1 JOURNEY TO THE CL UD CLOUD TRANSLATION GUIDE
2 CLOUD TRANSLATION GUIDE Cloud computing may be the biggest technology trend of the moment but ask a hundred people to define it and chances are you d get a hundred different definitions. So let s keep it simple and think of Cloud as utility computing, where servers, storage and software are made available to end-users on a pay-as-you-use basis. Think service, not product, with a new breed of Cloud providers responsible for managing and delivering scalable, on demand IT resources over the internet. Cost savings, flexibility, resilience, convenience and agility are seen as the primary benefits of the Cloud movement, with the ability to align IT provision to user need fundamental to Cloud s efficacy, efficiency and cost-effectiveness. As Cloud adoption has grown, it has generated a small dictionary s worth of terms and jargon, which can be puzzling to enterprise users and consumers alike. Redcentric s Cloud translation guide aims to take away some of the mystery and welcome you and your business to the Cloud.
3 ANYTHING-AS-A-SERVICE API Anything-as-a-Service Also known as Everything-as-a-Service or XaaS (pronounced zass ), Anythingas-a-Service is a reference to the huge diversity of Cloud services available, from software to storage, networking, monitoring and communications. -aas tends to be used by businesses as a tag to highlight that what they do is Cloud-based. A few examples include: BPaaS Business-Process-as-a- Service includes billing, payroll and HR. HaaS Hadoop-as-a-Service (see Apache Hadoop) NaaS Network-as-a-Service is the provision of networking technology as a utility. STaaS Storage-as-a-Service is digital storage space (usually secured) on the Cloud. Apache CloudStack An open-source IaaS platform offering a complete set of features and components for Cloud environments, helping developers to create and deploy Cloud services. Apache Hadoop An open-source software framework for storing and processing big data, allowing applications to work with enormous amounts of structured and unstructured data. API The Application Programme Interface defines how software components interact, taking into consideration the set of routines, protocols and tools which make up the software applications. EaaS -as-a-Service describes hosted services.
4 AUTOSCALING CDN Autoscaling Autoscaling can be applied to automatically add and remove computer resources, depending on how often that resource is utilised. The feature also enables resources to be scaled up and down depending on demand, to guarantee a consistent service. Big data Big data refers to the vast amounts of data produced by people s interactions with web services, including social media and e-commerce. Although not necessarily a component of the Cloud, big data is often associated with it as the Cloud is well-suited to the computing environments to process big data. CAMP Cloud Application Management for Platforms is a specification designed to make application management easier across public and private Cloud computing platforms. CCMM Cloud Computing Maturity Model: a framework detailing the stages necessary to migrate an organisation s services to the Cloud. The five stages are Consolidation, Virtualisation, Automation, Utility and Cloud. CDN A Content Delivery Network describes multiple computers that hold copies of the same data, located at different points on a network so clients can access the closest copy.
5 CLOUD APP CLOUD BURSTING Cloud app A Cloud application is a program that is accessed via the internet, usually via login, instead of being installed on the user s machine. Cloud apps tend not to be modifiable by users. CloudBridge Citrix CloudBridge accelerates application delivery on public and private enterprises, and allows businesses to virtualise their wide area network (WAN). Cloud architectures Also called Cloud arcs, this describes software designs that can be accessed and used over the internet, with the underlying computing infrastructure used only when it is needed. Cloud broker Similar to an insurance broker, a Cloud broker acts as a go-between for customers and Cloud service providers, finding the best match between the customers needs and the services of providers. Cloud backup Cloud storage backup saves your data to an offsite data centre via an internet connection, and enables customers to remotely restore their data using a secure dedicated link or internet connection confirmed by login details. Cloud bursting A deployment model in which an application runs in a private Cloud or data centre, and uses resources from a public Cloud when demand spikes. This means the parent organisation only has to pay for these extra resources when necessary.
6 CLOUD COMPUTING CLOUD MIGRATION Cloud computing Simply put, Cloud computing means using remote servers hosted on the internet to store and process data, rather than using a PC or a local server. The Cloud is divided into three basic categories: Infrastructure-as-a-service, Platform-as-a-Service and Softwareas-a-Service and delivered on either private, public or hybrid models. For organisations, the main benefit of Cloud computing is reduced expenditure on technology infrastructure. The economies of scale offered by the Cloud can effectively provide access to the power and efficiency of a supercomputer, at a fraction of the cost. Cloud database Cloud databases are databases that run on Cloud computing platforms. Users can employ a virtual machine image to run their database independently, or buy the services of a public Cloud database provider. Cloud enablement The process of transferring an organisation s IT infrastructure and software to the Cloud. Typically, an organisation is considered Cloud-enabled when its in-house data centre or server is replaced with a Cloud equivalent. Cloud infrastructure Cloud infrastructure simply refers to the physical and virtual components that make up a Cloud network, and it s sometimes used interchangeably with the Cloud. Cloud migration Migrating to the Cloud means transitioning some or all of a company s software, data and/or communications technology from a local network to the Cloud. Alternatively, it can mean moving from one Cloud environment to another.
7 CLOUD OPERATING SYSTEM CLOUD SERVICES Cloud operating system An operating system designed to run in a provider s data centre and delivered over the internet. Windows Azure and Google Chrome OS are examples of Cloud operating systems. Cloud portability The ability to quickly and easily move apps and data from one Cloud environment to another. Highly portable Cloud services facilitate Cloud migration with minimal disruption. Cloud reseller Cloud resellers purchase services from Cloud providers, then sell them on to customers. Cloud service provider Also simply known as a provider, these companies offer some form of Cloud computing commercially, usually based on one of the three cornerstones of Cloud computing: Infrastructure-asa-Service, Platform-as-a-Service or Software-as-a-Service. Cloud services Cloud provisioning The allocation of resources for Cloud services. Cloud provisioning can be on-demand, meaning the app requests resources in run-time; or it can be manually requested by the user, or provided in set amounts on a contractual basis. Cloud services are any that are delivered over the internet. Some examples of Cloud services include online data backup and storage, virtual servers, web-based services, hosted desktop, scalable database and many more.
8 CLOUD STORAGE DATABASE-AS-A-SERVICE (DBAAS) Cloud Storage A model of data storage that uses the Cloud, meaning digital information may be stored across a variety of servers in different locations rather than on a single machine or medium. Cloud storage services can be public, private or hybrid, and often include backup and security facilities. Cluster A group of computers that are linked together and effectively work as a single computer. In Cloud terminology this often refers to a virtual cluster of virtual machines. Cloudsourcing A portmanteau of Cloud and outsourcing, referring to the ability to hand over some IT services, such as or data backup, to more affordable Cloud services. Cloudwashing A generally disparaging term, similar to greenwashing, that implies a provider is using Cloud terminology to make an old product or service sound more exciting and up-to-date. Consumption-based pricing model A pricing model under which providers charge for the amount of service consumed, rather than in units of time such as paying for storage by the gigabyte, or the amount of memory allocated to virtual machines. Database-as-a-Service (DBaaS) A Database-as-a-service allows organisations to consolidate servers, storage and database workloads onto a shared Cloud-based infrastructure. DBaaS is scalable and flexible, and typically offers some degree of data monitoring and analytics as part of the package.
9 DESKTOP-AS-A-SERVICE (DAAS) ENCRYPTION Desktop-as-a-Service (DaaS) DaaS means the service provider manages the back-end of a virtual desktop (such as data storage, security, upgrades etc), which multiple users can log into to access their own data. It uses a multi-tenancy architecture, meaning a single instance of an app can be served to different users. Disaster-Recovery-as-a- Service (DRaaS) DRaaS is a service in which the provider hosts backups of physical or virtual servers in the Cloud, so that a business s operations can continue as normal even if their primary servers fail. DRaaS goes further than simple data backup by providing a copy of the whole environment and infrastructure. Disruptive technology Disruptive technology is an innovation that brings in radical changes to traditional ways of doing business by displacing a previous technology. The Cloud is often considered a disruptive technology because it can give access to unprecedented amounts of computing infrastructure with little to no capital expenditure, replacing in-house or traditionally hosted environments. Elastic computing Refers to a system s ability to match resources with demand dynamically. For instance, if a website experiences a dramatic spike in users, an elastic system will detect this and provision additional servers to handle the load. Once the users drop off again, the servers are deprovisioned for other tasks. Encryption Encryption is used to convert readable data such as passwords or payment information into an encoded form to protect it from prying eyes. Cloud storage providers usually use sophisticated encryption technology and have policies and procedures for managing encryption keys.
10 ENTERPRISE APPLICATION GOOGLE APPS Enterprise application Usually refers to complex, scalable business applications used by larger companies, such as customer relationship management, resource planning and transaction processing software. They are designed to be scalable to a business s size and needs, and often interact with other enterprise systems. G-Cloud A purchasing framework operated in the UK to drive government-wide adoption of Cloud computing, focusing on the technology s cost savings, flexibility and ability to improve public services. It includes CloudStore, an online marketplace for Cloud vendor services. Federation In a Cloud context, federation is the process of combining user data and/ or identities across multiple Cloud systems. This can be undertaken by Cloud providers or brokers. G-CLOUD Fog computing A distributed computing infrastructure that allows some application services to be handled on the network edge of a connected device, while others are handled remotely in a data centre. This can significantly improve efficiency and security by reducing the amount of data that is processed in the Cloud. Google Apps Google s SaaS offerings, including a suite of office programs, and document sharing, instant messaging and calendar. Although the basic apps are provided for free, businesses can also pay for custom addresses and Cloud storage via Google Apps.
11 GRID COMPUTING IDENTITY MANAGEMENT Grid computing Grid computing is multiple computers coordinating resources to solve a complex problem. Although similar in concept to Cloud computing, grid systems tend to involve devoting large amounts of processing power to a small number of tasks, while Cloud systems share resources in a more generalised way for a large variety of tasks. Hosted applications A Software-as-a-Service app that runs entirely from the Cloud and is usually subscription-based. Unlike traditional software, hosted applications do not need to be installed or updated on the user s end. Hosted Desktop Hybrid Cloud Two or more public or private Clouds that remain separate, but share standardised technology allowing data and apps to be ported between them, are referred to as a hybrid Cloud. Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS) IaaS covers virtual server space, network connections, IP addresses all the nuts and bolts of a computing system. It could be thought of as virtual computer hardware. For business users, the main benefit is in getting a highly scalable IT infrastructure without the up-front costs. Identity management The need to ensure access to all applications, services and data is properly controlled within the Cloud, ensuring users are able to access what they need and aren t able to access what they re not authorised to. (see Desktop-as-a-Service)
12 INTERCLOUD LINUX InterCloud A still-developing Cloud of Clouds, similar to the way the internet developed as a network of networks. The theory of an InterCloud is if a Cloud s compute and storage resources are saturated then users requests can still use the resources of the infrastructures of other Clouds. Tech firm Cisco is investing heavily in making a truly open, hybrid Cloud a reality. Internet of Things (IoT) A scenario in which most or all technology, from cars to toasters, contains some form of connectivity allowing it to communicate with other devices and produce data on how it is used. IntraCloud An IntraCloud consists only of private Clouds within a restricted area. ISO An information security standard published in 2013, which describes best practice for an information security management system. Being ISO certified means an organisation is following official data protection guidelines. LAMP Shorthand for Linux, Apache, MySQL and PHP: the four biggest providers of open-source software for web apps. Linux A free, open-source operating system based on UNIX. It is the basis for CloudLinux OS, an operating system used by shared hosting companies.
13 MASHUP ON-DEMAND SELF-SERVICE Mashup A web app that uses a combination of data or functionality from a variety of different sources. Middleware Software that bridges the gap between applications and operating systems, often supporting complex distributed applications. Middleware may include web servers, content management systems or any application that connects multiple other applications. Mobile Cloud storage A service that allows people to store their mobile device data in the Cloud and gain access to it from anywhere. Multi-tenancy An architecture in which a single instance of a software app serves many different customers, called tenants. Tenants may be able to customise cosmetic features of the app, but cannot alter its code. MySQL Open-source database software, owned by Oracle and frequently used for web applications. It runs on almost all platforms, and forms part of the LAMP stack of open-source software. On-demand self-service A model that authorises users to scale up the level of service as they need it, usually through an online control panel. Sometimes called pay as you grow.
14 OPEN SOURCE SOFTWARE PUBLIC CLOUD Open source software Software whose source code is made publically available, allowing programmers to change and redistribute it as they wish, typically without copyright restrictions. The open-source model is extensively used in Cloud computing. OpenStack A free, open-source Cloud computing software platform, usually deployed as Infrastructure-as-a-Service. Originally started by NASA and Rackspace, and today is supported on infrastructure such as Oracle, Cisco, Citrix and hundreds more. Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS) PaaS refers to an environment developers use to create software collaboratively. It allows web apps to be built and maintained quickly and efficiently, and saves developers from the time-consuming job of building their own infrastructure from scratch. Personal Cloud Refers to digital content and services which are accessible from any device via a login to a user account: for example, Dropbox or Google Drive. Private Cloud A Cloud computing platform implemented behind a corporate firewall, which may be operated by an in-house team. Essentially a ring-fenced Cloud, a private Cloud s resources can only be accessed by those with permission, which can bring additional security and control benefits. Public Cloud A Cloud based on the standard model in which a provider makes applications, storage and computing power available to users over the internet. In contrast to private Clouds, public Clouds are generally accessible to anybody who wants to register for the service and the exact location of where your data is being stored will not be known.
15 SOFTWARE-AS-A-SERVICE (SAAS) TEST-AND-DEVELOPMENT-AS-A-SERVICE (TDAAS) Software-as-a-Service (SaaS) SaaS is software that runs over the internet instead of being installed locally on the user s machine. Google and Facebook are examples of SaaS, and common programs like Microsoft Word can be paid for as SaaS. SLA Service Level Agreement: a contract between a provider and a customer detailing the customer s requirements and how the provider will meet them, often encompassing privacy, uptime, security and backup procedures. Scalability Often one of the benefits of Cloud computing is scalability which allows a hardware or software application or product to change in size or volume in line with user needs. Self-service This refers to the way many Cloud users are able to provision additional services or resources according to their needs, without having to agree a new contract first. These resources are automatically deprovisioned for other users when not in use. TCO or Total Cost of Ownership In a Cloud context, this describes the cost of leveraging Cloud services compared to the hardware and software costs of doing the same thing without them. Providers may offer their own TCO calculation services to help businesses understand the benefits of using the Cloud. Test-and-Development-as-a- Service (TDaaS) TDaaS allows IT teams to provision test and development databases to meet the needs of a project. It is used to improve the efficiency of testing phases and speed up final testing and quality assurance.
16 UPTIME VIRTUAL DATA CENTRE Uptime When referring to Cloud systems, uptime is the amount of time these systems and services are operational and accessible by users. Cloud vendors often guarantee a certain amount of uptime as part of their contractual agreement. Vendor lock-in Refers to a situation in which it is difficult or costly to transition from one product or service to a competing one, due to incompatibility with proprietary technologies. It is sometimes considered one of the barriers to Cloud adoption. Utility computing A service model in which computing resources and infrastructure management are made available to customers as they are needed, and charged by the amount used rather than a fixed rate, similar to the way utilities like electricity and water are paid for. Virtual Desktop Infrastructure (VDI) Vertical Cloud A Cloud computing environment that has been specialised for a particular industry, such as banking or healthcare. Virtual data centre An enterprise-centric pool of Cloud resources, such as compute, memory, storage and bandwidth, deployed as Infrastructure-as-a-Service. A user s interface in a virtualised environment which is stored in a remote server, rather than locally. This allows users to run a low-power, hard drive-less computer, called a thin client, on which the operating system, programs and data are all delivered via the Cloud.
17 VIRTUAL MACHINE WHITE LABEL CLOUD Virtual machine A form of Infrastructure-as-a-Service in which users can provision virtualised hardware for specific tasks, such as testing and evaluating software or backing up servers. Virtual Private Cloud Similar to a virtual private network, a virtual private Cloud allows users to provision an isolated section of the provider s Cloud to launch resources in a self-defined and configured networking environment. Virtual server hosting (See IaaS) VMware vcloud Connector A service that links a business s internal private Cloud with public Clouds so that they can be managed as a single hybrid environment (see Hybrid Cloud), with workloads transferring back and forth between them. VMware vcloud Director A software solution allowing businesses to build secure, multi-tenant private Clouds by pooling infrastructure resources into virtual data centres. Virtual Private Server A VPS is a virtual machine sold by an internet hosting company, which runs its own copy of an operating system on which customers can install their own applications. Also known as dedicated IaaS. White label Cloud A Cloud provider that sells resources that businesses can then sell on to their customers under their own brand, similar to the way white label goods are bought and sold. See also Cloud Reseller.
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