Cross-Layer Simulation Analysis of a High-Precision Radiolocation System

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1 Cross-Layer Simulation Analysis of a High-Precision Radiolocation System Simulationsbasierte schichtübergreifende Systemanalyse eines hochpräzisen Mikrowellenortungssystems Der Technischen Fakultät der Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg zur Erlangung des Grades DOKTOR-INGENIEUR vorgelegt von Ralf Mosshammer Erlangen 2010

2 Als Dissertation genehmigt von der Technischen Fakultät der Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg Tag der Einreichung: Tag der Promotion: Dekan: Prof. Dr.-Ing. Reinhard German 1. Berichterstatter: Prof. Dr. tech. Mario Huemer 2. Berichterstatter: Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jörn Thielecke

3 Bedecke deinen Himmel, Zeus, Mit Wolkendunst! Und übe, Knaben gleich, An Eichen dich und Bergeshöh n! Und meinen Herd, Um dessen Glut Kehrt ich mein verirrtes Auge Zur Sonne, alswenndrüberwär Hast du s nicht alles selbst vollendet, I have of late but wherefore I know not lost all my mirth, forgone al Heilig glühend Herz? indeed it goes so heavily with my disposition that this goodly frame, the earth, seems to me a sterile promontory, this most excellent canopy, the air, look you, this brave o erhanging firmament, this majestical roof fretted with golden fire, why, it appears no other thing to me than a foul and pestilent congregation of vapours. What a piece of work is a man! how noble in reason! how infinite in faculty! in form and moving how express and admirable! in action how like an angel! in apprehension how like a god! the beauty of the world! the paragon of animals! And yet, to me, what is this quintessence of dust? of dust? of dust dust

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5 Abstract In this work, a comprehensive analysis of a competitive and novel, high-precision local positioning system in the 5.8 GHz ISM band is presented. The RESOLUTION platform is built around a secondary-radar FMCW positioning system, supported by a commercial communications solution. The modular and flexible design of the platform allows for the support of various topologies and protocols, which is of supreme interest with regard to the very diverse application fields local positioning can serve. To gain an impression of performance figures with an eye towards actual product deployment, a cross-layer simulation tool was developed. This software allows for analysis of both physical layer properties and network dynamics which occur when multiple receivers are served within a fixed infrastructure. The signal theoretical foundations of secondary Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW) radar are well established. With regard to this, research on the physical layer is limited to selected effects, with special attention on multipath propagation, which constitutes by far the largest error source. For comparative evaluation, both a model derived from system-specific measurements as well as a standardized model following IEEE a were integrated into simulation. The performance of Medium Access Control (MAC) layer algorithms for multiuser management have been analyzed along the most relevant parameters, such as time-to-fix, update rate, infrastructure utilization and efficiency. The seamless design of the physical and MAC layer simulators allows for complete integration and cross-layer optimization of the platform. Exemplary simulation results are provided. Access procedures derived from known communication models and adapted for the specific needs of positioning systems are described. Utilization of these methods allows for optimal system deployment according to specification parameters. This thesis constitutes an authoritative reference for the performance of the RESOLUTION local positioning system. Novel algorithms with cross-platform effects are investigated. The innovative simulation engine and the techniques used in its implementation are detailed. Comparative benchmarking results of various parameter sets and extreme values are presented and commented.

6 Zusammenfassung Diese Arbeit präsentiert eine umfassende Analyse eines neuartigen und hochpräzisen lokalen Positionsbestimmungssystems im ISM-Band bei 5.8GHz. Die RESOLUTION Plattform besteht aus einem Positionsbestimmungsmodul nach dem Sekundärradar-FMCW Prinzip, unterstützt von einer kommerziellen Kommunikationslösung. Die modulare und flexible Architektur der Plattform unterstützt verschiedene Topologien und Protokolle, was den Einsatz in einem breiten Applikationsfeld ermöglicht. Mit Hilfe einer schichtübergreifenden Simulationssoftware wurden die Parameter und Leistungsgrenzen des Systems bestimmt. Die Software erlaubt sowohl die Analyse physikalischer Leistungsparameter als auch der Netzwerkdynamiken, die in Präsenz mehrerer Empfangsmodule auftreten. Die signaltheoretischen Grundlagen von sekundärem FMCW Radar sind hinreichend bekannt. In Hinblick auf diese Tatsache beschränkt sich die Analyse der Bitübertragungsschicht auf ausgewählte Effekte mit besonderer Beachtung von Mehrwegeausbreitung, der mit Abstand größten Fehlerquelle im System. Zum Zweck einer vergleichenden Wertung wurden sowohl ein aus Messungen abgeleitetes, systemspezifisches Kanalmodell als auch das standardisierte IEEE a Modell in die Simulation eingebunden. Die Leistungsgrenzen der Algorithmen der MAC-Schicht für Mehrnutzerzugriff wurden anhand relevanter Parameter wie Time-to-fix, Wiederholrate, Auslastung und Effizienz untersucht. Das ineinandergreifende Design der physikalischen und MAC-Schicht Simulatoren ermöglichte eine komplette Integration und schichtübergreifende Optimierung der Plattform. Dazu werden relevante Ergebnisse präsentiert. Zugriffsverfahren, die von bekannten Modellen aus der Kommunikationstechnik abgeleitet und für die spezifischen Bedürfnisse der Lokalisierung angepasst wurden werden beschrieben. Die Verwendung dieser Verfahren garantiert eine auf Spezifikationsparameter optimierte Systeminstallation. Diese Arbeit stellt eine verbindliche Referenz für die Leistungsbewertung des Positionsbestimmungssystems RESOLUTION dar. Neuartige Algorithmen, deren Betrachtung durch den Simulator ermöglicht wurde, werden vorgestellt und bewertet. Die innovative Simulationsumgebung und die Techniken, die bei der Implementierung zum Tragen kamen werden im Detail beschrieben. Vergleichende Bewertungen verschiedener Parametersätze und Grenzfälle werden anhand von Simulationsergebnissen dargestellt und kommentiert.

7 Contents 1. Introduction State of the art Goals of the thesis Organization Fundamentals of Wireless Positioning Application classes Measurement principles Time of Arrival (ToA) Roundtrip Time of Flight (RToF) Time Difference of Arrival (TDoA) Angle of Arrival (AoA) Fringe solutions Physical layer Non-microwave solutions Microwave based solutions and FMCW The RESOLUTION Platform RESOLUTION service requirements Hybrid positioning and communication RESOLUTION hardware base Single Node Architecture and Performance Analysis Basic receiver performance Figures of merit AWGN performance Baseband signal evaluation i

8 4.2. Hardware impairments Phase noise Ramp nonlinearity Signaling impairments Multipath propagation Position calculation Network Architecture and Quality of Service Aspects Service and network architecture The MAC layer Static channel access Dynamic channel access and novel access procedures Integrated performance assessment Discrete event simulation RESOLUTION protocols Timing models Simulation results Basic FIFO and C-ALOHA latencies Secondary performance parameters Comparison of positioning protocols Update rate MAC layer improvements Conclusion and Outlook 83 A. The Active Reflector 85 A.1. Active Pulsed Reflector A.2. Medium access B. Object Oriented System Simulation Framework 89 B.1. Implementation B.2. Deployment B.3. Operation B.4. Performance C. Discrete Event Simulation Framework 95 D. Complex Envelope Simulation 99

9 Acronyms and Abbreviations ACK AR A/D AGV ALOHA AoA AWGN BER BS C-ALOHA CDF CIR CPICH CSMA CSMA/CA CTS CW Acknowledge (flow control) Active Reflector Analog to Digital Conversion Automated Guided Vehicle ALOHA access protocol Angle of Arrival Additive White Gaussian Noise Bit Error Rate Base Station Controlled ALOHA Cumulative Density Function Channel Impulse Response Common Pilot Channel Carrier Sense Multiple Access Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Avoidance Clear to Send (flow control) Continuous Wave

10 iv Contents DCF DFT DIFS DTFT ECB EIRP EU FCC FDMA FFT FIFO FMCW FSK GALILEO GEL GPS GSM HPLS IEEE IF IFFT IPDL ISM ISO/OSI LBS Distributed Coordination Function Discrete Fourier Transform Distributed Interframe Space Discrete Time Fourier Transform Equivalent Complex Baseband Effective Isotropic Radiated Power European Union Federal Communications Commission Frequency Division Multiple Access Fast Fourier Transform First in/first out Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave Frequency Shift Keying GALILEO satellite system Global Event List Global Positioning System Global System for Mobile Communications High-Precision Location System Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Intermediate Frequency Inverse Fast Fourier Transform Idle Periods in Downlink Industrial, Scientific and Medical International Standards Organizsation/Open Systems Interconnection Location Based Services

11 Contents v LOS LPM LPR MAC MLE MMD MS NACK NF NLOS PCF PDA PLL PRS QoS RESOLUTION RF RFID RSS RToF RTS RX SAW SIRO SNR Line of Sight Local Position Measurement Local-Positioning Radar Medium Access Control Maximum Likelihood Estimation Multi-Modulus Divider Mobile Station Not Acknowledge (flow control) Noise Figure Non-Line of Sight Position Calculation Function Personal Digital Assistant Phase Locked Loop Public Regulated Service Quality of Service Reconfigurable Systems for Mobile Communication and Positioning Radio Frequency Radio Frequency Identification Received Signal Strength Roundtrip Time of Flight Request to Send (flow control) Receiver Surface Acoustic Wave Serve in Random Order Signal to Noise Ratio

12 vi Contents TDMA TDoA ToA TX UMTS UWB VCO WAIT WGN WLAN WSN Time Division Multiple Access Time Difference of Arrival Time of Arrival Transmitter Universal Mobile Telecommunications System Ultra-Wideband Voltage Controlled Oscillator Wait command (flow control) White Gaussian Noise Wireless Local Area Network Wireless Sensor Network

13 Einleitung Die Entwicklung der integrierten Schaltung (Integrated Circuit, IC) leitete monumentale Veränderungen im Bereich der Datenverarbeitung und Kommunikation ein. Rasch fortschreitende Verbesserungen in den Bereichen Rechengeschwindigkeit, Komponentenintegration und Stromverbrauch führten zu einer Welle an Produkten und Konsumgütern, die längst Teil industrieller Prozesse und des täglichen Lebens sind: das Internet, Mobiltelefonie, Satellitennavigation, Fernseh- und Radiosendungen, tragbare Medienwiedergabe, automatisierte Fertigung, Autopiloten, autonome Steuersysteme und Sensornetzwerke. Die Aussicht auf steigende Profite und anhaltender Absatzdruck führte zu einer zunehmenden Fokussierung von Forschung und Entwicklung auf die Optimierung von Datendurchsatz, mit dem Ziel, sich der Shannon-Grenze möglichst unter Einhaltung vernünftiger Leistungsaufnahme zu nähern und die Geräte zeitgleich durch Fortschritte in der Produktionstechnologie zu verkleinern. Getrieben von einer Vision autonomer Maschinenräume und kontextsensitiver Information drängte eine Technologie militärischer Provenienz zunehmend in die öffentliche Wahrnehmung: Positionsbestimmung. Für manche Experten stellen Sensornetzwerke den ultimativen Konvergenzpunkt von Kommunikationstechnologien dar: stark dezentralisierte Gruppen von energiesparenden Sensorknoten mit verteilten Kommunikationsmöglichkeiten. Eine derartige Technologie könnte breite Anwendung in Bereichen wie Landwirtschaft, Umweltüberwachung, Gebäudeautomatisierung, Schlachtfeldüberwachung und industrieller Steuerung finden. Für die meisten dieser Applikationsfelder ergeben Sensordaten nur im Zusammenhang mit geographischer oder tolopogischen Information Sinn. Eine weitere Anwendungsmöglichkeit von Positionsdaten ist die Versorgung von Mobilfunkkunden mit kontextsensitiven Diensten. Zuletzt stellt die industrielle Verwertung von Positionsdaten ein für diese Arbeit herausragendes Feld dar. Die steigende Komplexität moderner Industrieanlagen schürt das Bedürfnis weiterer Automation von Transport und Verarbeitung. In dieser Arbeit wird die RESOLUTION Plattform die Abkürzung steht für Reconfigurable System for Mobile Communication and Positioning vorgestellt und analysiert. Hierbei handelt es sich um ein hybrides Lokalisierungs- und Kommunikationssystem, das sowohl in spezialisierten Konsumgütern als auch industriellen Umgebung eingesetzt werden kann. Die Plattform umfasst mehrere Konfigurationen, basiert aber in jedem Fall auf dem Prinzip des sekundären linearen FMCW (Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave) Radars für Distanzmessungen. In diesem Fachbereich existiert einiges an Vorarbeit, wie im nächsten Abschnitt dargestellt. 1

14 Stand der Technik Chirp-Signale als Kommunikations- oder Radarträger sind seit den Mittfünfzigern bekannt. Wegen der niedrigen Detektions- und Abhörwahrscheinlichkeit ist die Technologie vor allem im militärischen Bereich verbreitet [1]. Lokale Positionsbestimmung kooperativer Ziele, die für diese Arbeit relevante Anwendung, weist einige wichtige Abweichungen zu regulärer Radartechnologie auf. Zum einen versucht das ausgeleuchtete Ziel aktiv, die Detektion zu erleichtern und regeneriert und reflektiert das einfallende Signal oder empfängt es und antwortet mit einem neu generierten. Ein breiter Überblick über diese Klasse von Systemen findet sich in [2, 3]. Das in [2, 4] beschriebene Local-Positioning Radar (LPR) ist ein originäres Systemkonzept in diesem Bereich. Es verwendet einen aktiven, gepulsten Reflektor um Ziele zu unterscheiden und die Sichtbarkeit zu erhöhen. Eine ähnliche Technik, allerdings mit passiven Strukturen, wurde zuvor in [5, 6] beschrieben. Ein System mit Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) Referenz findet sich noch früher in [7]. In jüngerer Zeit erfreuten sich aktive Rückstreumodulatoren und Oszillatoren mit switched injection-locking steigender Beliebtheit. So ein Gerät ist als alternative Konfiguration zu LPR erhältlich und in [8, 9] beschrieben. Der Active Pulsed Reflector, eine alternative Konfiguration für die RESOLUTION Plattform übernimmt dieses Prinzip [10]. Variationen des Grundkonzepts aktive Rückstreumodulation oder Sekundärradar mit Laufzeitmessung durch Chirp-Signale finden sich in großer Menge in der wissenschaftlichen Literatur. Meistens handelt es sich hierbei um algorithmische Verbesserungen des Problems der Mehrwegeausbreitung, wie in [11 13] beschrieben. Eine umfassende Arbeit, die das LPR System im 5.8 GHz Industrial, Scientific and Medical (ISM) Band mit einer Bandbreite von 150 MHz beschreibt ist [14], wobei diese Parameter auch für RESOLUTION gültig sind. Eine anstehende Erweiterung dieses Prinzips ist die Verwendung von Ultra-Wideband Chirps um die Pfadauflösung und damit die Genauigkeit zu verbessern. Ein experimenteller Prototyp mit vielversprechenden Leistungsdaten wird in [15, 16] beschrieben. Ein leicht abweichendes Konzept ist Local Position Measurement (LPM), das zwar auf den gleichen physikalischen Prinzipien basiert, jedoch Zeitdifferenzmessungen verwendet. Die Grundlagen des Systems sind in [17, 18] beschrieben und in [19 21] weiter ausgeführt. Wie das zuvor angesprochene LPR wurde auch dieses System über die Jahre hinweg erweitert und verbessert, vor allem im Bereich der Basisband-Signalverarbeitung [13,22 24]. Ein Mehrwert dieses System besteht in der expliziten Verwendung eines Kommunikationskanals für Telemetriedaten [20]. Die Eigenschaften von sekundären FMCW Radar im ISM Band wurden dank jahrelanger Forschungsaktivitäten auf diesem Gebiet durch Analyse, Simulation und Messung erschöpfend beschrieben. Zentrale Bedeutung kommt hierbei dem Mechanismus zur Rampenerzeugung, d.h. dem Synthesizer, zu. Jeder Phasenfehler, den diese Komponente verursacht hat eine direkte abträgliche Wirkung auf die Leistung des Gesamtsystems. Als Folge daraus widmen sich eine Vielzahl von Studien möglichen Fehlerquellen und Verbesserungen in diesem Bereich [25 30]. Ein dritter Mitbewerber für hochpräzise Positionsbestimmung in Innenräumen ist das Ubisense Echtzeitlokalisierungssystem. Obwohl es den selben Applikationsraum wie die zuvor genannten Systeme und RESOLUTION bedient operiert es unter technisch völlig anderen Vorraussetzungen, nämlich Ultra-Wideband Pulsradar mit Zeitdifferenz- und Winkelmessung. Informationen über dieses System, welches bereits als kommerzielles Produkt verfügbar ist finden sich unter (Website zuletzt geladen im Juni 2009). Allgemein lässt sich sagen, dass sowohl in der Positionsbestimmung als auch bei Drahtlosnetzwerken ein starker Trend in Richtung Ultra-Wideband Signalisierung erkennbar ist. Es ist daher nicht verwunderlich, dass die meisten Arbeiten die Mehrnutzerverwaltung betreffend im Kontext von Ultra-Wideband Systemen operieren. Ein guter Überblick über Kanalzugriff in Ultra-Wideband Netzwerken findet sich in [31], und im Detail für den IEEE a Standard in [32]. 2

15 Contents Generell findet sich Literatur zu Mehrnutzerverwaltung im Bereich Positionsbestimmung nur vereinzelt. Der Grund dafür ist, dass die konkurrierenden Systeme in diesem Gebiet, LPR und LPM in den jeweiligen Varianten statischen Kanalzugriff nutzen, was allerdings ebenfalls eine Reihe von Nachteilen mit sich bringt, die in dieser Arbeit angesprochen werden. Systeme mit wahlfreiem Zugriff werden in [33, 34] und im Besonderen in [35] besprochen. Zielsetzung Ziel dieser Arbeit ist eine komplette und referenzierbare Leistungsschätzung der RESOLUTION- Plattform, auch in Hinblick auf Produktionsfähigkeit. In Hinblick auf die ausgiebigen Vorarbeiten, die bereits im Bereich von Sekundärradar mit FMCW-Technik geliefert wurden, besonders und spezifisch im 5.8 GHz ISM band, scheint es von verschwindendem wissenschaftlichen Wert, die Plattform auf einer rein signaltheoretischen Ebene zu analysieren. In dieser Arbeit wurde daher ein zweifacher Zugang zur Thematik gewählt: die Integration der klassischen Systemsimulation mit einer zeitdiskreten, ereignisbasierten Netzwerksimulation, um einen gesamtheitlichen Eindruck der Leistungsgrenzen des Systems in verschiedenen Einsatzszenarios zu erhalten. Physikalische Leistungsgrenzen können durch Literaturstudie abgeleitet werden. Daher wurden die Untersuchungen des Physical Layer weitestgehend auf Betrachtungen des Problems der Mehrwegeausbreitung eingeschränkt, der bei weitem größten Fehlerquelle im System. Schätzungen der Netzwerkparameter, wie beispielsweise die Akquisitionszeit bei Mehrnutzerzugriff, stellen einen von der Systemsimulation komplett separaten Forschungsbereich dar. Nichtsdestoweniger ist es möglich, beide Zugänge der Systemanalyse gewinnbringend zu verbinden, was die Betrachtung optimierter Protokoll- und Algorithmenansätze über Abstraktionsgrenzen hinweg ermöglicht. Das kann als erster Schritt in Richtung echter Cross-Layer Optimierung in Hinblick auf eine Massenproduktion des Systems gesehen werden. Zum Erreichen dieser Ziele wurde eine umfangreiche Simulationsumgebung programmiert. In dieser Arbeit werden sowohl die Umgebung an sich und Simulationsresultate auf physikalischer Ebene und Netzwerkebene dargestellt. Gliederung Der Rest dieser Arbeit ist um zwei zentrale Kapitel aufgebaut, die sich mit der Analyse der physikalischenund netzwerkbezogenenparameterdes RESOLUTION Systems auseinandersetzen. In Kapitel 4 werden Simulationsergebnisse für einen einzelnen Empfänger gezeigt. Dabei werden ausgewählte Probleme der Hardware und im Besonderen Mehrwegeausbreitung behandelt. Die Systemanalyse wird in Kapitel 5 auf Netzwerkeigenschaften erweitert. Geeignete Maßzahlen werden definiert und Protokolloptionen für das RESOLUTION System präsentiert. Die integrierte Simulationsumgebung wird vorgestellt, und Ergebnisse für verschiedene Protokolloptionen dargelegt. Um eine gemeinsame Basis für das Verständnis der besprochenen Technologien im Allgemeinen zu schaffen werden in Kapitel 2 Grundlagen der drahtlosen Positionsbestimmung und in Kapitel 3 die Architektur der RESOLUTION PLattform besprochen. Kapitel 6 schließt die Arbeit mit einer Zusammenfassung ab. 3

16 CHAPTER 1 Introduction With the advent of the Integrated Circuit came monumental changes to the world of computing and communications. Accelerating improvements in processing speed, component integration and energy consumption led to the surge of professional and consumer products we all see integrated in industry processes and our daily lives: the internet, mobile phones, satellite navigation, TV and radio broadcasts, pocket media players, robot factories, autopilots, autonomous control systems, sensor networks. Driven by market demands and the prospect of increasing profits, scientists and engineers have focussed their efforts on optimizing data throughput, edging ever closer towards the limiting Shannon barrier, while maintaining reasonable energy consumption figures and shrinking devices through production technology advancements and integration. More recently, fueled by the vision of autonomous machine spaces and context-aware information systems, a technology from military provenience as is often the case has entered the public perception: positioning. For some experts, the ultimate convergence point in the development of communication technology are sensor networks, strongly decentralized groups of ultra-low power sensing nodes with distributed communication facilities. Such a technology could find widespread use in agriculture, environmental monitoring, building automation, battlefield management and industrial control. For most of these applications, sensor data makes only sense in context with a geographical or topological reference. Another legitimation for positioning technology comes from the desire to provide clients of the mobile phone network with context-sensitive services. Lastly, and of outstanding importance for this work, is the field of industrial positioning. The rising complexity and scale of modern industrial environments has bred the desire for further automation of transport and processing. In this work, the RESOLUTION platform short for Reconfigurable System for Mobile Communication and Positioning, a hybrid positioning and communication system for use in both specialized consumer applications and industrial environments is introduced and analyzed. The platform operates in various configurations, but always utilizing the principle of secondary linear FMCW radar for distance measurement. In this area, much prior art exists, as outlined in the next section. 1

17 1.1. State of the art Chirp signals as communication or radar carriers have been known since the mid-fifties. The technology is well established in military due to its low probability of interception and detection [1]. Local positioning of cooperative objects, as relevant for this work, usually shows some deviant properties when compared to regular radar. That is, the illuminated target actively seeks to be detected, and either regenerates and reflects the incoming signal or receives it and responds with an originally generated one. A broad overview of this class can be gained by consulting [2, 3]. A seminal system concept in this area is LPR, described in [2, 4]. This system employs an active, pulsed reflector to distinguish targets and increase visibility. A similar technique, albeit with passive structures, has been described earlier in [5,6]. A system with SAW reference appears still earlier in [7]. Recently, switched injection-locked oscillators as active backscatterers have seen renewed interest. Such a device is available as alternative receiver configuration in LPR, and its principles have been described in [8, 9]. The Active Pulsed Reflector, an alternative receiver configuration for RESOLUTION, mirrors this principle [10]. Variations on this basic concept active backscatter modulation or secondary radar roundtrip measurements with chirp signals can be found aplenty in literature. Mostly, algorithmic improvements to the problem of multipath propagation are shown, as in [11 13]. A comprehensive work describing the LPR system in the 5.8GHz ISM band and with a bandwidth of 150 MHz parameters which are also valid for the RESOLUTION platform is [14]. A forthcoming extension to this is the use of ultra-wideband chirps to increase path profile resolution and, thus, accuracy. An experimental prototype with promising performance has been described in [15, 16]. A slightly deviating concept is LPM, which is based around the same physical principles, but utilizes time difference measurements. The basics of this system are described in [17, 18] and elaborated upon in [19 21]. Like the previously discussed LPR, the system has seen a number of improvements and extensions over the years, mostly pertaining baseband processing [13,22 24]. As added value feature, LPM also explicitly features a communication channel for telemetry data transmission [20]. Owing to year-long research and refinement of those two competing solutions, the properties of secondary radar FMCW systems in the ISM band have been described very exhaustively through analysis, simulation and also measurement results. Of central importance to the system performance is the ramp generation mechanism, i.e., the synthesizer. Any phase error introduced in this component has direct adverse effects on the achievable performance. Consequently, the properties, possible error sources and mitigation methods have been studied extensively [25 30]. A third competitor for high-precision indoor positioning is the Ubisense real-time location system. Though serving the same application space as the previously mentioned systems and RESOLUTION, it technically operates under a very different premise, namely ultra-wideband pulse radar with time difference and bearing measurements. Information on this system, which is available as commercial product package, can be found at (website retrieved in June 2009). In general, both positioning and wireless sensor networks, the two broad research areas most closely related to RESOLUTION show a strong trend towards ultra-wideband signaling. It is thus hardly surprising that most works pertaining multi-user access, the second large topical complex of this thesis, operate in the context of ultra-wideband systems. A good overview of medium access control topics for ultra-wideband networks is found in [31], and in particular for the IEEE a standard in [32]. In general, literature specifically treating multi-user access in positioning is few and far between. The reason for this is that the prominent competitors, LPR and LPM and their variants 2

18 CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION utilize static channel access, which, however, comes with a number of drawbacks, which are also discussed in this work. Systems with random access are described in [33, 34] and in particular in [35] Goals of the thesis The goal of this thesis was to provide a complete and comprehensive performance estimation of the hardware developed in the RESOLUTION project, with an eye towards production maturity. With regard to the extensive work done in secondary radar FMCW, especially and specifically in the 5.8 GHz ISM band, there is little scientific worth in carrying on analyses on a signal-theoretical level only. Therefore, a two-pronged approach was taken, integrating classical physical layer system simulation with discrete event network simulation to gain a holistic impression of performance limits in various deployment scenarios. As physical bounds of the system can be readily derived from prior art, the investigative focus for the physical layer simulation was multipath propagation, which constitutes by far the largest remaining error source in the system. Estimation of network parameters, such as time-to-fix, under the premise of multi-user channel access, is a completely distinct field of research from system simulation. Nonetheless, both approaches can fruitfully be combined, making it possible to investigate optimized protocol and algorithm options across abstraction layers. This can be viewed as a first step towards true cross-layer optimization of the system shortly prior to mass production and deployment. To achieve these goals, an extensive simulation framework was implemented. In this thesis, both the framework itself and, more importantly, simulation results both on the direct link level and the network level are presented Organization The remainder of this work is centered around the two chapters concerned with the analysis of the physical and network properties of the RESOLUTION system. Chapter 4 presents simulation results for the single receiver, highlighting selected hardware impairments and reserving special attention for multipath propagation. Relevant simulation results are presented and commented. The system analysis is expanded to network properties in chapter 5. After a discussion of suitable figures of merit, several protocol options for RESOLUTION are presented. An integrated simulation environment is introduced and results for several algorithmic and protocol options are given. To establish common ground and foster understanding of positioning technologies in general, chapter 2 deals with fundamentals of wireless positioning, and chapter 3 introduces the architectural basics of the RESOLUTION platform. Chapter 6 summarizes and concludes this thesis. 3

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20 CHAPTER 2 Fundamentals of Wireless Positioning Wireless positioning is a field of engineering with an application scope almost as wide as that of wireless communications. It is generally understood to comprise any method or technology that is suitable for automatically determining the position of a target in space by means of wireless transmission. Everything else, the transport medium, protocol, topology and operation scope, are open to definition. This chapter builds the foundation for understanding wireless positioning technology by spotlighting the most important aspects of this engineering field. Given the sheer volume of solutions available today in industry and academia, it can never be exhaustive. Instead, common ground is established to facilitate understanding of subsequent chapters. Beforehand, a common language needs to be established and terms defined. The following attempt loosely adheres to the definitions presented in [36] and [37]. Location in general refers to the semantic understanding of the position of an object in space, thus answering the question Where is it?. Location and position are mostly used interchangeably in this thesis. In a more strict sense, position is a technical term, and the question for position always results in a set of coordinates, relative to any frame of reference, whereas location typically references topological features. Positioning thus usually refers to the process of determining the position of an object in 2- or 3-D space, but may also include distance measurement. Range is often used synonymously with distance in positioning literature, which can lead to confusion, since used correctly, range denotes a distance limit, e.g., for which communication still works. Triangulation is often defined as the geometric process of finding a position from measurements, referring the minimal (triangular) layout of devices in the system. Specifically, angulation and lateration are technical terms for finding the position from bearing and distance measurements, respectively. In this work, triangulation is taken to include trilateration. Beacons or, more specifically for terrestrial positioning, base stations, are fixed anchor points with known coordinates that serve as measurement reference. The target, terminal or mobile station is the object of which the position is to be determined. It can either have a passive or active role in the positioning process, but it is always mobile with respect to the base stations. Performance figures for positioning systems also merit some attention, which they gain in 5

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