well as in competition. 10. Mental skills should be developed in the sport environment. Therefore, the development of mental skills should be integrated into the daily training and the coach plays an important role in mental development. Level 2 Theories of Interventions This level describes the theory of intervention, on which the practical work is based. Psychology is now characterised by a variety of theoretical paradigms which contains both a descriptive level (what is the nature of people and their problems) and an applied level (intervention theory: how can and should a psychologist create development and change in humans to help people overcome their problems). Although these theories and schools sometimes compete and conflict, we believe that at the applied level the different theories can complement each other in a fruitful manner. Therefore we work from an eclectic perspective. We draw inspiration from a variety of psychological schools and directions. An eclectic approach is not the same as working outside the theory, but a creative synthesis of the theories. Below is a brief description of the theories we obtain our inspiration from, and specifically which parts of the theories we will draw inspiration from. Cognitive Behavioural Therapy Cognitive behaviour therapy describes the link between thoughts, feelings, physiology and behaviour. Athletes thought patterns are at the heart of their performance. By identifying, modifying and controlling thoughts, athletes can optimize their athletic performance. Another central belief in the cognitive behavioural therapy is that we do not respond to reality, rather our interpretation of reality. An athlete will not necessarily be nervous when he is in fact out matched and in danger of losing, but only when he perceives this is occurring. A key part of the psychologists task will be to help athletes to understand how they interpret events and what impact this may have on their effort and achievement. The cognitive behaviour therapy emphasises that people rarely stick to certain behaviours unless it has some benefits. Inappropriate behaviour often has secondary gains (e.g., if I become ill in an event it may reduce the pressure to perform). However, it is important to fully understand the consequences of these actions and why they are important. An important tool from cognitive psychology is psycho-education. This means training in psychological issues. In short, education is a part of treatment to understand the relationships that underlie one's problems. Teaching key psychological concepts (e.g., stress, self-esteem, etc)is an important part of the psychologists role. Last but not least, the cognitive behavioural therapy position on the importance of training. To 3

4 change behaviour, you must first understand the concept and then practice, practice and practice. If an athlete wants to be better at handling nervous, they must be trained, and this training must be integrated into the daily training. This idea fits well with elite sport where quick fix solutions are rare and improvement requires consistent effort. Systems Theory Systemic Psychology is a complex scientific tradition, rather than one school. We draw inspiration from both the tradition s focus on the "whole system" as well as in the systemic conversation practice. A major inspiration is the recognition that an athlete is embedded in an environment. The sport psychologist therefore needs to work with the whole environment, both sporting and the nonsporting areas, in order to create optimal conditions for the athletes performance. For example, an athlete who has moved to start a new education may have difficulty finding focus in training. If we only focus on the athlete and only on what is happening during training and competition, then we may miss key points. In practice, this has a number of consequences. First, in some cases the sport psychologist may spend time and energy on factors that are "outside the sport". Secondly, the coach will have a central role in the developing the mental area. The coach is a key support and plays a central role in helping the athlete s mental development. Another view of the systemic psychology is that problems are circular. People often want to see simple linear causal relationships and maintain that certain selected factors are the cause the problems, however the reality is often more complex. Elite athletes and coaches must learn to see their own role in maintaining the problems and thus identify what steps they can take to find a solution. Humanistic Psychology Humanistic Psychology sees people as self actualised, that is motivated towards goals and able to assume responsibility for their own development. In practice this means that the sports psychology consultant should believe that the athletes are competent and motivated to work on their own problems. Therefore, self-directed tasks ( home assignments ) and a focus on the athletes own resources are important consultation methods. The humanistic psychology also draws attention to the concepts of identity and meaning. In a sport psychological context it can be said that concrete mental skills are important, but it is equally important to go "back" and examine how the athlete understands himself and whether he or she is experiencing a meaningful career as an elite athlete, as well as which dreams and goals create motivation, confidence, etc. Humanistic psychology also strongly focused on the relationship between psychologist and client. A central belief is that the relationship heals. But not in itself. A relationship characterized by trust, confidence and recognition, creates opportunities to work with athletes behaviour in the therapeutic relationship and creates fertile ground for learning and development. Personality Psychology The final area in which we find inspiration is the research in the "sports personality". Although context is important and we act differently in different situations, the approach puts the focus on that all people have a core personality. People tend to follow different behavioural and thought patterns across different situations. There is no fixed personality that follows us from birth, but a tendency for preferred or typical behaviours and often acting in a similar manner, etc. This approach has included the study of what characteristics Olympians have in common with each 4

5 other. Research on personality in the sport has evolved much in recent years. First, now there is the not the same emphasis on a "fixed personality" rather a focus on typical behaviour. Secondly, it recommends you do not test in connection with the selection of talent, because young performers develop throughout their career. We are inspired by the idea that athletes have a "personality". Athletes are in varying degrees, ambitious, detail-oriented, risk-takers, creative, etc. But we do not believe that this personality is either fixed or applies to all situations. Therefore we use tests without definitive answers, but to allow development. In practice this creates a number of important actions. First, we use sportspecific tests, not broad or generic tests. Secondly, the function of testing is as a starting point for a dialogue, not as a definitive answer. Thirdly, tests are used to identify development areas, based on the principle that we can develop the personality. Level 3 - Objectives of the sport psychology intervention On an organizational level Team Denmark wants to become the leading knowledge organization in sports psychology in Denmark. Overall, the sport psychology team is a part of Team Denmark and its overall objectives. This means that 'we are fighting for gold to Denmark' and working towards creating Denmark to be the best place in the world to develop as an elite athlete. More specifically, the sport psychological team has the following objectives: That Danish elite athletes obtains the right mental tools to perform optimally at the highest international level and to ensure that the Danish elite athletes have the mental edge in competitive situations (see Support Concept) Promote quality in the daily training That the individual elite athletes experience meaning and value in life as elite athletes Creating a common language for the psychological aspects of sports training and competition Level 4 - Content: Team Denmark's Sports Psychology Model Team Denmark s sports psychology team has developed the Sport Psychological Model to provide an overview of sports psychology work. The model describes the content of the sports psychology work. That is, what levels, layers and themes we're working with. The model works with three levels, Personality and identity, Life as elite athlete and Mental skills, as well as the sporting and non-sporting environments. Team Denmark's sports psychology model Personality and identity The bottom layer is about personality and the athletes personal identity. Personality is about how each of us basically is/acts as a person. Identity is about how we define and understand ourselves. Identity can be equated with self-image. In our personality and identity is our self-esteem, our motives, our values and our typical behaviour. 5

6 Self-worth Self-worth is about whether a person appreciates and accepts themselves as they are. An elite athlete s self-worth should be independent of his performance. You are all right as a human being, even if you lose some games or make mistakes. Not all athletes are naturally thinking this way, and there is an important role for sport psychologists to help athletes to learn to separate performance and self-worth. Motives We as people have many motives, we are motivated to pursue. Elite athletes have a strong motivation to grow their elite careers and achieve the goals they have set themselves. But there may also have conflicting motives. For example friends you want to grow, family, or study. Athletes should know their own motives and be aware of how to handle motives, pointing in different directions. Values 6

7 Values reflect what is important to us and has a value for us. It can be personal values such as dedication, determination, order or variation, or human values such as leadership, support, recognition or independence. It is an advantage if the elite athlete is aware of own values, so they can go through their career in a manner consistent with these values, or if the athlete has values that may need to be compromised, they willing to make this compromise. Typical behaviour If we look at an elite athletes behaviour over time, there are behavioural elements which are linked with their personality and that are reflected both in training and competition. This is the behaviour we call the typical behaviour, and associated with elite athletes "sports personality". By becoming aware of your own typical behaviour strengths can be identified as well as areas for development. Openness and awareness of sports personalities and typical behaviour is also an advantage when one is part of a team to achieve synergies and avoid conflicts. Life as elite exercises & life skills The middle layer refers to tackling life as elite athlete and mastering the life-skills that are needed to be an elite athlete. It's all about the athletes commitment, planning, career stages, team work and sport-life balance. Commitment Commitment is about whether elite athlete has an elite attitude, as well as the motivation and engagement, and the degree to which they commit to and prioritise their elite sports career. Planning Planning is about fundamental planning skills. It is important to plan each day with training, eating, rest, study or work as well as family and friends. Career Transition A sports career is progressing through a series of natural phases that has its challenges. Transitions between these phases are key challenges for the athlete and the potential for crisis or growth. Elite athletes must learn to cope with the progression between these phases. Team Work An elite athletic career often requires working with other people. The athlete must be able to work with coaches, team mates, support staff and other partners. Therefore, cooperation and communication are key areas in sports psychology. Sports-life balance Elite athletes are elite athletes 24 hours a day. It requires dedication and commitment. However, elite athletes perform best in the long run, when their identity is defined wider than sport and selfworth does not depend only on sporting performance. The Mental Wheel Mental Skills In the upper layer is the Mental Wheel. The mental wheel contains 8 key mental skills that are important to an elite athlete in order to perform optimally. Training of the 8 mental skills is an important element in the daily training environment. 7

8 Goal setting Goal setting is a key skill for an elite athlete in both training and competition. Goals provide direction, focus and motivation. Typically, elite athletes have clear result targets, but those who succeed build motivation and believe in achieving process goals. Constructive evaluations Evaluating your goals and performance is an important step for developing and learning. Constructive evaluation is an important skill to be learned. Constructive evaluations focus primarily on self-reviews to build effective learning and motivation. Negative evaluations focus often on external factors such as opponents, coaches, judges, or internal factors, in a way that is self-critical and can decrease confidence and motivation (and in worst case low self-worth, see earlier about self-esteem). Concentration Concentration comes to focus and directing attention to the relevant information with the right intensity. It is also about having the ability to refocus when something unexpected happens, or if you are distracted. Self talk Self talk is the dialogue taking place in our mind. Sometimes this dialogue may be a single voice, other times it may be a conversation within our mind. For example, there may be an internal dialogue between a result-oriented side debating with a process-oriented, or a negative aspect debating with a positive aspect. Learning to control this internal dialogue towards supportive and motivational aspects is essential to perform at your best and learn. Self-confidence The ability to believe in your self in critical situations in both training and competition can affect your performance and your learning in a positive direction. Confidence can be built through a series of methods that can be learned. Arousal Regulation Finding the right balance between activation, energy, tension and relaxation is essential to perform optimally. Athletes differ on how high arousal level must be to perform at your best, but by increasing awareness of your best performances, you can learn what the optimal level is and how to find this level in competitions. Visualisation Visualisation is where we use our senses to create mental images. You use as many senses as possible to create an experience "that is as close to reality as possible". Research has shown that nerve and muscle fibres activated by the mental image as similar to if we performed these acts in reality. Athletes can use mental visualisation to train and prepare themselves for competition and training situations. Competition Strategies Competitive Strategies is about to have clear, practical and mental strategies and routines in the lead up to the competition, during competition and after competition. It creates calm and focus, and 8

9 helps one to find the right mental state. External influences Outside the triangle are various external factors which may affect the athlete. It is not possible to understand an athlete without understanding the whole of his / hers environment and the relationships with people in this environment. This includes both the sporting environment and the non-sporting environment. In addition, the model also includes the specific situation that the athlete finds themselves currently in. In the sports environment, it is important to deal with both training and competition environment, which include key people such as the coach, team mates and competitors. Family, partners, friends, are key people in the environment outside of sport, where education, jobs and social life play an important role. All internal and external forces shape any specific situation currently experienced by the athlete. Level 5: Sports Psychological services and methods Until now we described the background and content of Team Denmark's sports psychology work. Here, finally, is a brief overview of Team Denmark's sports psychological services. Courses for coaches As part of the ambition to create a common "mental language" in Danish elite sport, and in recognition of the importance the trainer in the daily work of creating a "mental culture", trainer courses are an important tool in the sport psychology model. Team Denmark sport psychology services include several coaching courses. The purpose of the coach series is that coaches will be introduced to sports psychology and learn to integrate the training of mental abilities as regular part of the daily training. Courses include: Basic Course in Sports Psychology, with the following themes: Training Environments Team Psychology Training of mental skills Advanced Course in Sports Psychology - training workshop Integrating the training of mental abilities with other aspects of elite sports training Creating training environments with quality and optimal group dynamics Coaching Education in elite sport Coaching for development talks Coaching in team development conversations Coaching of individuals in the field Coaching of teams / groups in the field Personal leadership, with the following themes: Personality profiles, strengths and development areas Creating change and working with opposition Strong / motivational talks 9

10 Working with problems Personal vision and personal values Breaking their own habits Stress and burnout Communication (body language, etc..) Courses for Athletes All Team Denmark athletes are offered a basic course in sports psychology. The course introduces the key aspects from Team Denmark s sports psychology model, including: Life as elite exercise & Life skills. Identity, commitment, planning, team work, sport-life balance and career stages Training of mental skills The course is practical in its focus. Athletes will firstly learn simple tools to optimize training and competition, as this course provides a good foundation for subsequent individual proceedings. Sport Specific courses Sport-specific courses and concepts will be developed in collaboration with the individual sport federations. The action may involve the mental development of athletes, supervision of coaches and the sports psychologist attending training and competitions. The specific focus of the service may be from different parts of the sports psychology model. Objectives will often include developing the knowledge and skills of Team Denmark coaches within the sport psychology area in order to increase the use of planned mental training with Team Denmark elite athletes. Individual development Sports Psychological work with individual athletes may involve long-term proactive work and more acute interventions in non clinical crises such career transition, injuries, motivation crises etc. Service delivery may involve interviews, observation, testing, etc. The focus of this work would be from different areas of Team Denmark s sports psychology model as required by the specific needs of the individual. This type of scenario is not limited to individual athletes, but can be implemented in relation to both coaches and teams. 10

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