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3 Figure 1: Architecture of Two- Dimensional Static UWSN A different approach can be to anchor sensor devices to the bottom of the ocean. In this architecture, depicted in Figure 3.2, each sensor is anchored to the ocean bottom and equipped with a floating buoy that can be inflated by a pump. Figure 2: Architecture of Three-Dimensional Static UWSN AUVs can function without tethers, cables or remote control, and therefore they have a multitude of applications in oceanography, environmental monitoring, and underwater resource study. Previous experimental work has shown the feasibility of relatively inexpensive AUV submarines equipped with multiple underwater sensors that can reach any depth in the ocean. Hence, they can be used to enhance the capabilities of underwater sensor networks in many ways. Shashank Yadav et al 19

5 weigt factor w = (e l )/E Node will evaluate the interested nodes for connections by the comparing the calculated value of on the behalf of these (Load, distance, energy) factors of all nodes and connect accordingly. (If any ACK has directly comes from the sink then it will directly connected to the sink) Step 4: It will send ACK to the selected node in step 3. Step 5: node will transmit data to the node to which it got connected. Step 6: node will wait for ACK of that data PKT which was sent. Step 7: If ACK is received in time T then go to step 6. Step 8: If no ACK, go to step Minimum Weight Calculation (for Load Balancing) In this algorithm, three fields are necessary for calculation of weight to each node. We know that the effect of load is exponential and assume the hop distance is linear. Load l: No. of nodes transmitting data to this interested node. Hop-Distance h: no. of hops between node and sink. Energy level E: energy saved at particular node. weigt factor w = 4. Simulation and result (e load op distence)/energy This chapter will present the results from simulations conducted on the proposed Routing algorithms and give a brief analysis of the result.show the effect and relationship between load, hop-distance and energy level of node. 4.1 Load Balancing By using the equation of weight factor, generate the graph between Load and hop-distance when energy is constant. And check the weight factor at different hop distance. Shashank Yadav et al 21

7 Before using the Weight factor (No Load Balancing) Figure 6: Number of Children and Load Balancing In figure 6 shows that load is divided equally all the nodes on the behalf of their weight factor. It has previously explained that weight factor decides on the three main factors, like energy level, hop distance and load. These factors decide that whose node can bear maximum load on the node with efficient manner. After using the Weight factor (With Load Balancing) Figure 7: Number of Children and Load Balancing All the nodes are sending their packets hop by hop to the sink, while these nodes have to relay those packets on behalf of the entire network. The relaying task cost these nodes more energy than any other node in the network, which makes them die earlier than others. As a result of that, the life span in the network is limited by this group of nodes, regardless of the load balancing scheme used in the network. Shashank Yadav et al 23

8 5. Conclusion This work targeted the implementation of routing layers in UWSNs. The design requirements were imposed mainly because of the different working environment of UWSNs. In this paper a new algorithms is proposed for underwater sensor networks communication mechanisms and load balancing. There are three main factors like energy level, hop distance and load (no. of children). The weight factor computes the probability of connecting to a node based on its hop-distance and number of children (load) when energy level is constant. Calculate the minimum weighting factor for each node with using different factors. When Node will be select minimum weight factor it means that node will select that parent who has maximum energy level, minimum load and minimum hop distance. It means that those node has minimum weight factor will be select as a parent so load will be balanced at each node. When all the nodes are sending their packets hop by hop to the sink, while these nodes have to relay those packets on behalf of the network if the entire network has balanced load at each node then packet can easily arrives from one hop to another hop and there will no more traffic at any single node because load will be distributed. Due to the load balancing, the performance of entire networks will be increased. 6. References 1. F. Akyildiz, D. Pompili and T. Melodia, (2004), Challenges for efficient communication in underwater acoustic sensor networks, SIGBED Review, 1, pp E. M. Sozer, M. Stojanovic and J. G. Proakis, (2000), Underwater acoustic networks, Oceanic Engineering, IEEE Journal of, 25, pp J. Partan, J. Kurose and B. N. Levine, (2006), A survey of practical issues in underwater networks," in WUWNet '06: Proceedings of the 1st ACM International Workshop on Underwater Networks, pp J.Heide mann, W.Ye, J.Wills, A.Syed, and Y.Li. Research, (2006), Challenges and Applications for Underwater Sensor Networking, IEEE Wireless communication and Networking Conference, April J.H.Cui, J. Kong, M.Gerla, and S.Zhou, (2006), Challenges: Building Scalable Mobile Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks for Aquatic Applications. IEEE Network, Special Issue on Wireless Sensor Networking, 20(3), pp F.S ch ill, U.R.Zi mme r, an d J.Trump f. Visible, (2004), Spectrum Optical Communication and Distance Sensing for Underwater, Application s. In Proc. Australasian Conf. Robotics and Automation, May Shashank Yadav et al 24

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