RENEWABLE INTEGRATION IN TURKISH POWER SYSTEM

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1 RENEWABLE INTEGRATION IN TURKISH POWER SYSTEM Nurhan OZAN Transmission Planning & Coordination Manager Research, Planning, Coordination Department TURKISH ELECTRICITY TRANSMISSION CORPORATION ()

2 MAIN RESPONSIBILITIES The sole owner of Electricity Transmission System Responsible for the expansion of transmission network infrastructure & construction of new transmission facilities Operating & Maintaining the Turkish Electricity Transmission Network economically and reliably in compliance with international standards Monitoring real-time system reliability, purchasing and providing Ancillary Services Through Ancillary Service Agreements Publishing 10-year Electrical Energy Generation Capacity Projection Operating the Electricity Balancing- Settlement Market and Financial Reconciliation Center (PMUM)- Carrying out studies for the Interconnection Lines with neighbouring countries 2

3 TRANSMISSION GRID SUBSTATIONS 400 kv : kv : kv : kv : 14 Total : 657 Subs. with MVA capacity TRANSMISSION LINES 400 kv : 16,612 km 154 kv : 33,562 km 220 kv : 85 km 66 kv : 509 km 154 & 400 kv Cable: 283,3 km Total : km 3

4 ENERGY CONSUMPTION Twh TURKEY ANNUAL TOTAL ELECTRICITY CONSUMPTION (TWh) CONSUMPTION (TWh) ,5 128,3 126,9 132,6 141, ,8 174, ,1 194,1 210,4 230,3 241,9 INCREASE (%) 8,1 3,9 8,3-1,1 4,5 6,5 6,3 7,2 8,6 8,8 4,3-2 8,4 9,4 5 4

5 INSTALLED CAPACITY & PEAK LOAD 2012 Installed Capacity: Annual Consumption Peak Load MW 241, MW ( :30) HYDRO; ; 35% Installed Capacity (2013 Nov.) OTHER; 458; 1% THERMAL; ; 60% (MW) 2013 November Installed Capacity: MW WIND; 2.677; 4% Peak Load MW THERMAL WIND HYDRO OTHER Toplam: 61,422 MW 5

6 COMPARISON POWER INSTALLED CAPACITY(MW) From 2002 to Installed capacity increase from to MW Peak Load increase from to MW between 2002 to 2013 GEOTHERMAL 0% WIND 0% 2002 DISTRIBUTION OF INSTALLED CAPACITY (MW) COAL 22% OTHER 17% NATURAL GAS 23% GEOTHERMAL 0% OTHER WIND 9% 4% HYDRO 38% HYDRO 34% HYDRO NATURAL GAS COAL WIND GEOTHERMAL OTHER 2013 DISTRIBUTION OF INSTALLED CAPACITY (MW) COAL 21% NATURAL GAS 32% HYDRO NATURAL GAS COAL WIND GEOTHERMAL OTHER 6

7 PEAK LOAD & ENERGY CONSUMPTION MW GWh TÜKETİM (GWh) SENARYO 1 ENERJİ TALEBİ SENARYO 2 ENERJİ TALEBİ PUANT YÜK (MW) SENARYO 1 PUANT TALEP SENARYO 2 PUANT TALEP 7

8 TURKISH WIND POTENTIAL The techno-economic wind potential of Turkey is 48 GW, according to General Directorate of Renewable Energy. The locations with highest potential are in the Aegean, Marmara, and Eastern Mediterranean and Hatay. 8

9 INSTALLED CAPACITY WIND POWER INSTALLED CAPACITY IN TURKEY (MW) LAW ABOUT UTILIZATION OF RENEWABLES INSTALLED CAPACITY (MW)

10 INSTALLED & PLANNED WPP s WPP STATUS MW IN OPERATION 2,677 HAS CONNECTION AGREEMENT with TEIAS 2,629 LICENSED by EMRA 3,961 PERMITTED for CONNECTION 997 EXTENSIONS PERMITTED in TOTAL

11 INSTALLED CAPACITY PROJECTIONS In accordance with the Ministry of Energy s Strategic Plan, Turkey is targeting 20,000 MW installed wind-power capacity by the end of

12 WPP INSTALLED POWER - REGIONAL DISTRIBUTION 1% 1% 3% 5% 26% 1% 1% 2% 21% 13% 2% 3% 4% 1% 3% 5% 7% TOTAL INSTALLED WPP : ~2700 MW 12

13 INSTALLED & PLANNED WPP s * Red: In Operation Blue: Planned TOTAL PLANNED + INSTALLED WPP: ~ MW 13

14 MILESTONES FOR WIND IN TURKEY The law on the Utilization of Renewable Energy Sources (RES) for the purpose of generating energy, (Law No of 10/05/05) is the first Renewable Energy Law of Turkey which was approved in the year 2005 by the Turkish Parliament. In November 2007, the Turkish Energy Market Regulatory Authority (EMRA) accepted 751 WPP applications with total capacity of 78,000 MW. The Turkey s Parliament approved a new law 29 December 2010, on regulating the renewable energy resources market in Turkey. The feed-in tariff incentives are applied for Renewable Power Plants. 14

15 INCENTIVES FOR RENEWABLE ENERGY Type Feed-in Tariffs (USD Cent / kwh) Hydro 7,3 Wind 7,3 Geothermal 10,5 If Production Made Domestically Additional Feed-in Contribution (USD Cent / kwh) Turbine 1,3 Generator and power electronics 1,0 Blade 0,8 Generator and power electronics 1,0 Turbine tower 0,6 Entire mechanical components within rotor and nacelle groups 1,3 Steam or gas turbine 1,3 Generator and power electronics 0,7 Steam injector or vacuum compressor 0,7 15

16 INCENTIVES FOR RENEWABLE ENERGY Type Feed-in Tariffs (USD Cent / kwh) Solar (PV) 13,3 Solar (CSP) 13,3 Additional Feed-in Production Made Domestically Contribution (USD Cent / kwh) Panel structural mechanics construction 0,8 PV modules 1,3 Cells forming PV module 3,5 Inverter 0,6 Material focusing solar irradiance onto PV module 0,5 Radiation collection tube 2,4 Reflector surface plate 0,6 Solar tracking system 0,6 Mechanical components of the heat storage 1,3 Mechanical components steam generation 2,4 Stirling engine 1,3 Solar panel structural mechanics 0,6 16

17 INCENTIVES FOR RENEWABLE ENERGY Type Feed-in Tariffs (USD Cent / kwh) Production Made Domestically Additional Feed-in Contribution (USD Cent / kwh) Fluid bearing steam boiler 0,8 Liquid or gas fuelled steam boiler 0,4 Gassification and gas purging group 0,6 Biomass 13,3 Steam or gas turbine 2.0 Internal combustion engine or Stirling Engine 0.9 Generator and power electronics 0,5 Cogeneration system 0,4 17

18 NOVEMBER 1 ST 2007 APPLICATIONS Before Nov Singular WPP applications and licensed seperately 3500MW of Wind capacity allocated before Nov NOVEMBER 1 ST 2007 Nov Applications 722 applications with MW capacity Overlapping, or same region. ASSESMENT OF APPLICATIONS Integration of wind capacity equal to 25% of maximum total demand is planned to be integrated. ( /4=~ MW) Wind Basin Substations are planned in region with high wind energy potential. WPP applications are directed to nearest substations. Maximum capacity connectable to a BUSBAR is determined to be %5 of the Short Circuit MVA 18

19 WPP BASIN (COLLECTOR) SUBSTATIONS In region where wind potentials are high, Wind Basin Subs are planned to be established and connectable WPP capacities are announced by TEIAS to integrate WPP s. KIRKLARELİ 380/154 kv Basin Substation İSTANBUL 380/154 kv Çatalca Basin TM WPP ~ WPP ~ ~ WPP 400/154 kv Basin (Collector) Substation ÇANAKKALE 380/154 kv Çan TM 380/154 kv Gelibolu (Sütlüce) TM 154 kv Çan Basin 1 TM 154 kv Çan Basin 2 TM İZMİR 380/154 kv İzmir Basin TM 19

20 400/154/33kV ÇEŞME BASIN 20

21 WPP CONNECTION REQUESTS MANAGEMENT Nov Applications TM TM TM MW is decreased to MW Non-overlapping applications to different subsstations are classified as singular application and connections approved. No competition 2000 MW Applications that are overlapping or/and have connection request to same substation are assessed via competitions (tender process) according to contribution fees. via competitions 5500 MW 21

22 LICENCE COMPETITIONS REGULATION REGARDING THE SELECTION PROCESS FOR MULTIPLE WIND PROJECT APPLICATIONS This regulation defines competition process, obligation of investors who will attend the competition and Contribution Rate of Wind and Solar Power Plant in the case of existence of more than one power plant application based on solar/wind energy for the same region. 22

23 COMPETITION PROCEDURE 1. Investors applies for license to Energy Authority (EMRA) 2. Applications are forwarded to TEIAS for grid assessment. 3. Attendees are listed according to connection area and/or connection point. 4. Investors who will attend to competition submit related documents to TEIAS. 5. Investor prepares bidding letter, letter of bank guarantee. 6. Investors attend to competition with the related documents. 7. Bids are ranked, bidders who submitted the highest Contribution Fee are permitted for grid connection. 8. Results of the competition are forwarded to EMRA. 9. Contribution Fee Agreement is signed with succesfull bidders. 10. Pre-License is given by EMRA 23

24 PREVIOUS RESULTS AND CONTRIBUTION FEES No. of Companies Competing No. of Subs. Permitted WPP s to connect grid Total Permitted Capacity (MW) , TOTAL Average Contibution Fee that will paid to TEIAS per kwh of energy produced is 1,91 kuruş/kwh ( ~1 USD cent) 24

25 COMPETITION RESULTS AND CONTRIBUTION FEES 5- krş/kwh; 481; 9% 4-5 krş/kwh; 728; 13% 3-4 krş/kwh; 816,6; 15% 0-0,5 krş/kwh; 2215,7; 40% 0-0,5 krş/kwh 0,5-1 krş/kwh 1-2 krş/kwh 2-3 krş/kwh 3-4 krş/kwh 2-3 krş/kwh; 225,5; 4% 1-2 krş/kwh; 605,5; 11% 0,5-1 krş/kwh; 427; 8% 4-5 krş/kwh 5- krş/kwh 25

26 LICENCE AND CONNECTION AGREEMENT CONTRIBUTION PAYMENT AGREEMENT signed between TEIAS and WPP s. PRE-LICENSE Pre-licenses are given to WPP s by EMRA APPLICATION TO CONNECTION AGREEMENT LICENSE APROVAL OF CONNECTION AGREEMENT If necessary connection investment is realized by investor on behalf of in accordance with technical standards, total amount of expenditures of investment is paid back in 10 years. If necessary connection investment is agreed to be realized by, connection lines are taken into Investment Plan. After pre-licenses, other preliminary permit issues are covered by investors (ie. environmental). If all permits are obtained, projects are licensed by EMRA, then construction begins. 26

27 TURKISH GRID CODE APPENDIX-18 Connection requirements for Wind Power Generations are defined in the Appendix-18 of the Turkish Grid Code. Issues covered in Appendix-18: Fault Ride Through Capability Active Power Control Frequency Contribution Of The Wind Power Plants Reactive Power Capacity Reactive Power Support Monitoring Of Wind Power Plants 27

28 GRID CODE FAULT RIDE THROUGH The wind turbines shall stay connected to network when voltage at the Connection Point will be in the region 1 and region 2. 28

29 GRID CODE ACTIVE POWER CONTROL In emergency cases, wind power plants shall be capable of varying their 20%-100% of the available active power output accordingly managed by signals provided by Dispatch Center. 29

30 GRID CODE - FREQUENCY RESPOSE When system frequency is between Hz, all available wind power can be generated. above 50.2 Hz, no additional turbine shall be started. higher than 50.3 Hz, the WPP must reduce its active power with the rate of %4 of wind power available capacity, and shall reduce its output power to 0 when system frequency is above 51.5 Hz 30

31 GRID CODE REACTIVE POWER CAPABILITY At the network connection point, the wind power plant must be capable of continuous operation for the power factor values in the region defined with the bold lines. 31

32 GRID CODE VOLTAGE REGULATION During normal operating conditions (0.9pu-1.1pu) of system voltage, wind generators must support voltage continuously in accordance with characteristics given in the figure for Network voltage deviations. 32

33 GRID CODE VOLTAGE REGULATION For a sudden change in the network voltage within normal operating limits, the wind power plant must give response in 200ms at the latest and reach its reactive power output value with an accuracy of %90 within 1s at the latest, and must be stable in 2 seconds at the latest. During stable operation, peak value of reactive power output variation must be less than 2% of the resulting reactive power output change in response to network voltage change. 33

34 NEW REGULATION - CONNECTABLE CAPACITY In the previous grid code, a capacity up to 5 % of the system short circuit MVA at the connection point is permitted. According to new regulation that has been published in January 2013, IEC standard is applied to determine wind power capacity that can be connected to busbar. 34

35 MONITORING OF WIND POWER PLANTS All the wind power plants shall establish the necessary infrastructure to provide the monitoring of the wind park from Wind Power Monitoring and Forecast Center (RİTM), developed by General Directorate of Renewable Energy. WPP s will be monitored also from Dispatch Centers for forecast and system operation. 35

36 CHALLENGES REGIONAL WIND CHARACTERISTICS WPP s in the (West) region in Turkey have very similar wind characteristics. Because of that, regional WPP behaviour is studied together for total impact, total variation and stability. 36

37 CHALLENGES REGIONAL WIND CHARACTERISTICS 400 MW MW installed capacity. Hourly variation: MW 2-hourly variation: MW 37

38 CHALLENGES REGIONAL WIND CHARACTERISTICS Concentrated WPP s that have similar characteristics may cause voltage fluctuations in the region. Reactive Support from WPP s will gain much more importantance than now by correlation MW installed capacity ~1500 MW hourly variation ~2000 MW 2-hourly variation It will be very important to forecast wind generation accurately to minimize daily-hourly deviations for dispatch and market. 38

39 CHALLENGES With higher wind penetration levels, the effects of wind generation on system increases, therefore Grid Code Compliance becomes much more critical. ie. Fault Ride Through Capability of Wind Farms will prevent loss of high wind generation due to system fault or generation loss Because of the similar wind variations, wind generation trips due to extreme weather conditions could occur and may result in regional collapse. To prevent this, better coordination between Dispatch Center and WPP Operators must be ensured. 39

40 WIND POWER PLANT CAPACITY EXTENSIONS After installation of all turbines mentioned in the license, WPP s can apply for capacity extensions: Without having need for new physical connection lines. Using the same voltage level and transmission line. The new wind turbine coordinates must be in existing project borders. In 2013, for 50 different WPP s, total capacity of 950 MW is approved as capacity extension. 40

41 TURKISH SOLAR POTENTIAL According to Strategy Paper of Energy Ministry, Turkey s aim in solar energy is to have MW solar power plant integration by

42 DETERMINING SOLAR INTEGRAITON CAPACITY Total installed capacity of the solar power plants which will be connected to transmission grid should not be higher than 600 MW until 31/12/2013. (LAW FOR USE OF RENEWABLE ENERGY RESOURCES FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ELECTRICAL ENERGY) Total installed capacity is distributed regarding the provinces, according to total average annual radiation and sunshine duration. Necessary information is obtained from YEGM (Renewable Energy General Management) Provinces with 1620 kwh/m2-per year and higher total average annual radiation are included in calculations. 42

43 CONNECTION POINTS FOR SOLAR POWER PLANTS REGION NUMBER OF SS CAPACITY (MW) 1 KONYA KONYA KONYA VAN AĞRI ANTALYA ANTALYA KARAMAN MERSİN MERSİN KAHRAMANMARAŞ ADIYAMAN BURDUR 3 26 REGION 10 NİĞDE NEVŞEHİR AKSARAY 11 KAYSERİ NUMBER OF SS CAPACITY (MW) 4 26 KAYSERİ MALATYA ADIYAMAN HAKKARİ MUĞLA AYDIN 15 ISPARTA AFYON 16 DENİZLİ DENİZLİ BİTLİS BİNGÖL TUNCELİ 4 11 REGION NUMBER OF SS CAPACITY (MW) 19 ŞIRNAK ADANA OSMANİYE MUŞ SİİRT BATMAN MARDİN SİVAS ELAZIĞ ŞANLIURFA DİYARBAKIR ERZURUM ERZİNCAN 2 3 TOTAL

44 CONNECTION POINTS FOR SOLAR POWER PLANTS Connection assessment will be done by TEIAS for projects which were made application to EMRA by the date June 2013 and capacities will be allocated to projects according to Competition Regulation For The License Application To Establish Power Plant Based On Wind/Solar Energy in the case of existence of more than one power plant license application based on solar energy for the same area. 44

45 TOTAL OF SOLAR PLANT APLPLICATIONS Total Capacitiy of Applications According to regions Total Capacitiy of Applications = 6179 MW 45

46 NUMBER OF SOLAR PLANT APPLICANTS OTHERS (17 Regions); 89 2 KONYA; DENİZLİ; 18 6 KARAMAN; NİĞDE-NEVŞEHİR- AKSARAY; 44 3 VAN-AĞRI; ISPARTA-AFYON; 20 8 KAHRAMANMARAŞ- ADIYAMAN; MALATYA- ADIYAMAN; 26 1 KONYA; KAYSERİ; 27 2 KONYA 6 KARAMAN 10 NİĞDE-NEVŞEHİR-AKSARAY 11 KAYSERİ 1 KONYA 12 MALATYA-ADIYAMAN 8 KAHRAMANMARAŞ-ADIYAMAN 15 ISPARTA-AFYON 3 VAN-AĞRI 16 DENİZLİ OTHERS (17 Regions) 46

47 RENEWABLE GENERATION WITHOUT LICENCE According to regulation dated 03th December 2010 published by Energy Market Regulatory Authority (EMRA), legal and natural personalities get right to construct cogeneration systems without license. For this purpose, allocated 2 MW for wind and solar, and 1 MW for cogeneration for each substation. Accordingly, the total amount of the application until it reaches the allocated capacity distribution companies will not ask for permission. However, in case this amount is exceeded, will be asked to re-vision for capacity increase and TEIAS will make a new assessment of the particular substation. 47

48 RENEWABLE GENERATION WITHOUT LICENCE GENERATION WITHOUT LICENSE Installed Power (MW) WPP HPP SPP COGEN BIO+HYBRID BIO+HIBRIT; 5,8; 2% COGEN; 44,7; 18% SPP; 114,05; 46% WPP; 59,4; 24% WPP HPP SPP COGEN HPP; 24,9; 10% BIO+HIBRIT Total installed capacity of application of generation without license is MW. 48

49 Thank you for attention Nurhan OZAN Manager Transmission Planning & Coordination Manager Research, Planning, Coordination Department

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