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2 Contents CHAPTER 1 Introduction 1 CHAPTER 2 Short-Range Communications Systems Radio-Frequency Spectrum and Propagation Theory of Electromagnetism and Maxwell s Equations RF Propagation and Interference Basic Antenna Parameters Range of a Radio Communications System Spread-Spectrum Communications Systems Frequency-Hopping Spread-Spectrum Systems Direct-Sequence Spread-Spectrum Systems WLAN Basics of WLAN WLAN Components Wireless Personal Area Network Bluetooth ZigBee Wireless Body Area Networks About Wireless Body Area Networks Technical Challenges of Body Area Networks Principle of Inductive Coupling Medical Implant Communication Service and Wireless Medical Telemetry Service Bands Passive Wearable Electrostatic Tags Ultrawideband Technology Ultrawideband Description UWB Technical Specifications UWB Medical Applications Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiplexing Review Questions and Problems 47 References 49 v

3 vi Contents CHAPTER 3 Automatic Identification Systems Bar Codes Card Technologies Magnetic Cards Smart Cards Optical Cards Radio Frequency Identification RFID Historic Background RFID System Overview Principles of RFID Operation The Electronic Product Code System RFID and Biometrics Challenges of RFID Implementation Wireless Sensor Networks Basics of Wireless Sensor Networks Applications of Wireless Sensor Networks Concept of Ambient Intelligence Sensor Networks Design Considerations The Future of RFID Sensing RFID Applications Supply Chain Logistics Product Authentication Agriculture and Animals Intelligent Transportation Systems Document Management Pharmaceutical and Health Care Industry Indoor Localization for First Responders Passive Keyless Entry Military Applications Other RFID Applications Other Developments in AutoID Systems RuBee Visible Light Tags RFID and Printable Electronics RFID and Mobile Phone Integration Review Questions and Problems 95 References 98 CHAPTER 4 RFID Standards Development Challenges Regional Regulations and Spectrum Allocations Key Players in RFID Standardization ISO and EPC Approach RFID Systems and Frequencies 106

4 Contents vii Power Emissions Conversion North American and International Frequency Bands RFID Interoperability and Harmonization Advantages and Disadvantages of Using 125-kHz Frequency Advantages and Disadvantages of Using the MHz Frequency Operation in the 433-MHz Band Operation in the 900-MHz Band Operation in the and 5.8-GHz Bands ISO/IEC 18000: RFID Air Interface Standards About the Standards ISO/IEC : ISO/IEC : ISO/IEC : ISO/IEC : ISO/IEC : ISO/IEC : UHF and EPCglobal Gen The EPC Class Structure UHF Gen Electronic Product Code Information Services UHF RFID Tag Example Review Questions and Problems 128 References 129 CHAPTER 5 Components of the RFID System RFID Engineering Challenges Near-Field and Far-Field Propagation Far-Field Propagation and Backscatter Principle Near-Field Propagation Systems Tags Tag Considerations Data Content of RFID Tags Passive Tags Active Tags Active And Passive Tags Comparison Multiple Tag Operation Overlapping Tags Tag Antennas UHF Tags Circuits Tag Manufacturing Process Readers Principles of Operation Reader Antenna Software Defined Radios in RFID Systems Data Transfer Between a Tag and a Reader 176

5 viii Contents UHF Reader Electronic Circuitry RFID Power Sources Power-Harvesting Systems Active Power Sources Review Questions and Problems 191 References 193 CHAPTER 6 RFID System Design Considerations RFID System Main Considerations Configuration Design System Design Checklist Carrier Frequency and Bandwidth Frequency Band Selection Power and Range Link Budget Collision Avoidance Tag Reading Reliability RFID Reader-Tag Communication Channel Data Content and Encoding Modulation Data Encryption Testing and Conformance Test Equipment Frequency and Bandwidth-Related Measurement Polling and Timing Measurements Collision Management Multivendor Interoperability and Testing Review Questions and Problems 226 References 229 CHAPTER 7 RFID Technology for Medical Applications Integrating RFIDs and Sensor Networks Basics of Biomedical Signals Sensor Networks in Medicine Medical Implants Operational Challenges of Implanted Devices Biomedical Materials Inside of the Human Body Radio Propagation Inside the Human Body Power Requirements for Implanted Devices Development of Medical Devices Technology Transfer Medical Product Development Laws and Regulations Regarding Wireless Body Implants Wireless Neural Implants 257

6 Contents ix The Brain and the Spinal Cord The Neurons and the Neurostimulation Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) Wireless Neural Implants: Principle of Operation Fully Implantable Wireless Neural Implants Patient s Risks Surgical Risks Security and Privacy Risks Ethical Issues Review Questions and Problems 275 References 278 CHAPTER 8 Sociocultural Implications of RFIDs and Their Applications Market Trends and Usage Barriers to RFID Adoption Globalization RFID Security and Privacy Aspects Access to Information Privacy Threats and Protection The Blocker Tag Reader Signal Energy Analysis Protecting the Public Fair Information Practices Health Risks from RFID Ethical and Moral Dilemmas of Technology Basic Concepts of Ethics Major Ethical Theories Moral Lessons of the Past Research Ethics and Technology Today Enhancing Humans Ethical Decision-Making Process Mathematical Modeling of Ethical Decisions Review Questions and Problems 323 References 326 Appendix 329 Glossary 335 Acronyms 343 About the Author 347 Index 349

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