# RATIO ESTIMATORS IN POST-STRATIFICATION

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1 Nüfusbilim Dergisi\Turkish Journal of Population Studies, 2012, 34, RATIO ESTIMATORS IN POST-STRATIFICATION In this study, some ratio-type estimators are taken into consideration in literature and their properties are studied in post-stratification. Mean square error (MSE) of all ratio estimators in post-stratification is obtained and compared with the MSE of classical estimators in stratified random sampling. Within the frame work of the data from 2000 General Population size Census of Turkey which was carried out by the Turkish Statistical Institute (TURKSTAT), average employment has been estimated, and the population is taken as auxiliary variable by NUTS-1 Level. An application is carried out to show the superiority of the suggested ratio-estimators in post-stratification under the guidance of Turkey 2000 Population Census data. Sevil BACANLI * Eda EVİN AKSU ** 1. INTRODUCTION A ratio estimate of the population mean can be made in stratified random sampling in two ways. One way is to make a separate ratio estimate of the total of each stratum and weighting these totals. The other one is combined ratio estimate which is derived from a single combined ratio. From the sample data, we compute sample mean of the variates in stratified random sampling ( ) method are computed as such where is the number of stratum, is stratum weight, N is the number of units in population, is the number of units in stratum h, is the sample mean of variate of interest in stratum h and is the sample mean of auxiliary variate in stratum h. The separate ratio estimate ( ) and the MSE of this estimator are given by (1), (2) (3) respectively. Here is the sample mean of the study variable in stratum h; is the sample mean of the auxiliary variable in stratum h; ; is the sample size of the h. stratum and is the * Associated Professor, Hacettepe University Department of Statistics ** Expert, TURKSTAT, Department of Demography Statistics

2 4 S.BACANLI, E. EVİN AKSU population size of the h. stratum. In the equation (3), and are population variances of auxiliary and study variables in stratum h, population covariance between the auxiliary and study variables, is the is the population ratio of h. stratum ; is the coefficient of correlation between x and y; and are the coefficient of variation of y and x in stratum h. It should not be forgotten in here, it is assumed that the population mean of the auxiliary variable x is known (Cochran, 1977; Singh, 2003). When the population coefficient of variation C x and kurtosis β 2 (x) of the auxiliary variable, are known, Sisodia and Dwivedi (1981), Upadhyaya and Singh (1999) suggest ratio-type estimators (,, ) for in simple random sampling as (4) (5) (6) The MSE equation of these estimators are given by. (7) (8) (9) (10) where,,,. These estimators are developed by assuming that the sample is selected from the population with equal probability under simple random sampling. Kadilar and Cingi (2003) analyze these estimators for combined ratio estimator in the stratified random sampling and Rueda et al. (2006), Bacanli and Kadilar (2008) examine them under the light of various sampling designs. However, none (11)

3 RATIO ESTIMATORS IN POST-STRATIFICATION 5 of these studies examined those estimators within the frame of the post-stratified sampling. Therefore, this paper aims to investigate these ratio-type estimators, by using post-stratified sampling. Post-stratification is a method of estimation that is very popular among survey practitioners. Holt and Smith (1979) describe the post-stratification as follows: Firstly, the sample is selected and then this selected sample is divided into groups such as age, gender, region, occupation and other factors. The reason behind the usage of post-stratification after sampling is that the information for the classification of the sampling units cannot be achieved prior data collection or is very high priced to use when creating sampling strata (Cervantes and Brick, 2009). Two important problems can occur within the process of application post-stratification. The first of these problems is the empty strata. The estimations regarding the population cannot be calculated in the case of empty strata. This problem can be solved by combining the strata. However, this is a difficult and time-consuming process in the surveys. The other second problem in stratification is that the strata size in population cannot be known before (Bethlehem and Keller, 1987). A number of articles have been written about the usages and benefits of post-stratification. For instance, Zhang (2000) examined a calibration estimator in post-stratification. Liu (2002) applied a three-stage sampling procedure to the estimation of mean in post-stratification. Kim et al. (2007) suggested findings from their research which is specific to cell collapsing in post-stratification. Kim and Wang (2009) proposed a simple second-order linearization variance estimator for the poststratified estimator of the population total in two-stage sampling. Martinez et al. (2011) proposed a post-stratified calibration estimator for estimating quantiles. In this study, firstly ratio estimators are considered within the frame work of separate ratio estimate ( ) in the stratified random sampling. These estimators are given below: (12) (13) (14) MSE equations of these estimators are given by: (15) (16) (17)

4 6 S.BACANLI, E. EVİN AKSU (18) (19) Where,, 2. THE SUGGESTED ESTIMATORS and. Post-stratification is often used in sample surveys, when the identification of stratum cannot be achieved in advance. In a post-stratified sampling scheme a sample of n units is first selected from the population of N units by using simple random sampling. The population is stratified into L strata on the basis of some known auxiliary information. In post stratified sampling, the values of N h, where h=1,2,,l and may or may not be known for each sample unit which is selected with the chosen design. Then post-stratified or placed in the h th stratum based on the auxiliary information associated with each sampled unit such as. Thus the difference between stratified and post-stratified sampling schemes is that in stratified sampling the sub-sample size n h is a fixed or predefined number in stratified sampling, whereas it is random variable in post-stratified sampling (Singh, 2003). For the post-stratified sampling, the ratio estimator ( can be written as, (20) This estimation is called as the separate ratio estimation, when the strata are identified before the sampling process in stratified sampling. The stratum totals must be derived from the frame or from a reliable external source (Särndal et al., 2003). In post-stratification, estimator n h are random variables. If were fixed, post-stratified ratio estimator would function as separate ratio estimation in the stratified sampling under proportional allocation. If were fixed, the MSE of the separate ratio estimator is. (21) It can be defined that. Then, the equation will be. (22)

5 RATIO ESTIMATORS IN POST-STRATIFICATION 7 In this situation, a general expression for with its expected value. can be approximated by replacing It is difficult to find the expected value of the reciprocal of a random variable; a good approximation can be given as (Hansen et al., 1953),. (23) By replacing this with in equation for MSE of the separate ratio estimator, MSE of the poststratified ratio estimator would be. (24) Ratio estimators in post-stratification are same as the separate ratio estimators in stratified sampling. But MSE equations differ in these methods. The estimators given in the Section-1 are combined with post-stratified ratio estimator given in (20), following estimators ( are proposed as such: (25) (26) (27). (28) By using (24), the MSE of the proposed estimators can be given as (29)

6 8 S.BACANLI, E. EVİN AKSU where, ; (30) where, ; (31) where, ; (32) where,. 3. APPLICATION AND MAIN RESULTS As the numerical example, the data from 2000 Population and Housing Census of Turkey which was carried out by the Turkish Statistical Institute is used, average employment is estimated as: y: employment (study variable), x: population (auxiliary variable) for each of the 12 regions within the Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics (NUTS-1) level. For this data set, each regions are considered as a population (TR 1, TR 2, TR 3, TR 4, TR 5, TR 6, TR 7, TR 8, TR 9, TR A, TR B, TR C ). Turkey is divided into 12 regions on the basis of the Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics level. Regions and cities in the each region are given in the Table 1. In the study, population in employment defined as the persons who take place in an economic activity at least one hour on the reference date either as a regular or casual employee or as unpaid family worker for an income either in kind (good) or in cash (money) and who is 12 years of age or over (TURKSTAT, 2003). The persons with unknown employment status are not covered in the study. Consequently, persons who are at the age of 12 or older in the population of cities and villages are taken into consideration in accordance with the definition of employment. City population can be defined as the population of municipal areas of the province and district centers, while village population can be defined as the population of sub-districts and villages. Administrative units are taken as a sampling unit, whereas the distinction between city and village area is taken as a stratification variable. In order to estimate the average employment of the regions in NUTS-1 level, it is determined that the margin of error d=200 and risk α= 0,05. In stratified random sampling (SS), population is stratified into strata and then samples are selected from each stratum by using Neyman allocation. On the other hand, in post-stratified sampling (PS), firstly, a sample of n units is selected with using simple random sampling without replacement

7 RATIO ESTIMATORS IN POST-STRATIFICATION 9 and then, the sample size is stratified in to strata. The sample size and the statistics of regions are given in Table-2 for each sampling scheme. However, since the sample size which is calculated for TR-1 region is equal to the population size, the MSE of the ratio estimators for this region cannot be calculated, so this region cannot be included to the application. Table 1. Cities and regions in NUTS-1 Level NUTS-1 Cities NUTS-1 Cities TR1 (İstanbul) İstanbul TR7 (Central-Anatolia) Kırıkkale, Aksaray, Niğde, Nevşehir, Kırşehir, Kayseri, Sivas, Yozgat TR2 (Western- Marmara) Tekirdağ, Edirne, Kırklareli, Balıkesir, Çanakkale TR8 (Western- Blacksea) Zonguldak, Karabük, Bartın, Kastamonu, Çankırı, Sinop, Samsun, Çorum, Tokat, Amasya TR3 (Aegean) İzmir, Aydın, Denizli, Muğla, Manisa, Afyon, Kütahya, Uşak TR9 (Eastern Blacksea) Trabzon, Ordu, Giresun, Rize, Artvin, Gümüşhane TR4 (Eastern- Marmara) Bursa, Eskişehir, Bilecik, Kocaeli, Sakarya, Düzce, Bolu, Yalova TRA (Northeast- Anatolia) Erzurum, Erzincan, Bayburt, Ağrı, Kars, Ardahan TR5 (Western- Anatolia) Ankara, Konya, Karaman TRB (Eastern- Anatolia) Malatya, Elazığ, Bingöl, Tunceli, Van, Muş, Bitlis, Hakkari TR6 (Mediterranean) Antalya, Isparta, Burdur, Adana, Mersin, Hatay, Kahramanmaraş, Osmaniye TRC (Southeastern- Anatolia) Gaziantep, Adıyaman, Kilis, Şanlıurfa, Diyarbakır, Mardin, Batman, Siirt, Şırnak

8 10 S.BACANLI, E. EVİN AKSU Table 2. Data Statistics and sample size for post-stratified (PS) and stratified random sampling (SS) Regions Strata TR1 TR2 TR3 TR4 TR5 TR6 TR7 TR8 TR9 TRA TRB TRC N h PS n h SS n h ρ β 2 (x) Cx City , , , ,87 0,991 0,52 0,43 Village , , , ,90 0,999 75,63 8,82 Total , , , ,12 0,994 12,10 8,10 City , , , ,00 0,989 9,3 1,71 Village ,51 474, , ,24 0,987 97,61 1,93 Total , , , ,37 0, ,72 7,33 City , , , ,00 0,996 33,46 2,23 Village ,17 637, , ,25 0,996 49,09 1,54 Total , , , ,30 0, ,86 8,78 City , , , ,00 0,997 14,33 2,21 Village ,91 496, , ,39 0, ,94 3,23 Total , , , ,70 0, ,15 10,1 City , , , ,993 8,77 2,01 Village ,62 584, , ,77 0,982 76,86 1,87 Total , , , ,10 0, ,76 9,81 City , , , ,00 0,993 19,09 2,22 Village ,39 806, , ,05 0, ,28 2,07 Total , , , ,20 0, ,21 8,81 City , , , ,00 0,995 12,52 1,93 Village ,23 407, , ,23 0,995 34,4 1,76 Total ,52 922, , ,61 0, ,44 7,83 City , , , ,00 0,993 36,18 1,91 Village ,55 337, , ,08 0, ,38 1,87 Total ,72 661, , ,70 0, ,62 7,96 City , , , ,20 0,992 26,4 1,54 Village ,45 467, , ,24 0,993 26,98 1,64 Total ,95 896, , ,83 0,96 695,84 5,29 City , , , ,00 0,991 37,08 2,29 Village ,25 264, , ,42 0,996 43,37 1,42 Total ,62 556, , ,65 0, ,18 9,9 City , , , ,00 0,996 21,07 2,27 Village ,63 369, , ,57 0,997 62,81 1,79 Total ,05 825, , ,27 0,98 957,78 9,19 City , , , ,00 0,982 12,58 1,94 Village ,38 383, , ,83 0, ,67 2,28 Total , , , ,7 0, ,58 10,2

9 RATIO ESTIMATORS IN POST-STRATIFICATION 11 Within the frame work of the above results (Table 2), the MSE and the efficiency for all the estimators in post-stratification and stratified random sampling, are calculated for every 11 regions. The efficiency of each estimator in post-stratification with respect to the sample mean of a stratified random sampling is defined as follows: where is the mean square error for each estimator which is suggested in stratified random sampling for separate ratio estimate while is the mean square error for each estimator which is suggested in post-stratified sampling. Therefore, the efficiency of ratio estimators which are suggested in post-stratification with respect to the stratified random sampling, a comparison is carried out for 11 different data sets. In Table 3 and Table 4, the MSE and efficiency for estimators given in Section 2 are presented. Based on these results, it is noticed that the suggested estimators in post-stratification have the highest efficiency, i.e., they have smaller MSE than separate ratio estimate.

10 12 S.BACANLI, E. EVİN AKSU Table 3. and of estimators according to data of regions Regions Classical- Ratio-R SD SK US1 US2 TR TR TR TR TR TR TR TR TR-A TR-B TR-C Classical- Ratio-R Regions SD SK US1 US2 TR TR TR TR TR TR TR TR TR-A TR-B TR-C The best estimators are highlighted in bold.

11 RATIO ESTIMATORS IN POST-STRATIFICATION 13 Table 4. Efficiencies of estimators in post-stratification with respect to separate ratio estimators ( ) Regions Classical- Ratio-R SD SK US1 US2 TR-2 1,2326 1,2322 1,2207 1,2326 1,2242 TR-3 1,1334 1,1334 1,1334 1,1334 1,1333 TR-4 1,1264 1,1260 1,1521 1,1264 1,1405 TR-5 1,0514 1,0514 1,0508 1,0514 1,0509 TR-6 1,0796 1,0794 1,0777 1,0796 1,0774 TR-7 1,0024 1,0021 1,0014 1,0024 1,0007 TR-8 1,0543 1,0531 1,1078 1,0543 1,0794 TR-9 1,0584 1,0583 1,0578 1,0584 1,0577 TR-A 0,7912 0,7909 0,7964 0,7912 0,7924 TR-B 0,9870 0,9863 1,0001 0,9869 0,9880 TR-C 1,1067 1,1065 1,1307 1,1067 1,1238 The best estimators are highlighted in bold. The striking feature of the Table 3 is that the proposed estimators in post-stratification are uniformly most efficient for all the 9 data sets except 2 of them. In addition, it should be pointed out that the order of MSE values of the estimators from smaller to bigger is similar in both post-stratification and separate ratio estimate. Ratio estimators ( ) which are examined in this study are studied according to simple and stratified random sampling in literature before whereas in this study, these ratio estimators are suggested for post-stratified sampling. In addition to that, the MSE of these estimators are calculated for 11 different data sets and their efficiencies are calculated by comparing them with stratified random sampling. As a consequence, it is seen that ratio estimators are more effective in post-stratification. It is under consideration that in subsequent studies, the usage of regression estimators in poststratification will be examined and they will be compared with ratio estimators.

12 14 S.BACANLI, E. EVİN AKSU REFERENCES Aksu, E.E., (2009). Post-stratification and an application. TURKSTAT Expertness thesis. Bacanli, S., Kadilar, C. (2008). Ratio estimators with unequal probability designs, Pakistan Journal of statistics, 24(3), Bethlehem, J. G. and Keller, W.J. (1987). Linear Weighting of Sample Survey Data, Journal Of Official Statistics 3(2), Cervantes, I.F. and Brick, J.F. (2009). Efficacy of Poststratification in Complex Sample Design, Proceedings of the Survey Research Methods Section, Alexandria, VA: American Statistical Association Cochran, W.G. (1977). Sampling Techniques. New York; Wiley. Hansen, M.H., Hurwitz, W.N., Madow W.G. (1953). Sample Survey Methods and Theory Volume II-Theory. Canada; John Wiley&Sons, Incorporation. Holt, D., Smith, T.M.F.(1979). Post-Stratification, Journal of the Royal Statistical Society A, 142, Kadilar, C., Cingi, H. (2003). Ratio estimators in stratified random sampling, Biometrical Journal. 45(2003)2, Kim, J.J., Li, J., and Valliant, R. (2007). Cell Collapsing in Poststratification, Survey Methodology, 33, Rueda, M. M., Gonzalez, S. and Arcos, A. (2006). A general class of estimators with auxiliary information based on available units, Applied Mathematics and computation. 175, Särndal, C.E., Swensson, B., Wretman, J. (2003). Model Assisted Survey Sampling. New York; Springer. Singh, S. (2003). Advanced sampling theory with applications. Kluwer, Netherlands Sisodia, B. V. S. and Dwivedi, V. K.. (1981). A Modified ratio estimator using coefficient of variation of auxiliary variable, Journal of Indian Society Agricultural Statistics. 33, Upadhyaya, L. N. and Singh, H. P., (1999). Use of transformed auxiliary variable in estimating the finite population mean, Biometrical Journal 41, 5, Zhang, Li-Chun (2000). Post-Stratification and Calibration- A Synthesis, The American Statistician, 54,

13 RATIO ESTIMATORS IN POST-STRATIFICATION 15 ÖZET SONRADAN TABAKALAMADA ORANSAL TAHMİN EDİCİLER Bu çalışmada, literatürde verilen oransal tahmin edicilerin sonradan tabakalama yönteminde kullanımı incelenmiştir. Hata kareler ortalaması (HKO) elde edilmiş ve tabakalı rasgele örneklemede verilen oransal tahmin edicilerin HKO ile karşılaştırılmıştır. Türkiye İstatistik Kurumu tarafından gerçekleştirilen 2000 Türkiye Genel Nüfus Sayımı sonuçlarından idari birim bazında istihdam ve nüfus değerleri kullanılarak İstatistiki Bölge Birimleri Sınıflaması Düzey-1 bazında ortalama istihdam tahmin edilmiştir. Uygulama sonuçlarına göre sonradan tabakalama için önerilen oransal tahmin edicilerin daha iyi sonuç verdiği gösterilmiştir.

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