Separation of many WLAN user groups in a very densely populated area On Layer 1 On Layer 2 On Layer 3

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1 Prof. Beat Stettler Institute of Internet-Technologies and Applications, University of Applied Sciences of Eastern Switzerland, Rapperswil / ITG / Seite 1 Short Introduction to ITA-HSR Problem Domain Separation of many WLAN user groups in a very densely populated area On Layer 1 On Layer 2 On Layer 3 Where do we stand today? / ITG / Seite 2

2 !" #$!% & ' " ( )( ( ' & * ) +, -.+/ )(- 01+2) 3 % ) - ) 45,6 * 2 ( ) "229# &::; ; * 1,.%/., 7." 7. ; ' 4 ( :1) ( & * ' ( 0 <. ) (% ) ' ' (, ',%) ' <,7 ) 82.% 9 * ' %;1) ) # &:: ;; ' " 7 ', 7 ) 8= ( > 9 ' 6 )7 ) 86,9 ' / ITG / Seite 3 "? ( Unique möchte seinen Passagieren, Handling Agents, SR Technics, SwissPort und Carcologics, Mietern und Mitarbeitern eine hoch verfügbare und möglichst flächendeckende WLAN b (oder evtl. schon g) Versorgung anbieten können Die Lösung soll so flexibel sein, dass folgende Dienste (teilweise parallel) angeboten werden können Internet für Passagiere (Indoor: Terminal A, B, Midfield etc.) Intranet Access für obengenannte Flughafenfirmen (vor allem Outdoor) Wenn möglich IP Telephony für SwissPort Dabei muss eine saubere Trennung der verschiedenen Benutzerbereiche (Passagiere/ISP, Mieter,Unique) erreicht werden können Security Gegenseitige Beeinflussung (Quality of Service) Verschiedene Anbieter von Internetzugängen, Kostenlose Angebote / ITG / Seite 4

3 " )0 ) 1. Complete Signal Coverage of all In- and Outdoor areas - Gates, Terminals, Lounges etc. - Airplane Parking Lots, Maintenance areas (Hangars etc.), Driving Lanes, Tunnels etc. - Special End Systems (Handheld Scanner, IP Phones, Laptops in Cockpits etc.) 2. Complete and secure separation of passengers surfing the Internet and Airport staff using the WLAN for their operations. 3. Ability to choose Internet Access from more than one ISP (regulation issue) / ITG / Seite 5 ;2 ), < Ability to work everywhere: Under and behind airplanes Under the terminal buildings On the entire airfield / ITG / Seite 6 AP1 AP2 AP3 AP4 AP5

4 , 0 < Swissport vehicles Equipped with Laptops, Printers etc. Response time critical terminal applications Seamless roaming up to 60km/h IP Dataphones für various Applications Barcode scanners to track baggage and containers Gate Gourmet Trolleys Voice-over-IP Electronic Cabin Log (Laptop on Long- Distance Airplanes) Leader-desks for the Maintenance staff in Hangars / ITG / Seite 7 $;2),, < Requirements: WLAN for passengers: Internet Access through various providers WLAN for outdoor operations: Aviation handling, Catering etc. WLAN for third parties: Shops, Post, Skymetro. -> How can these networks be securely separated from each other (logically or physically) -> What security measurements are necessary? -> How is it possible to protect mission critical applications from other users and abusers (Quality of Service) / ITG / Seite 8

5 " 1. Separation on the physical layer Each user group installs it s own equipment (Access Points, LANs, Gateways etc.) Each user group uses it s own SSID and Security measurements Negative interference must be prevented by doing a careful frequency planning and by using micro-cells / ITG / Seite 9 "7, How many independent Access Points can be operated on the given frequency band? Kanal 22 MHZ MHZ 2472 MHZ According to standard there is room for (only) three independent WLAN Access Points. (e.g by using channels 1, 6, 11). However, three channels are (by far) not enough What happens, if you try to use more than three channels? Inpact on data throughput Quality of Service (e.g. for Voice?) / ITG / Seite 10

6 ) Effects of channel separation 6 5 BW (Mbps) Channel distance / ITG / Seite 11 % ) 27 & 2,%:2* There is new data to send? yes Start Is the PHY available? yes No No Wait a random Interval* When a station has data to send: Observe if other station are sending over the PHY. If the medium is unused the station will begin to send else the transmission will be delayed according to an exponential back off. After sending the data, the station wait for a positive acknowledge from the receiver (virtual collision detection). The absence of an acknowledge indicates a packet loss and the data packet has to be send again. No Send the data Did the ACK arrive? yes T-ACK Note: the interval a station wait for an acknowledge is critical for the use of WLAN over long distance. * The random back off is chosen in [0,CW], where CW increase exponentially at each attempt till CW_max / ITG / Seite 12

7 5 " ) Client Abdeckung AP1 Abdeckung AP2 AP1 AP / ITG / Seite 13 B8 9 Effects of channel separation Bandwidth (Mbps) Channel separation / ITG / Seite 14

8 2 7 Because many applications are mission critical to Zurich Airport, it would be dangerous to run more than 3-4 WLAN Access Points in parallel If more than 4 parallel networks are needed Quality of Service (e.g. for Voice) cannot be guaranteed anymore Operations of many parallel systems is very costly N Access Points per cell Multiplication of LAN Equipment needed Usage based billing not feasible anymore Support und Troubleshooting nearly impossible, since so many parties are involved Unique decided, that a separation of users on layer 1 would only be acceptable where a geographical separation is also possible / ITG / Seite 15 0 (% Windows are steamed with a film of mercury (as a sun shield). Therefore electromagnetic signals are attenuated significantly (>20dB) As a result, in- and outdoor area can be designed independently from each other Separation of in- and outdoor use has therefore been implemented on a physical level / ITG / Seite 16

9 )/ Older terminal buildings do not attenuate signals enough Therefore signals cannot be prevented from entering/leaving the building Separation of user groups is therefore only possible on a logical level / ITG / Seite 17, C 2. Separation on Layer 2 Use a single WLAN infrastructure and share it among all user groups Only 1 Access Point per cell (or more if additional Bandwidth is needed) Separation of user groups by allocating unique (and hidden) SSIDs to closed user groups L3 L2 L1 VLAN Internet WEP / EAP VLAN Unique WEP / EAP Cisco Access Points Eine Infrastruktur und Frequenzplanung VLAN SRTech WEP / EAP / ITG / Seite 18

10 2, 7 $ Nice solution to separate users on a single infrastructure Individual security configurations per user group possible VLANs to separate users on the fixed network side Disadvantages Proprietary Mechanisms No Quality of Service, because separation is only virtual Concerns to run public and mission critical traffic on the same infrastructure Unique decided to use this mechanism only to separate Airport associated companies (aviation handling, catering etc.) from each other in the outdoor area / ITG / Seite 19 D;, 7 D Using a single WLAN and LAN infrastructure for all users Only 1 Access Point per cell (or more if additional Bandwidth is needed) Separation of user groups by using secure authentication and IP routing policies L3 L2 L1 Swisscom Monzoon Unique Unique Portal Access Points Eine Infrastruktur und Frequenzplanung Firma X / ITG / Seite 20

11 2, 7 D Elegant solution to give surfing passengers a choice of Internet Service Provider Captive Portal technology can be used to redirect passenger traffic to our portal Free information (and commercial ads) can be made available on the portal Private user groups can authenticate themselves and get routed to their VPN gateway However, all private and public traffic is using the same infrastructure No hard quality of service possible Unique decided to use this separation technique for use in the gates areas only. To give passengers the freedom to choose between various ISPs To give Unique Staff access to their intranet / ITG / Seite 21 Layer 3 Solution to give passengers the choice of various providers Terminal E Midfield Internal Networks (Staff, affiliated companies) Terminal A Multiprovider Portal Lösung (von Wlan-Partner.com) Terminal B / ITG / Seite 22

12 7E Outdoor WLAN operational since 1st of September 03 Internet Access for passengers operational since 1st of July 03 Swisscom Mobile Monzoon More providers coming soon Similar solutions are in discussion on other airports / ITG / Seite 23 A E If you would like to know more, drop me an at / ITG / Seite 24

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