Frequently Asked Questions

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1 Frequently Asked Questions What are the requirements for license renewal? Licenses Expire On or before October 1, every three years. CE Hours Required 24 (All hours are allowed through home-study) How do I complete this course and receive my certificate of completion? Online Fax Phone Mail Go to Cosmetology.EliteCME. com and follow the prompts. Print your certificate immediately. (386) Be sure to include your credit card information. Your certificate will be ed to you. (866) Please have your test answers, license number and credit card ready. There will be an additional $4.95 convenience fee added for tests received by phone. Use the envelope provided or mail to Elite, PO Box 37, Ormond Beach, FL Your certificate will be ed to you. How much will it cost? Cost of Courses Course Title CE Hours Price Five-Star Hair Colorist 3 Sharpening Your Cutting Skills 3 Sanitation, Sterilization and Infection Control 3 Stress and Your Client 3 $45.00 Make-up Classics 5 You... a Salon Owner 5 Reporting Your Income to the Internal Revenue Service 2 Are you a North Carolina board approved provider? Course providers no longer need to submit course applications, packets, lesson plans, schedules or attendee information directly to the board. Are my credit hours reported to the North Carolina board? No, the board may conduct an audit of your continuing education at any time. Keep your certificate in a safe place. Is my information secure? Yes! Our website is secured by Thawte, we use SSL encryption, and we never share your information with third-parties. We are also rated A+ by the National Better Business Bureau. What if I still have questions? What are your business hours? No problem, we are here to help you. Call us toll-free at , Monday - Friday 9:00 am - 6:00 pm or us at elitecme.com. Please contact us if you have not received your certificate within 7-10 business days. Our company policy is satisfaction guaranteed, or you receive a 100 percent refund. Important information for licensees: Always check your state s board website to determine the number of hours required for renewal, and the amount that may be completed through home-study. Also, make sure that you notify the board of any changes of address. It is important that your most current address is on file. North Carolina Board of Cosmetic Art Examiners Contact Information North Carolina Board of Cosmetic Art Examiners 1207 Front Street, Suite 110 Raleigh, NC Phone: (919) Fax: (919) Website: Page i

2 Table of Contents CE for North Carolina Salon Professionals CHAPTER 1: FIVE-STAR HAIR COLORIST Page 1 All 24 Hrs ONLY $ CHAPTER 2: SHARPENING YOU CUTTING SKILLS Page 16 CHAPTER 3: SANITATION, STERILIZATION AND INFECTION CONTROL Page 27 CHAPTER 4: STRESS AND YOUR CLIENT Page 41 CHAPTER 5: MAKE-UP CLASSICS Page 51 What if I Still Have Questions? No problem, we are here to help you. Call us toll-free at , Monday - Friday 9:00 am - 6:00 pm, or us at elitecme.com. Please contact us if you have not received your certificate within 7-10 business days. CHAPTER 6: YOU... A SALON OWNER Page 69 CHAPTER 7: REPORTING YOUR INCOME TO THE INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE Page 83 Visit Cosmetology.EliteCME. com to view our entire course library and get your CE today! Student Final Examination Questions Page 94 Student Final Examination Answer Sheet Page 97 Course Evaluation Page 98 PLUS... Lowest Price Guaranteed A+ Rating from BBB Serving Professionals Since 1999 All Rights Reserved. Materials may not be reproduced without the expressed written permission or consent of Elite Professional Education, LLC. The materials presented in this course are meant to provide the consumer with general information on the topics covered. The information provided was prepared by professionals with practical knowledge in the areas covered. It is not meant to provide medical, legal or professional advice. Elite Professional Education, LLC recommends that you consult a medical, legal or professional services expert licensed in your state. Elite Professional Education, LLC has made all reasonable efforts to ensure that all content provided in this course is accurate and up to date at the time of printing, but does not represent or warrant that it will apply to your situation or circumstances and assumes no liability from reliance on these materials. Page ii

3 Chapter 1: Five-Star Hair Colorist 3 CE Hours By: JoAnn Stills Learning objectives Explain the significance of primary, secondary and tertiary colors on a color wheel and in the process of coloring. Define what is meant by warm and cool colors, complementary colors, and neutralizing colors. Explain the difference between hair levels and tones. Explain what the ph scale measures and how this is important to hair color. Describe the process of oxidation and its function in permanent hair coloring. Explain the objectives of the consultation/assessment. List the main points and relevance of assessing hair texture and porosity. Define natural base level; explain how to find it and its significance in hair coloring. Explain how percentage and distribution of gray affect hair coloring. Describe how the target color is formulated. Distinguish between predisposition (patch) testing and strand testing. Identify the major categories of hair color services and describe the complications associated with each. Introduction How many of us would like a raise? How much? 5? 10 percent? 20 percent? Even 60 percent? How many want to be a genius to our clients? How much hair color are you currently doing? 10 percent? 20 percent? 50 percent? We know that in the rest of the world, 98 percent of clients receive color services on a regular basis, both women and men (the 2 percent are children). This tells us there is the potential to claim up to 60 percent new color business! But why is there such a big difference between the U.S. and the rest of the world? The rest of the world considers the hair color to be the most important cosmetic to the skin. In addition, stylists will study years longer to become licensed, and they take chemistry very seriously. Hair color services can be the most lucrative and rewarding service offered at a salon. We can take a haircut-only client to a haircut AND color client in a very short period, with very little effort. Today s client flow demands four times the number of clients as in previous years. We simply must make each client more valuable to the salon! Yet many stylists remain apprehensive about color long after they leave cosmetology school. This is probably because hair coloring is about chemistry, which can present problems and mistakes that can drastically affect real people. This course will remind you about the basics of the process and discuss the products and techniques to help boost your confidence as you boost your knowledge. For those who have been using hair-coloring products comfortably for years, this course will refresh and reinforce the important points and perhaps introduce a few new concepts or products. Hair care services are constantly evolving, and there continues to be an increasing demand for color services. From covering gray, restoring or tweaking the original color, highlighting or truly transformative color, color can improve hair texture and strength and increase confidence as much as a good make-up application. Clients receiving color services tend to visit the salon more frequently than other types of clients and spend more money each time, using both services and products. Because application time is typically brief, there is a potential for substantial profits. Additionally, to maintain their look and address new growth, clients have a strong incentive to stay timely about services. While the demand for skilled colorists grows, most come out of school rank amateurs in the art of science and color, and many are rightfully fearful of making mistakes. Above all, hair coloring requires technical precision, and the only way to become an expert is by doing it many times. Stylists should find a good resource for hair samples and testing materials and practice, practice, practice. The best hair colorists have done it thousands of times and have learned from failures as well as successes. Running your own experiments will increase your skills as well as your confidence in the results. The function and ingredients in home hair color products and those found in the salon are essentially the same. The major difference in home hair color versus salon color is the expertise of a professional colorist who is able to custom blend a specific color and control the amount of hydrogen peroxide or other products used. Through experience, the stylist learns how the process will affect hair color and quality, and how long or short a time to process the color. New do-it-yourself products are both a boon and a burden. Many clients may try to color their own hair with varying results. You may have to correct a client s mistake. Your knowledge and abilities will ensure that the client s money is well-spent, and you ll find your confidence stretched with each success. Coloring accidents can be a nightmare, but great color correction can make you invaluable to that client. Remember, the product is only one part of the equation (and not the most important part). While a client can produce satisfactory results with the first application, re-touches will become problematic simply because different bases are involved and the hair s condition is compromised. Careful reading is essential to successful hair coloring, starting with the critical information in product directions and manufacturer s information. One can also read up on new hair color developments Page 1

4 and the latest technologies in magazines and on the Internet. Artful hair coloring is enhanced by reading and doing. Not only can you find information about getting the best results with specific products, such as details on how to mix and apply hair color, you also can see photos of the results. The more you learn about hair color, the more valuable your services and the more your clients will appreciate you. Let your clients know the magic is not just in the materials, but also in the expert choice of product and application. Clients know little about their options in hair color products and services. You provide that knowledge. And as an experienced professional, you are able to maximize a good product. This course will help you increase your value in the color equation. Instead of living in fear of hair coloring disasters, you might even get a reputation for correcting them. To really understand how color works, you need to have a basic understanding of a number of topics. So that we are all speaking the same language, we will begin with a glossary of terms that will be used. Glossary Accelerator/ activator: An additive used to quicken the action or progress of a chemical. Another word for booster, protenator or catalyst. Accent color: A concentrated color product that can be added to permanent, semi-permanent or temporary hair color to intensify or tone down the color. Another word for concentrates and color additive. Acid: An aqueous (water-based) solution having a ph less than 7.0 on the ph scale. Alkaline: An aqueous (water-based) solution having a ph greater than 7.0 on the ph scale. The opposite of acid. Another word for base/ alkali. Allergy: A physical reaction resulting from extreme sensitivity to exposure, contact or ingestion of certain foods or chemicals. Allergy test: A test to determine the possibility or degree of sensitivity; also known as a patch test, predisposition test or skin test. Amino acids: The group of molecules that the body uses to synthesize protein. There are 22 different amino acids found in living protein that serve as units of hair structure. Ammonia: A colorless, pungent gas composed of hydrogen and nitrogen; in water solution it is called ammonia water. Used in hair color to swell the cuticle. When mixed with hydrogen peroxide, it activates the oxidation process on melanin and allows the melanin to decolorize. Ammonium hydroxide: An alkali solution of ammonia in water; commonly used in the manufacturing of permanent hair color, lightener preparations and hair relaxers. Analysis (hair): An examination of the hair to determine its condition and natural color. Aqueous: Descriptive term for water solution or any medium that is largely composed of water. Ash: A tone or shade dominated by greens, blues, violets or grays. May be used to counteract unwanted warm tones. Base color: The combination of dyes that make up the tonal foundation of a specific hair color. Bleach/lightener: The chemical compound that lightens the hair by dispersing, dissolving and decolorizing the natural hair pigment. Bleeding: Seepage of tint/lightener from the packet containing the hair to be colored or frosting cap caused by improper application. Blending: A merging of one tint or tone with another. Blonding: A term applied to lightening the hair. Bonds: The means by which atoms are joined together to make molecules. Brassy tone: Undesirable red, orange or gold tones in the hair. Breakage: A condition in which hair splits and breaks off. Buffer zone: Applying color away from the scalp to avoid chemical overlapping. Page 2 Build-up: Repeated coatings on the hair shaft. Bumping the base: A term used to describe a gentle degree of lift of the natural color. Cap method: A disposable rubber or plastic cap used to highlight or lowlight; hair is pulled through and selectively colored or bleached. Catalyst: A substance used to alter the speed of a chemical reaction. Category: A method of defining natural hair to help determine the undertones. Caustic: Strongly alkaline materials. At very high ph levels, can burn or destroy protein or tissue by chemical action. Certified color: A color that meets certain standards for purity and is certified by the FDA. Cetyl alcohol: Fatty alcohol used as an emollient. It is also used as a stabilizer for emulsion systems, and in hair color and cream developer as a thickener. Chemical change: Alteration in the chemical composition of a substance. Citric acid: Organic acid derived from citrus fruits and used for ph adjustment. Primarily used to adjust the acid-alkali balance. Has some antioxidant and preservative qualities. Used medicinally as a mild astringent. Coating: Residue left on the outside of the hair shaft. Color: Visual sensation caused by light. Color base: The combination of dyes that make up the tonal foundation of a specific hair color. Also dye stock. Color lift: The amount of change natural or artificial pigment undergoes when lightened by a substance. Color mixing: Combining two or more shades together for a custom color. Color refresher: (1) Color applied to mid-shaft and ends to give a more uniform color appearance to the hair. (2) Color applied by a shampoo-in method to enhance the natural color. Also called color wash, color enhancer, color glaze. Color remover: A product designed to remove artificial pigment from the hair. Also dye remover/dye solvent. Color test: The process of removing product from the hair strand to monitor the progress of color development during tinting or lightening. Also called strand test. Color wheel: The arrangement of primary, secondary and tertiary colors in the order of their relationships to each other. A tool for formulating. Complementary colors: A primary and secondary color positioned opposite each other on the color wheel. When these two colors are combined, they create a neutral color. Combinations are blue/orange, red/green, and yellow/violet.

5 Condition: The existing state of the hair its elasticity, strength, texture, porosity and evidence of previous treatments. Consultation: Verbal communication with a client to determine desired result. Contributing pigment: The current level and tone of the hair. Refers to both natural contributing pigment and decolorized (lightened) contributing pigment. Corrective coloring: The process of correcting an undesirable color. Cortex: The second layer of the hair. A fibrous protein core of the hair fiber containing melanin pigment. Coverage: Reference to the ability of a color product to color gray, white or other colors of the hair. Cuticle: The translucent, protein outer layer of the hair fiber. Cysteic acid: A chemical substance in the hair fiber, produced by the interaction of hydrogen peroxide on the disulfide bond (cystine). Cystine: The disulfide amino acid that joins protein chains together. D and C colors: Colors selected from a certified list approved by the FDA for use in drug and cosmetic products. Decolorize: A chemical process involving the lightening of the natural color pigment or artificial color from the hair. Degree: Term used to describe various units of measurement. Demi-color/deposit-only color: A category of color products between permanent and semi-permanent colors. Formulated to only deposit color, not lift. They contain oxidative dyes and utilize a low volume developer. Dense: Thick, compact or crowded. Deposit: Describes the color product in terms of its ability to add color pigment to the hair. Color added equals deposit. Depth: The lightness or darkness of a specific hair color. Developer: An oxidizing agent, usually hydrogen peroxide that reacts chemically with coloring material to develop color molecules and create a change in natural hair color. Development time/oxidation period: The time required for a permanent color or lightener to completely develop. Diffused: Broken down, scattered; not limited to one spot. Direct dye: A preformed color that dyes the fiber directly without the need for oxidation. Also referred to as a stain. Discoloration: The development of undesired shades through chemical reaction. Double process: A technique requiring two separate procedures in which the hair is decolorized or pre-lightened with a lightener before the depositing color is applied. Drab: Term used to describe hair color shades containing no red or gold. Also ash. Drabber: Concentrated color used to reduce red or gold highlights. Dull: A word used to describe hair or hair color without sheen. Dye: Artificial pigment. Elasticity: The ability of the hair to stretch and return to normal. Enzyme: A protein molecule found in living cells that initiates a chemical process. Fade: To lose color through exposure to the elements or other factors. Fillers: (1) Color product used as a color refresher or to replace undertones in damaged hair in preparation for hair coloring. (2) Any liquid-like substance to help fill the need for natural undertones. Formulas: Mixture of two or more ingredients. Formulate: The art of mixing to create a blend or balance of two or more ingredients. Frosting: The introduction of lighter strands to the hair; generally executed with a frosting cap. Glazing: A term used to describe a translucent color used on the hair after a previous hair color; a blending color. Gray hair: Hair with decreasing amounts of natural pigment. Hair with no natural pigment is actually white. White hairs look gray when mingled with pigmented hair. Also referred to as unpigmented hair. Hair: A slender threadlike outgrowth on the skin of the head and body. Hair root: That part of the hair contained within the follicle, below the surface of the skin. Hair shaft: Visible part of each strand of hair. It is made up of an outer layer called the cuticle, an innermost layer called medulla and an in-between layer called the cortex. The cortex layer is where color changes are made. Hard water: Water that contains minerals and metallic salts as impurities. Henna: A plant-extracted coloring that produces bright shades of red. The active ingredient is lawsone. Henna permanently colors the hair by coating and penetrating the hair shaft. High-lift tinting: A single process color with a higher degree of lightening action and a minimal amount of color deposit. Highlighting: The introduction of a lighter color in small sections to increase lightness of the hair. Hydrogen peroxide: An oxidizing chemical made up of 2 parts hydrogen, 2 parts oxygen (H2O2) used to aid the processing of permanent hair color and lighteners. Also referred to as a developer; available in liquid or cream. Level: A unit of measurement used to evaluate the lightness or darkness of a color, excluding tone. Level system: In hair coloring, a system colorists use to analyze the lightness or darkness of a hair color. Lift: The lightening action of a hair color or lightening product on the hair s natural pigment. Line of demarcation: An obvious difference between two colors on the hair shaft. Litmus paper: A chemically treated paper used to test the acidity or alkalinity of products. Medulla: The center structure of the hair shaft. Very little is known about its actual function. Very fine hair many times does not have it. Melanin: The tiny grains of pigment in the hair cortex that create natural color. Melanocytes: Cells in the hair bulb that manufacture melanin. Melanoprotein: The protein coating of melanosome. Metallic dyes: Soluble metal salts such as lead, silver and bismuth produce colors on the hair fiber, by progressive build-up and exposure to air. Modifier: A chemical found as an ingredient in permanent hair colors. Its function is to alter the dye intermediates. Molecule: Two or more atoms chemically joined together; the smallest part of a compound. Neutral: (1) A color balanced between warm and cool that does not reflect a highlight of any primary or secondary color. (2) Also refers to a ph of 7.0. Page 3

6 Neutralization: The process that counter-balances or cancels the action of an agent or color. Neutralize: Render neutral; counter-balance of action or influence. New growth: The part of the hair shaft that is between previously chemically treated hair and the scalp. Also regrowth. Nonalkaline: Same as acid. Off-the-scalp lightener: Generally a stronger lightener (usually in powder form), not to be used directly on the scalp. On-the-scalp lightener: A liquid, cream or gel form of lightener that can be used directly on the scalp. Opaque: Allowing no light to shine through; flat; lack of translucency. Outgrowth: Same as new growth. Overlap: Occurs when the application of color or lightener goes beyond the line of demarcation. Overporous: The condition where hair reaches an undesirable stage of porosity requiring correction. Also sensitized. Oxidation: (1) The reaction of dye intermediates with hydrogen peroxide found in hair coloring developers. (2) The interaction of hydrogen peroxide on the natural pigment. Oxidative hair color: A product containing oxidation dyes that require hydrogen peroxide to develop the permanent color. Para tint: A tin made from oxidation dyes. Para-phenylenediamine: An oxidative dye used in most permanent hair colors, often abbreviated as PPD. Patch test: A test required by the FDA. Performed by applying a small amount of the hair coloring preparation to the skin of the arm, or behind the ear to determine possible allergies (hypersensitivity). Also called pre-disposition or skin test. Penetrating color: Color that penetrates the cortex or second layer of the hair shaft. Permanent color: (1) Hair color products that do not wash out by shampooing. (2) A category of hair color products mixed with developer that creates a lasting color change. Peroxide residue: Traces of peroxide left in the hair after treatment with lightener or tint. Persulfate: In hair coloring, a chemical ingredient commonly used in activators that increases the speed of the decolorization process. PH: The quantity that expresses the acid /alkali balance. A ph of 7 is the neutral value for pure water. Any ph below 7 is acidic; any ph above 7 is alkaline. The skin is mildly acidic, and generally in the ph 4.5 to 5.5 range. PH scale: A numerical scale from 0 (very acid) to 14 (very alkaline), used to describe the degree of acidity or alkalinity. Pigment: Any substance or matter used as coloring; natural or artificial hair color. Porosity: Ability of the hair to absorb water or other liquids. Powder lightener: Same as off-the-scalp lightener. Prebleaching/prelighten: Generally the first step of double-process hair coloring. To lift or lighten the natural pigment. Presoften: The process of treating gray or very resistant hair to allow for better penetration of color. Primary colors: Pigments or colors that are fundamental and cannot be made by mixing colors together. Red, yellow and blue are the primary colors. Prism: A transparent glass or crystal that breaks up white light into its component colors; the spectrum. Processing time: the time required for the chemical treatment to react on the hair. Progressive dyes/progressive dye system: (1) A coloring system that produces increased absorption with each application. (2) Color products that deepen or increase absorption over a period of time during processing. Resistant hair: Hair that is difficult to penetrate with moisture or chemical solutions. Retouch: Application of color or lightener mixture to new growth of hair. Salt and pepper: The descriptive term for a mixture of dark and gray or white hair. Secondary color: Colors made by combining two primary colors in equal proportions; green, orange and violet are secondary colors. Semi-permanent hair coloring: A pre-oxidized hair color requiring no catalyst that lasts through several shampoos. It stains the cuticle layer, slowly fading with each shampoo. Sensitized: Referring to the condition of the hair. May be slight (dry) to extreme (over-porous). Sensitivity: Skin that is highly reactive to the presence of a specific chemical. Skin reddens or becomes irritated shortly after application of the chemical. The reaction subsides when the chemical has been removed. Shade: (1) A term used to describe a specific color. (2) The visible difference between two colors. Sheen: The ability of the hair to shine, gleam or reflect light. Single process color: Refers to an oxidative tint solution that lifts or lightens, while depositing color in one application. Also oxidative hair color. Softening agent: A mild alkaline product applied prior to the color treatment to increase porosity, swell the cuticle layer of the hair and increase color absorption. Solution: A blended mixture of solid, liquid or gaseous substances in a liquid medium. Solvent: Carrier liquid in which other components may be dissolved. Specialist: One who concentrates on only one part or branch of a subject or profession. Spectrum: The series of colored bands diffracted and arranged in the order of their wavelengths by the passage of a white light through a prism. Shading continuously from red (produced by the longest wave visible) to violet (produced by the shortest): red, orange, green, blue, indigo and violet. Spot lightening: Color correcting using a lightening mixture to lighten darker areas. Stabilizer: General name for ingredient that prolongs life, appearance and performance of a product. Stage: A term used to describe a visible color change that natural hair color goes through while being lightened. Stain remover: Chemical used to remove tint stains from the skin. Strand test: Test given before treatment to determine development time, color results and the ability of the hair to withstand the effects of chemicals. Stripping: Also referred to as color remover. Page 4

7 Surfactant: An abbreviation for surface-active agent. A molecule that is composed of an oil-loving (oleophillic) part and a water-loving (hydrophilic) part. They act as a bridge to allow oil and water to mix. Wetting agents, emulsifiers, cleansers, solubilizers, dispersing aids and thickeners are usually surfactants. Tablespoon: one-half ounce; 3 teaspoons. Teaspoon: one-sixth ounce; one-third of a tablespoon. Temporary color/rinses: Color made from preformed dyes that are applied to the hair for a short-term effect. This type of product is readily removed with shampoo. Terminology: The special words or terms used in science, art or business. Tertiary colors: The mixture of a primary and an adjacent secondary color on the color wheel. Red-orange, yellow-orange, yellow-green, blue-green, blue-violet, red-violet. Also referred to as intermediary colors. Texture, hair: The diameter of an individual hair strand. Termed: coarse, medium or fine. Tint: Permanent oxidizing hair color product, having the ability to lift and deposit color in the same process. Requires a developer. Tint back: To return hair back to its original or natural colors. Also referred to as repigment. Tone: A term used to describe the warmth or coolness in color. Toner: A pastel color to be used after pre-lightening. Toning: Adding color to modify the end result. Touch-up: Also retouch. Translucent: The property of letting diffused light pass through. Tyrosine: The amino acid (tyrosine) that reacts with the enzyme (tyrosinase) to form the hair s natural melanin. Tyrosinase: The enzyme (tyrosinase) that reacts together with the amino acid (tyrosine) to form the hair s natural melanin. Undertone: The underlying color in melanin that emerges during the lifting process and contributes to the end result. When lightening hair, residual warmth in tone always occurs. Value: Also referred to as level and depth. Vegetable color: A color derived from plant sources. Virgin hair: Natural hair that has not undergone any chemical or physical abuse. Viscosity: A term referring to the thickness of a solution. Volume: The concentration of hydrogen peroxide in water solution. Expressed as volumes of oxygen liberated per volume of solution; 20-volume peroxide would thus liberate 20 pints of oxygen gas for each pint of solution. Warm: A term used to describe hair color containing red, orange, gold or yellow tones. Psychology of hair color As professional hair colorists, we should never lose sight of our role in society. We have the opportunity to make dramatic changes in the lives of people seeking to improve their appearance. A change of hair color often can be the catalyst to turn the individual in a positive direction. Because a change of hair color is so immediate and relatively inexpensive (compared to cosmetic surgery), it s often the choice for many clients. Just as we must first acquire the skills to perform the necessary techniques, it is equally important we never lose sight of the fact that we are working on a living, breathing human being. Our pallet is never a canvas or a piece of clay. We ve all been exposed to apathy by someone who just didn t care or who was just having a bad day. Bad service or apathy is something a client should not have to tolerate. We must fight apathy toward someone because of his or her appearance. As hair colorists, we are similar to the artists who restore paintings. Through the years, paintings become veiled with a cover of soot and lose their vibrant color; artists can remove that veil of soot and restore the painting to its original vivid colors. As hair colorists, we have the ability to perform the same service on our clients. We can take a client who through the years has lost the vibrancy in his or her hair and restore it to its original youthful appearance. For others, we can transform dull, drab natural hair to spectacular color with glints of beautiful highlights. Client consultation, communication and negotiating are key skills. As we gain confidence and become more proficient in our technical skills, consultation becomes much easier. The more tools we have at our disposal, the easier it is to solve a greater variety of hair-color challenges and in turn, the more we grow our business. During the consultation, recognize that most people have a subjective opinion of their appearance. Understanding this can induce a sense of empathy toward the client. Empathy is having the ability to put yourself into clients shoes and viewing the world as they see it. This helps you recognize that clients have their own points of view. Direct eye contact is important. Position yourself at eye level with the client and look directly at her when consulting; avoid looking at the client in the mirror. One of the biggest challenges we face as hair colorists is negotiating with our clients. Compromise is the key. Terminology and presentation must be professional, but the colorist must avoid sounding too professional and not down to earth. Making a photo album with a variety of hair colors is a great aid for helping clients find the colors they are attempting to describe. They often will describe or refer to a celebrity who has a hair color they are attracted to. It is a good practice to have them find the same hair color in your photo album. Taking the hair color off the celebrity s face and placing it on a regular person could make your client view the hair color differently. Showing a client a book of various hair colors on finished styles is insurance that both of you are talking about the same color. It can also be used to give direction and make recommendations. Without common ground to start from, formulating for the client becomes a gamble. Some clients come to the salon knowing exactly what they want. The hair colorist should verify the color with a photograph and accept the client s choice or make suggestions of his or her own. This is when professionalism becomes important. An important point to remember when consulting with clients is their natural hair color category. If they have worn a color at one point in their life, they can wear it again. People in the warm brown category can wear the greatest variety of hair color. Review the natural hair color category and remember, when a client is placed into a natural hair color category, he or she stays in that category for life. It is not recommended that the client be shown a manufacturer s hair color chart, regardless of how beautiful it looks. The hair color chart is a tool used by the hair colorist to help formulate. It will not help the client select a hair color; rather it can create apprehension or confusion for the client or it may put the client in charge of the consultation. In effect, your client will select her own hair color without your input, and at her next appointment will again want to see the color chart to Page 5

8 adjust that formula. The hair colorist will find that she, the expert, is taking direction from the client. We should always remember the salon on the next block or in the next city is not our only competition. Our major competition is the drug store and the supermarket. We must always strive to use professional techniques and methods of application to create hair colors that cannot be duplicated at home. Our goal should be to keep hair coloring a professional service and draw a distinct line between professional hair color and home hair color. What often matters most is not the product you use. It is the application method. If this is a client s first hair coloring, there probably will be some apprehension. And her fears are real. If you can erase those fears, you will have a comfortable, relaxed client when performing the service. The most common fears of clients are: How will my new hair color look on me? Will I like it? What will the investment be in time and money? If I don t like it, what will it look like when it is growing out? The consultation period is one in which all aspects of the above concerns should be addressed. The ability to put the client at ease during her first visit to your salon is paramount. It does no harm to embellish the hair color service by using descriptive terms such as growing out gracefully or give your hair a youthful appearance or soften your appearance. Using your own terminology will make the client feel good about the upcoming service. A word about words: Words can cement or destroy a relationship, bring color to your presentations and make a connection with another person. Above all else, be careful not to insult the client, especially if she has been applying color at home. That means not saying what one colorist was overheard saying to the client: Wow! Your hair is fried! Keep your descriptions positive and avoid emotional outbursts. A better way to address the client would be: Yes, your hair has lost moisture and needs to have the color replaced; here is my plan The client consultation We suggest draping the client in white and have a white light above the head (or be in natural daylight or have a natural-daylight fluorescent lighting system). Seat yourself next to the client with a clear view of the mirror. It is important to have finished color examples available for the client to view and discuss. Again, this is preferred to showing the client a color chart. Fill out the client analysis sheet. This should also contain all relative information including health, medicines and history of any problems that the client may have had in the past. 1. Come to an agreement on the target shade. Analyze the natural level of color and find out what the client has in mind. Is a subtle or radical change desired? 2. Discuss the time and frequency of the treatment. How often must this be done to assure great results? 3. Be honest with the costs of the services. The client should not be surprised by charges either for the initial or retouch services. 4. The appointment time should be discussed. Do not attempt to give complicated services on the lunch hour or with a screaming child in tow. 5. Prescribe maintenance products. This is your insurance policy that the hair s integrity is being properly protected. Write everything down. Now, begin to make suggestions within the parameters set down. Keep the conversation open, friendly and professional. Above all, listen to what the client is saying! More mistakes have been made from a lack of understanding than any other situation. Remember also that as we develop unpigmented (gray) hair, we lose pigments in the skin. A safe rule for the conservative client or the gentleman client is to stay within 1-2 levels (either lighter or darker) from the natural color. Inspiration: Pigment study Volumes have been written about which colors go with which skin tones and eye colors. But some of us have found these both confusing and difficult to use when consulting with a client. Fashion color is a hot topic, and trends usually appeal to the young client. However, the mature woman and most men will accept natural-looking hair color, done in good taste. Easy color analysis can be accomplished by using a lighted magnifying glass. Look into the eye, either from the front or the side, and observe the ring around the iris (the pigmented area of the eye). If the outer ring of the iris is blue (it could be blue-grey to as dark as navy blue), the person is cool-toned. Note: Even brown eyes can have a blue ring. Observe the skin. Most cools will have a yellow base or somewhat sallow complexion. If the outer ring of the iris is green (it could be aqua to as dark as forest green) the person is warm-toned. Note: Even blue eyes can have a green ring. Most warms will have a peach or copper undertone to the skin. We can also observe pigment bundles (freckles) on the face, arms, chest or upper back. Look for points of inspiration in the iris, that is, flecks of gold, copper or bronze. Any of these tones will be enhancing to that person. Because these pigments are part of the persons natural genetic makeup, the principle of the two color families will apply regardless of race or nationality. Only the concentration of pigments will be different. This applies to the level of color; that is, variations from pastel (fair), medium, to intense (deep). Who can wear what? The cools can wear: Naturals/neutrals. All cool tones. Burgundy/blue-reds. Violet reds. Iridescent tones. Beige tones. Soft gold tones. The warms can wear: Naturals/neutrals. Page 6 Strong golds. Copper tones. Bronze tones. Scarlet reds. Honey blonds. Clear reds. If you wish to equate this information to seasonal color, we can do that, too. A person who is cool-toned with a fair complexion is a summer.

9 A person who is cool-toned with a medium to deep complexion is a winter. A person who is warm-toned with a fair complexion is a spring. A person who is warm-toned with a medium to deep complexion is an autumn. (The above information can be used to advise clients in make-up and wardrobe selection. This makes you a savvy fashion consultant.) Note the color family and the points of inspiration on the client analysis sheet. The categories of hair color Internationally, all of the color manufacturers use a numbering system instead of referring to shades. The reason for this is that numbers translate into an accurate relationship of the pigments present. (See Figure 1 on inside back cover.) Basically, there are only three color categories: blonds: No. 10, No. 9, No. 8 and No. 7; browns: No. 6, No. 5 and No. 4; and blacks: No. 3, No. 2 and No. 1. You may be thinking: What happened to reds? Reds get into tones. A red can be light, and therefore fall into the blond category, or it can be dark and fall into the brown category. (See Figure 2 on back cover.) All hair color, both natural and artificial, is comprised of yellow, red and blue pigments. Starting with No. 10 on the International scale, yellow is the evident pigment. Progressing down, we see the introduction of red. The darker the hair or hair color, the greater the concentration of these pigments. At No. 8, we start to see the introduction of red; represented by the appearance of some orange. At No. 6, we see the evidence of red. This increase of concentration provides us with the progression of depth down to No. 1, which is commonly referred to as blue-black. The blue pigment is most responsible for buffering the red. We experience this when lightening natural hair color. The blue is the first to be neutralized, thereby exposing the red, orange or yellow. As a review of the basic color wheel (See Figure 3 on back cover): The three primary colors are yellow, red and blue. Mixed together, they produce brown. The naturals/neutrals are usually represented by the number or level by itself, such as No. 8, medium blonde. The secondary colors are orange (yellow and red), green (yellow and blue) and violet (red and blue). The resulting tones are produced using the secondary and tertiary colors. These are also represented by numbers and in some color lines, letters. The most common usage of these numbers represents the following tones and colors: Ash x.1, blue or green. Iridescent x.2, violet. Gold x.3, yellow. Copper x.4, orange. Burgundy x.5, red-violet. Auburn x.6, red. For example, a No. 8.3 produces a medium golden blond. Many exciting combinations are produced by mixing tones in unequal parts to produce a primary and secondary tone insertion. An example of this would be No. 8.43, known as medium coppery golden blond. The copper is the first, or dominant, tone, and gold is the secondary tone. This can be accomplished by using a two-thirds to one-third ratio. A variety of terms are used to describe the tone of a hair color, neutral, natural, drab, gold, ash, smoky, red and auburn red, to mention a few. It is important to know the degree of concentration of the tone. For example, the color identified as gold could be a very intense yellow gold or have slightly more gold than a neutral. Working with the color and making swatches will help you recognize the actual color. Remember: A cool tone will appear darker than the indicated level, while a warm tone will appear lighter because of the reflection of light. Note: A tertiary color, such as burgundy brown, is produced from both direct and indirect dyes. These fade rather quickly and can produce runoff with each shampoo. Many fashion shades are produced this way. Don t forget the color wheel rule: Opposite colors on the color wheel will neutralize one another. Types of color There are many different types of hair coloring products available. They include pigmented shampoos, weekly rinses, semi-permanent, permanent lift-deposit hair color and deposit-only hair color. Temporary colors (deposits on the cuticle layer of the hair) are: Shampoos. Rinses. Mascara. Generally produced from vegetable dyes or stains. A weekly rinse or temporary hair color is primarily used to add color to gray hair, faded blonds or brassy hair. This hair color is not generally used to cover gray, but instead to give a blend to the all-over appearance. It does not have the ability to lighten hair. The color will rub off if applied excessively. Semi-permanent colors: (deposits in the cuticle layer; may penetrate slightly deeper if heat is used) are: Non-ammonia with no peroxide (may use heat). Produced from vegetable dyes and sometimes metallic dyestuff. Semi-permanent hair color is not mixed with a catalyst, although a heat application may be used to make the color more durable. It is simple to use because the color you see is the color you get. It is a direct dye and does not require oxidation for the color to stain the hair. In areas where the hair is more porous, this type of color will show greater intensity. Caution must be exercised when using a semi-permanent hair color on porous hair; it can stain the hair permanently. Deep color/non-ammonia colors (deposits in the cortex layer): Are more durable. Have a low-volume developer (2½- to 12-volume peroxide). May be natural or metallic in origin. Deposit-only hair color uses oxidative and direct dyes and requires a developer. The catalyst is generally a low volume oxidative solution. Deposit-only, demi-permanent hair colors are longer lasting than semipermanent hair color. The major distinction between semi-permanent and deposit-only, demi-permanent hair colors is that a catalyst is required with deposit-only and demi-permanent color. These are also referred to as deep colors. NOTE: Some deposit-only hair colors may create a small amount of lift, depending on the volumes of the developer. Permanent hair colors: (deposits in the cortex layer): Will lift natural hair color and deposit new color. Work with natural pigments. Are generally produced from para-phenyene-diamine, paratoluene-diamine and meta-toluene-diamine. Page 7

10 Are produced from indirect dyes. They are clear until processing with the natural pigments. Permanent (lift/deposit) hair colors are available in a variety of forms: gels, liquids and creams. They are packaged in tubes as well as bottles. The majority use equal parts of peroxide, although some use a one-to-two ratio of hair color to peroxide. Permanent hair color works in basically the same manner; it creates a certain degree of lift and deposit. Permanent hair colors are the only hair colors that are formulated to lighten hair. The international system of defining the lift/deposit ratio of hair color is called the level system, which gives the colorist an indication of the lift/deposit ratio in a bottle or tube of hair color. Although most manufacturers of hair color products use the level system, not all manufacturers use the same system. When comparing products from two different manufacturers with the same level number, the hair colorist must be aware that the products could vary as much as two levels and may not produce the same results. How much lightening can we expect? The lightening action is caused by a combination of the amount of ammonia in the color and the volumes of the developer, such as 20V H 2 O = 2 levels of lift; 30V H O = 3 levels 2 2 of lift; and so on. Another tip for formulation is to count the natural level along with the target level, such as natural level No. 6 to target No. 8 = 3 levels. This is true because we must lift through the sixth level to reach the seventh level and then up to the desired eighth level. A rule to remember when choosing a color: The darker the color, the smaller the number. This may vary, depending on the manufacturer. Some start with No. 0, others with No. 1. The same variance can be found on the other end of the scale. Some manufacturers choose to use No. 10 as the lightest hair color, while others choose to use No. 12. Permanent hair color contains ingredients that create lift and deposit color. The lifting action is provided by the ammonium sulphate. Generally, the higher the number or level, the more lightening provided. Also note, with the higher lightening comes less deposit of color. The lower levels provide less lifting action and greater concentration of color deposit and thereby contain less ammonium sulphate. Permanent (lift/deposit) hair color contains dye, alkaline substances, conditioners, stabilizers, fragrance detergents and emulsifiers. These are all used in various proportions to create the vast numbers of hair colors that are available to the hair colorist. The advantage of professional hair coloring is greater selection, professional formulation and professional application techniques. The level system only indicates lift/deposit ratio. The tone or shade defines the actual color and is generally listed on the product. Manufacturers often add a letter or series of numbers to identify level and indicate tone. While this information is provided to help the hair colorist determine formulation, the final color is determined by a number of factors that the colorist must consider. Category of natural hair color, presence and amount of gray hair and the condition of the hair all will apply. The colorist cannot rely on level and tone indicators from a manufacturer alone to accurately predict a final color. Note: Ask your manufacturer for the MSDS on each product. Another important consideration is to ask whether the colors are developed on a pigmented or white base. This will adjust the depth of final results by as much as one full number. For example, a No. 6 that is formulated on a white base will appear as deep as a No. 5 in the final results. For this reason, a color chart or swatch book can be deceiving. Chemistry color mixing Here are some examples of how to custom mix colors. Example: Decreasing the intensity of a tone: A red tone is too bright for the client s taste: Mix ½ of the formula in a Natural color of the same number/level. Example: No. 5 (medium brown) is too dark and No. 6 (light brown) is too light: Customize the formula by mixing half of each to produce a No. 5½ level. Example: A natural level No. 7 (dark blond) has difficulty maintaining a strong red tone. Consider mixing at least one-fourth of the formula in a deeper warm color, or work with a lower volume of developer, or use both adjustments. Always strand test to predict results. Caution: Mixing more than two colors may give unsatisfactory results, because mixing the three primary colors or mixing a primary color with a secondary color will produce brown. A tip for formulating browns A client wishing to match her natural color says that her hair is light brown and doesn t have any red in it. Should we use No. 6 light brown? The gentleman client with natural dark brown hair wants to cover his gray hair. He does not wish to see any warmth in the color. Should we use No. 4 dark brown? The answer to both scenarios is: NO. Using a brown in either case will produce warm results. In the first case, the choice would be No. 7 dark blonde. For the gentleman, the solution would be to use No. 3 natural black. When we use a brown, we automatically deposit red into the hair. While we can mix in a drabbing agent, this toning will wash away, revealing the warmth underneath. The better choice is to avoid this pitfall. Formulating for unpigmented (gray) hair People who are turning gray have always attempted to disguise it. Many concoctions have been used in an attempt to retain a youthful appearance. Although gray hair has been a curse to those whose demeanor is youthful, it s been a mixed blessing to the hair colorist. The introduction of gray hair is often the catalyst to prompt individuals to color their hair. At the same time, gray hair presents a special challenge to the hair colorist. No one has really determined why hair turns gray. Hair turns gray (or more accurately white) because at some point melanin stops being produced but why it stops is still unknown. It s believed by most scientific communities that graying hair is a result of genetics. When Page 8 a person is born, each follicle on the head is genetically coded to stop producing melanin. The perception of the general public is that gray hair is associated with aging. Individuals in today s society are constantly being bombarded with advertising to persuade them to retain their youthful appearance. This is a benefit to the hair colorist. After identifying the client s natural hair color category, it is necessary to identify the percentage of gray hair. It is also important to identify the placement and distribution of gray hair. A person who is 50 percent

11 gray with the gray hair sprinkled equally throughout the pigmented hair would require a different approach than a person who is 80 percent gray in the front and 20 percent gray in the back. In each case, half of the hair is white and half is pigmented. See the Glossary at the beginning of this course and the Marketing ideas section, below, for techniques to present to the client. For an appreciable amount of gray hair: White hair is missing oxymelanine (yellow base), which is the reason it is so difficult to cover. Mix up to half of the formula with a golden tone in the same number. This will provide a base on which the colors will develop. Another trick is to use the pre-softening technique: Dab 30V developer onto areas of resistance (the most white concentration). Allow 5 to 10 minutes. Mix your formula while waiting. Blot areas well with a towel. Peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) volume reduction Proceed with application. In addition to the above solutions, we can add these: Dial the clock back by simply combing on the natural level (stay back from the hairline) mixed with 10V developer. The balayage technique works great for this, and the 10V mixture controls the warmth we see so many times in level No. 5 and deeper. This is also referred to as lowlighting. Avoid using blue- and green-based colors on white hair. This will finish as silver on the hair and is aging to the skin. Use the iridescent tone (x.2). This has some yellow in the formula to keep the hair from going ash. If the target is No. 7 warm, add in up to half of the mixture in No. 7 gold. This will prevent hot roots. And don t forget the pre-softening trick. Through study on the scanning electron microscope, we know that white hair can have as many as 10 cuticle layers. This is what gives us the challenge in covering gray and white hair. Formula mix Results in Color mixture use 1 ounce 20V H 2 O ounce H 2 O 1 ounce 20V H 2 O ounces H ounces 10V H 2 O ounces H 2 O 1 ounce 20V H 2 O ounces H 2 O OR 4 ounces 5V H 2 O ounces H 2 O 2 ounces 10V H 2 O 2 Color for hair that is permed. Color for hair that fades quickly. Correction on over lightened hair White hair (areas of resistance). Color for the same level or darker than the natural. 4 ounces 5V H 2 O 2 Toner on pre-lightened deposit-only color 4 ounces 5V H 2 O 2 A tone corrector 8 ounces 2½V H 2 O 2 Semi-permanent color Notes: Cream developer is preferred over clear peroxide because of stability. Distilled water is recommended for these adjustments to the developer. Check your volumes with a peroxide hydrometer and keep containers tightly closed and clearly marked. When formulating for the first time color on hair that is more than 50 percent white, label the white hair No. 10 and analyze the natural level (let s say No. 6, light brown). Add the two numbers together: 10 plus 6 equals 16, and divide in half, which equals level No. 8. Because the client has lost pigments in the skin along with the lack of pigments in the hair, this level will blend beautifully. Add the suitable tone, and you have given the client a natural-looking result. Many times a client wants to return to the natural color that she had 30 years ago. This is not a good idea. The dark color will cast a shadow to the skin and emphasize every line on the face. The client does not realize that she has been accustomed to viewing the lighter, softer reflection. For this reason, we can adjust the formula up by one-fourth to one-half level at least every six to 12 months. Use a deep color in a golden blond on a client with Level No. 6 and 50 percent white hair. This resembles a highlighting. Or we can highlight the hair with a high-lift color to camouflage the gray/white hair. Hydrogen peroxide is the catalyst that causes permanent hair color to work. A qualified hair colorist should be able to use various volumes of peroxides. Twenty-volume peroxide is the typical developer used in most cases. Higher volumes of peroxide are used when a greater degree of lift is desired. As the volume of peroxide increases, the color deposit diminishes. Also, be aware that higher volumes of developer bring up more warmth in the final results. Clients with sensitive scalps may not be able to withstand additional activity from higher volume peroxide. The opposite occurs when the volume of peroxide is lowered; less lifting action and greater deposit is realized. You have probably seen this scenario: The natural level is No. 5 and target is No. 9. The client insists that you perform this in a single process (not use a bleach). First, this is a chemical impossibility. A high-lift color mixed with 40V H 2 O 2 will still give only three to four levels of lift (from No. 5 to No. 9 is five levels). Why? Because the product will stop working before the desired lift is achieved. Have you tried accelerating with heat and added activators and covered with a plastic bag? If so, the result was a very warm level No. 7, (orange) no matter what you did. Do not expect a color to accomplish what a bleach was designed to do. You cannot break the laws of chemistry and expect perfect results. Two suggestions for this: Pre-lighten the hair to level 7, then apply the high-lift No. 9 with the suitable tone. Use the No. 9 color with 30V peroxide to bring the hair to level 8, then highlight the hair in a weave with powdered lightener. This will give the illusion of an all-over Level No. 9. The base color must be re-touched in three weeks and the highlights redone in eight weeks. When a client requests highlights, usually she visualizes the No. 7 or No. 8 natural level with a No. 9 or No. 10 strands throughout. Page 9

12 But what if she is a natural No. 6? Easy! Bring the base to a No. 8 (medium blond); and then highlight that. We always need to work within the parameters of the product that we are using. When preparing the mixture, place the peroxide in the container first; then add the cream color or colors. Peroxide acts as a gas, and gases release upwards. If you are using a liquid, mix the colors together first; then add this to the peroxide. This will produce a more accurate lifting action. They won t know if you don t tell them! Here are some descriptions of your skills and services that will speak to your clients. Marketing terms Market your skills Ban de soleil/balayage: Touched by the sun. Lightness the way the sun would do it. This process is generally used on lighter hair and is accomplished with a form of hair painting. Blond on blond: A technique utilized to create a blend of blond shades on the same head of hair. May be used on a natural blond or on someone who is coloring her hair blond; gives the hair a dimensional effect. Brown on brown: A technique to add dimension to a solid brown by adding additional lightness with a mild contrast. Frosting: A method of lightening individual strands of hair. This term is generally associated with a cap on the head through which the hair is pulled. Carmelizing/tortoise shelling: Different amounts of tortoise colors added to a brown head of hair. Collage: A mixture of colors weaving through the hair, generally achieved by various stages of lightening. Color on color: The use of no lift color on the hair, making the hair darker. Framing: Lightness around the face, generally achieved by using a dimensional color effect. Fur light: Achieved on short hair that is standing out from the head like a porcupine. The hair is bleached, and then a dark color added to the ends. Use shoe shine technique with product on the foil. Foiling: Refers to applying foils to the hair to create a dimensional effect. Glazing: A deposit-only color applied over a highlight. Can also be a lifting toner or change the natural color slightly. Grabbing: Paint bleach or tint on your gloved hands, then grab the hair, depositing the tint or bleach in an irregular pattern. Gray reduction: Adding additional natural color to gray hair to reduce the amount of gray. Haloing: Lightening only the hair around the face on short hair, creating a halo effect. High-lowlighting: Lightening isolated strands and darkening strands on the same head at the same time. Icicling: Color or lightener added to the ends of highly teased hair. Icing: Adding light strands to resemble gray hair. Inner glow: Bleaching only the hair close to the scalp on dark hair. Lowlighting: A corrective technique used to tone down overly lightened hair by adding a darker color to selected strands. The opposite of highlighting. Marbleizing: Thin ribbons of lighter hair weaving through darker natural hair. Minking: Darker hair on lighter hair. Generally done on short hair. Naturalizing: A technique using several colors within the same natural range. Nuances: A technique adding delicate shadings, reflections in a dimensional effect. Painting: Painting color or bleach on the hair with an artist s brush. Also known as hair painting. Reverse highlighting: The addition of a darker color to previously lightened hair. First isolate some of the blond strands, then color all of the remaining hair, creating a highlighting effect. Scrunching: Painting color or bleach on gloved hands and scrunching the hair. This technique is done on dry, backcombed hair, allowed to process and then shampooed off. Shading: The subtle blending of lighter to darker colors. Always blur adjoining areas together. Slicing: A foil technique placing 1/16-inch of hair sections in the foil. A faster method than weaving. Shoe shining: Painting a layer of bleach or color on a long strip of foil and transferring it to the hair as if using a shoeshine rag. Streaking: Larger, more well defined strands of hair. Three, two, one: Slices (1/16-inch) back to back; avoid 1 inch of hair and repeat. Tipping: A form of lightening at the ends of the hair instead of the entire shaft. Tone on tone: Changing the natural hair color, than adding lighter strands. Weaving: A term used to define a method of selecting strands for dimensional hair coloring. Blonds that steal the show! Palomino gold: A soft gold that is a combination of fine weaves in three different shades of warm blond. Gold of the moon: An all-over dark blonde with fine slices lighter, especially in the top and sides. Sunset: A slightly warmer blond that shows off sparks of gold and red. Tupelo honey: A medium warm blond with slices of pale gold accentuating the lines of the style. White lightening and platinum plus: Not for the faint of heart. Blonds are more natural-looking, meaning they re wearable by lots more clients. In fact, guys are getting into the blonding scene, asking for highlights that extend that summer-sun look well into the fall. Page 10

13 If already a blonde, the hottest shades to switch to are strawberry or spun gold. These are so delicate because fine strands are integrated into the hair for a multi-dimensional effect. Even brunettes are joining the blonde scene with highlights strategically placed to bring light to the face and add tonal sparkle. Buzz words to get them buzzing Sun-kisssed. Upscale (14-carat gold). Wheat (cool). Funky (violet or pink). Pale chiffon. Sassy (warm). Golden copper. Honey-gold. Radical reds The latest red hues to have are red hot and super cool: High glossed. Super-streaked. Marbleized beauty. Brightly burnished. Red alert Shimmering scarlet. Copper top. Crimson queen. Pure flame. Fire and spice. While both warms and cools can wear reds, care must be taken to choose the correct tone for each. The warms can wear the golden-red, copper-red and scarlet or clear-red. The cools should choose the lavenderred, burgundy and blue-red. And don t forget to fire up your reds with blond lights. A few slices or balayage strands in the front and top completes the look. Also important on the scene are the combination reds. Choose two or three colors of red at least one level (number) apart from each other and block the head in three zones (darker at the bottom, medium in the middle and light at the top.) Spark the whole thing with blond lights and you have a show-stopping effect. Chocolate kisses Whatever the shade of brunette, a touch of chocolate sweetens it up! Mocha treat. Chocolate cherry. Caramelized candy. Hints of hazel. Neutral (natural) browns n spice. Honey brunettes. Crystal pecan. At any level, there s nothing boring about the brunettes! Customize the formula using one-half natural brown with one-half gold, copper, auburn or burgundy shade and voila! The finished results are dynamite. We suggest that you sprinkle the finished confection with gold or honey lights. Tools of the trade Color sleeves: A tool that resembles a perm rod used for reverse highlighting. Foil technique: The use of aluminum foil for isolating segments of hair for bleaching or coloring. Note: Keep foils flat or rolled; do not fold or crimp! Doing the latter can cause a heat point that will weaken that section of the hair strand. Super streak cups: A cup-shaped device used to isolate and contain strands for coloring or lightening. Paper wraps: Paper wraps used in conjunction with color sleeves or for isolating hair strands for bleaching or coloring. Also, one-side waxed paper can be used instead of foil (wax side against product). Tail comb/pin comb: A comb with a pointed end used to weave out and section hair. Crochet hook: A small device with a hook on the end used for pulling hair through a frosting cap. Note: Remember to approach the hair from the front of the head toward the back. This will prevent tangling or knotting. Frosting cap: A plastic, rubber or foam cap that fits snugly over the head. Once in place, hair is pulled through and lightener or color is applied to the hair outside the cap. Note: Remember to lift the hair away from the cap during application. Color slips: Coated paper used to isolate selected sections of hair. Litho pads/transfer pads: Pressed cotton pads used to isolate selected strands of hair to be lightened or colored. Cotton coil/flat pressed cotton coil: Used with balayage technique to segregate layers of hair. Color spatula: A specialized color tool used to distribute powder bleach through the hair. Color easel: A plastic or Masonite board used to support the section of hair to be lightened or colored with foil or paper wraps. Plastic applicator: A pliable squeeze bottle used to apply color or lightener. Generally works well with liquid or gel products. Plastic wrap: Transparent, reusable or disposal plastic sheets used to isolate sections of hair. Shaker: A non-metallic container used to measure and mix color or lightener. Tint bowl: A non-metallic container use to mix color or lightener. Tint brush: A tool used to apply color or lightener to the hair. Available in many sizes for convenience. Page 11

14 Techniques, techniques, techniques You have many techniques already in your repertoire. The most popular and probably best practiced are foils, using either slices or weaves. But let s be honest, these are time-consuming and laborintensive. To increase the color services, we must look at easier and faster methods to accomplish the multi-dimensional effect. Here are a few ideas for your consideration. Touch-color: Backcomb small squares of hair (down to the base) and apply lightener/color formula to the hair above the backcombing. Use your fingers with the aid of a color brush. This works great for partial highlights/lowlights. A 40V developer in the mixture produces maximum lift and works on short to midlength hair. (By the way, the backcombing falls out when the products are removed and the hair is conditioned.) Sun-dusting: Either use the touch-color preparation or simply comb the finished direction of the design. Protect the client s face with a plastic tennis visor. Spray 15V developer on the areas desired (usually the top and around the face); then sprinkle powdered lightener from a saltshaker with large holes onto the beads of developer. Allow to develop from 5 to 15 minutes. This will give an allover glow to your design with glints of lighter tones and sparkle throughout. Gentleman clients love this one, because it is undetectable. It resembles what the sun does to the hair. You may wish to combine these two techniques for more dramatic results. Balayage: (The French word for sweeping ) lights into the hair: Use a styling comb as a palette to brace small sections of hair. Apply lightener-color formula with a small brush to the strands, then use cotton coil or a small wad of cotton to segregate those strands. Work in any area or pattern you wish. Another method is to use your choice of comb (small tooth for fine strands and larger for heavier strands) to apply the formula to the strands. Then, use the cotton coil as a band to segregate from the next layer. You need to use the front edge of the comb (first three teeth) parallel to the strands and tip the comb down to release the strand. Accomplish as many layers as desired working from the hairline toward the top of the head in ½- to 1-inch horizontal sections. This can accomplish a multi-dimensional effect by using 1 to 3 different formulas. Color formulas will cease to work within their time; but lighteners will continue to work while still wet. This also is a time-efficient method for re-touching existing highlights, because you can work with as little as 2 inches of re-growth and not overlighten the remaining hair. With a little practice, you will be able to do the application in 15 minutes. Note: To stop the action from an area, simply dry the product from the hair with a towel. Do not spray the hair with water! This will reactivate the developer, especially with powdered lightener. See Figures 5-9 for graphic presentations of techniques. Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Page 12

15 Figure 8 Figure 9 Color maintenance four guidelines All retouch applications should be considered a corrective procedure. The hair is not stagnant. Color, even natural color, fades with daily wear. Now that clients are shampooing, blow-drying and using heat appliances daily, all of this mechanical abuse increases fading. Remember, a suggestion for client consultations is to book scientifically; i.e. book the re-touch appointment after you finish the initial service. If the new color is one to two numbers lighter than the natural, allow three to four weeks between services. However, if the lightening is greater, such as an allover blond, retouching should be done in two weeks to prevent gold banding. Highlights should be retouched after the haircut if you are using one of the fast methods. Otherwise, retouch the highlights within 12 weeks. A client who walks around with 2-3 inches of regrowth is not doing your business justice! Color maintenance guidelines will answer the following color mysteries: How does the colorist maintain the hair from retouch to retouch? When should I pull color through the midlengths and ends? How long should I leave it on? When do I need to make a color adjustment and add more color to the mixture? The only way to answer these questions with predictability is to take a strand test. There must be some degree of color loss in order to apply product to midlengths and ends. We should not guess or do it out of habit. The test strand will determine the formula and the amount of time necessary for the color to be on the midlengths and ends. This allows the colorist the ability to predict the end results and make changes in the formula if necessary. First, apply the full-strength formula to the new growth. Then, in the crown, take a small section and bring the formula down over the midlengths and ends. Wait 10 minutes. Then dry that section with a towel and observe the results. Guideline 1: Retouch or maintain color When lengths and ends are not faded and only need reviving: Apply formula to new growth (take test strand). Develop minutes (or total time). Add a small amount of warm water to the hair and emulsify (mix until creamy) at the basin, working the product through the lengths and ends for 2-3 minutes. All color mixtures contain phenol (a soap). This mixture will remove color stains from the skin and set the color. Rinse thoroughly and shampoo once. Condition if necessary. Guideline 2: Replace tone When only the tone needs to be restored: Apply to new growth (take test strand). Allow to develop 15 minutes (or half of total time). Add equal water to remaining mixture. Apply to mid-lengths and ends. Allow to develop another minutes (or total time). Add warm water; emulsify, rinse and shampoo. Page 13

16 Guideline 3: Replace depth and tone When lengths and ends have lost both depth and tone and are very faded: Apply to new growth (take test strand). Allow to develop 15 minutes (or half of total time). Add equal water to remaining mixture. Just prior to running the leftover mixture through the lengths and ends, add in a warm or red color of a darker level than the target color applied to the new growth. It is recommended to add in 1 or 2 capfuls of any of these shades: Guideline 4: Pre-pigmentation/ filling Dark auburn. Light auburn. Dark copper-gold. Medium copper-gold. Light copper. Light golden-copper. Gold. Develop 15 minutes or remainder of time. Emulsify, rinse and shampoo. When color has lightened more than two numbers/levels and is sensitized, or the client wishes to have a deeper color Apply target to new growth. Pre-pigment with desired shade (one to two levels deeper and warmer than target). Use only liquid color mixed with a small amount of hot water; apply to midlengths and ends. Make sure that the hair is saturated, but not dripping. Blot with paper towel, if necessary. Re-mix target shade with 10V H 2 O 2 and apply over pigment replacement. Begin full processing time upon completion of application. Emulsify. Rinse until water runs clear and shampoo. It is always imperative to analyze the condition of the hair. This brings us to the Golden Rule of color correction: The sensitivity and condition of the hair determines the degree and method of corrective coloring. The hair did not get to this state overnight. It may be the product of repeated failures on the part of the client to do it yourself. Sometimes the hairdresser must become a detective to determine what has been used previously. Some color products are not compatible with permanent color or color removers. Ask questions such as: Were two bottles mixed together? Did you also have a perm? Is this from the sun? Was it a natural color (henna)? How many times was the formula applied? All of this will help you determine your course of action. If the condition of the hair is very poor, do not attempt to correct. Suggest conditioning treatments and frequent haircuts. The client will appreciate your honesty and professionalism. The client consultation should begin by establishing a realistic target shade. Never make promises. It may have taken many applications before her trip to the color expert. So she must understand that it may take three to four visits before she is completely satisfied. This way the expectations are out in the open from the start. Money is very important. You should give her an idea of the range (such as, My corrective prices are $60 an hour ). Give some indication of what this is going to cost. Time is of the essence, both hers and yours. She should not have any prior commitments on the day of correction; no colorist needs the additional pressure of time constraints. As we know, correction can range from 45 minutes to eight hours. Your schedule should allow you the proper amount of time to allocate to that client and her specific needs. Color correction 3 basic problems 1. Results too dark or removing artificial color The fact is, no color can remove another color. Chemically, there are only two ways to remove permanent color that is too dark or when the client wishes to go to a lighter shade: Bleaching and color remover. Color remover is the preferred procedure because it unlocks the bond of the artificial color and is less caustic to the hair. It is an ammonium solution designed to neutralize indirect dyes (permanent hair color). This is the answer for clients who come in with home color build-up, muddy-looking color that lacks clear tone from too many color changes, or an uneven deposit of color. Remember the term chemical backlog. The hair remembers what was used on it, and it shows through in the final results. Many products also are cationic (sticks to itself) and darken with repeated applications. The application of a color remover is related to your end result. Remember, your goal is to create a suitable and even base for a new color. Mix color remover with the developer from that manufacturer Page 14 or a suitable 20V. Apply to dry hair, starting in the darkest areas usually the ends. A tint brush allows for better control. You can place the product where it is needed and avoid contact with natural pigment. Make sure that the hair is saturated evenly. Process from 10 to 45 minutes or according to manufacturers directions. It may be necessary to re-apply to darker areas using a 30V mixture. In this event, do not wash the first application; simply blot with a towel and proceed with the stronger mixture and continue processing. When a suitable base is achieved (slightly lighter than target level), rinse, shampoo gently and dry the hair. Proceed with the application of the target shade. Note: Even dark colors lighten natural pigments due to the developer. When dealing with direct dyes, removal is totally different. Some manufacturers (gratefully) provide a removal system for these rinses, semi-permanent, deep and non-ammonia colors, but many do not. And most nonprofessional products are formulated with metallic salts. This formula has worked on many of these color products: 4 ounces mineral oil mixed with 4 ounces alcohol. Apply to dry hair and saturate well. Place cotton coils around the hairline to prevent run-off. Cover the head with a processing cap. Seat client under a hot dryer for 20 minutes. Take the client to the shampoo bowl. Do not wet the hair with water! Saturate the hair with shampoo and work into a lather. Rinse and shampoo and condition as needed. Dry the hair. Continue with other services.

17 2. Changing the tone/cleansing If a cool tone (blue, green or violet) has been used on the hair, it will dominate the finished results. That is to say, applying natural/neutral, red, copper or gold will result in a flat or muddy shade. This cool tone must be removed to achieve the clarity of the target shade. Prepare this mixture in an applicator bottle: 4 ounces hot water. 1 package color remover. 2 squirts of shampoo. Shake to mix thoroughly. At the shampoo bowl, saturate the hair with this mixture. Check results at 10 minutes by drying a section. Usually, this is enough. Rinse well. Shampoo gently and condition if necessary. Dry the hair. Proceed with target shade application. 3. Re-establishing depth and tone/pre-pigmentation This is necessary when the client s hair is two or more levels lighter than the target. It is critical to replace the missing pigments for color durability. The product of choice is a liquid permanent hair color followed by an application of a cream permanent hair color mixed with 10V developer. It is recommended that the shade be one to two levels deeper and warmer than the target. The more sensitized the hair, the greater the need for depth and tone. The pre-pigmentation shades must contain gold, copper or auburn or a combination of these. While this sounds extreme, we know that it is possible to lose up to 20 percent from daily wear. A few examples Existing Target level level Prepigmentation 9-10 No. 8 natural No 8 or No. 7 gold 8 No. 6 copper No. 5 auburn 8 No. 6 auburn No. 4 dark auburn Mix the liquid color with a small amount of hot water and apply to the hair. Make sure that the hair is saturated but NOT dripping. Results will be too warm if too much fill color is used. Comb through the hair to assure even distribution. Blot with paper towel if there is an excess on the comb. Note: Never apply raw color to the hair. To do so could cause chemical burns. Return with the target mixed with 10V developer; apply and process for the full time. Finish service as usual. A helpful practice for all corrective color work is to draw the strand out in a line, placing the representative levels and tones along the strand. This makes it possible for you to see what actions are needed to be taken. Write these down to help with your decisions. And, as with the basic analysis and consultation, work with the best lighting available. Bibliography Standard Manual of Cosmetology, Milady Publications Hair Structure and Chemistry Simplified, Milady Publishing Co. Pivot Point International, Salon Fundamentals The American Board of Certified Hair Colorists Study Portfolio Jo Ann M. Stills, Americas Educator, 1975 to Present; L Oreal Professional Technician, 1984 to 2005 Page 15

18 Chapter 2: Sharpening Your Cutting Skills 3 CE Hours By: JoAnn Stills Learning objectives List the factors you should consider when purchasing scissors and other hair-cutting equipment. Describe proper care routines for your scissors. Consider questions you want a client to answer during a client consultation or in a questionnaire. Describe the bone structure of the head and how this affects the finished hair design. Gain an understanding of how growth patterns affect the finished design. List ways to control naturally wavy and curly hair. Describe directional designing. Define weight distribution of hair. List ways to correct the hair s lack of density Describe texturizing techniques. Introduction Learning a haircut is just part of the procedure for a hair-care professional, and this course is not about a haircut style. It is about designing the fabric, which is hair. Just as a clothing designer shapes the fabric for a straight skirt or a flared skirt, we can shape a client s hair to either hang straight or flare away from the face. This course will explore how to achieve the final results. Although the course is limited to designs for three lengths (long, mid-length and short), the techniques will lend themselves to any length and every design. Remember: The flow of the design must be there wet in order to be there dry. Reflect before you buy scissors A wise stylist always reflects before buying scissors. Below are some factors to consider to reflect upon when selecting one. R: Requirements: Determine how you plan to use the scissors. Will they be used for wet or dry hair? Precision cutting or scissors over comb, weight lines or bobs? Will they be for primary use or as a backup? E: Edge: Consider a honed edge vs. a machined/serrated edge. The machine/serrated edge is more durable and ideal for beard trims, mannequins, dry cuts and so on, On the other hand, the honed edge is less durable, but gives superior results on clean, shampooed, wet hair. Honed-edge scissors are generally more expensive, cut better, have a longer useful life and require greater care. However, they can be permanently damaged if sharpened improperly. We suggest that you purchase both a good honed-edge scissors for wet cuts and a machined/serrated-edge scissors for dry cuts and scissorsover-comb work. F: Finger rest: Using a finger rest is a personal choice. Some advocates suggest that it helps prevent dropping and reduces fatigue. Opponents say it gets in the way. Some scissors are available with screw-in rests so you can have your scissors with or without a rest as you prefer. Note: Without the finger rest, the shears are held with the thumb and middle finger. With the rest, the shears are held with the thumb and third finger, with the little finger on the rest. L: Length and loops: Correct blade length varies with the intended use of the scissors. Precision cutting calls for shorter (4.5- to 5.5-inch) blades, while scissors over comb work, cutting weight lines and bobs generally require a longer (6- to 7.5-inch) blade. Buying the right size for your finger length also is very important. The precision cutting shears blade should be no longer than the length of the middle finger. Both finger loops must be fitted to the chosen fingers and rest below the first knuckle. The thumb and finger should not slip through to the finger base. The loop size is a major factor in comfort and control. Your scissors should feel comfortable in your hand while giving control and dexterity. Finger loop inserts should be used to adjust the size if necessary. For client safety, the thumb should always be removed and the blades closed before combing and parting the hair. You also may wish to turn the blades back in the hand while combing and parting the hair. This requires practice, but is safer. E: Evenness: How a blade feels can tell you a lot about the scissors quality. As you open and close the scissors, notice the evenness of the pressure of the blades on each other. Loose or tight spots can indicate poor quality, while even, moderate pressure from the fulcrum to the tips is generally an indication of superior quality. Be aware of the smoothness of the blades. Rough spots or a gritty feel on handhoned scissors indicates poor quality or damaged edges. You will, however, be able to feel the texture of a serrated edge. C: Configuration: Configuration means how the loops are aligned in relation to each other. Scissors are available in even-loop, offset and crane-designed loops. Which is more appropriate for you depends on your personal preference, which fingers you use to hold the scissors (middle or ring finger), and your individual cutting style. In any event, buy whatever style feels most comfortable. Page 16

19 T: Tips: When cutting outlines against a client s neck, smooth, slightly pointed tips can be more comfortable to the client and allow you to get under the hair. With other types of cuts, some stylists prefer blunt tips, which can help minimize cutting your fingers. S: Service: Quality scissors are an expensive, long-term investment. Make sure that your investment is backed up by a qualified source of service that will provide superb sharpening, fast service and factory parts, all at a reasonable cost. Wet hand-honing, which is the proper method to sharpen fine scissors, preserves the temper (hardness) of the blades by keeping them cool during the honing process. Grinding creates heat, which can destroy the temper or hardness of the blades. Hand honing also extends the useful lifetime of the scissors by removing only a minimal amount of metal from the blades. When purchasing scissors, factor in the cost and quality of service and the time the scissors will be unavailable for use while the service is being performed to get a true amortized total cost of ownership. Ask questions and check references; it s your money that you ll save. Caring for your investment 1. Wipe off the blades after each use, using a slightly damp (but clean) towel. 2. After each day s use, clean the scissors carefully. Wipe off the blades and the ride area before putting the scissors in a safe place for the night. 3. Once every week, following the cleaning, put a drop of scissors oil (clipper oil will do fine) around the pivot screw while the blades are fully open. Wiggle the blades for a few seconds so the oil will soak into the bearing, then wipe off the excess. Put a small drop on the ride areas (behind the screw) and wipe off the excess. 4. If the scissors become nicked, don t force the blades closed. Separate them slightly, close them and send them to a qualified repair source. Nicked scissors cut poorly and can become even more damaged with use. 5. Be especially selective about sharpening services. Remember, a bad haircut will grow out, but a bad sharpening is forever. It can permanently ruin your scissors. Scissors myths debunked ICE scissors sharpen themselves when put in the freezer overnight. ICE is a generic term for a tempering process and has nothing to do with sharpening. Scissors will never wear out if sharpened properly. All sharpening involves the removal of some amount of metal. While excellent sharpening removes only a small amount of metal, eventually all scissors will wear out. The best sharpening is done by computer (or by laser). A computer can control some elements of manufacture; but the finest sharpening is still done by skilled hands. Really good scissors never need sharpening, or They sharpen themselves while you use them. Some enthusiastic salesman must have coined this one. Wet honing will cause scissors to rust. If this were the case, you would have a problem cutting wet hair. (This excuse was offered by a door-to-door scissors sharpener pushing dry grinding.) Once sharpened, scissors will never be as sharp as they were when new. With inferior sharpening, this may be true but with superior sharpening, the scissors may be sharper than new. The edge was originally put on by hand, and hands of the same skill level can restore the edge many times. Scissors are only as good as their last sharpening. Once you drop your scissors, they are ruined forever. The most frequent problem with dropping scissors is getting a nick in the blades. This is easily corrected by competent sharpening. Some scissors can only be sharpened by the factory. Often factory refers to the sharpening service that wholesales the service to the salesperson or his company. What the speaker may be saying is that he won t get a commission on the sharpening if you have it done by someone else. In other cases, the speaker may be encouraging you to avoid having just anyone sharpen your scissors, knowing there are few truly qualified sharpening sources. Sharpening scissors too often will prematurely wear them out. Actually, forcing your scissors to cut when dull or nicked creates more edge damage and pivot wear than having them properly sharpened. Cleaning and lubrication of the pivot, ride and bearing areas are part of the sharpening procedure. By extending the time between sharpenings, greater wear is occurring in these areas. Using fine scissors when dull is cheating yourself out of the performance you paid for. ICE machine/serrated scissors should be serviced about every 1,000 haircuts. Hand-honed scissors will perform at their best if serviced every 400 to 700 (shampooed-wet) haircuts. If you get your scissors sharpened, you ll cut yourself more often. When scissors become dull, stylists cut closer to their fingers to keep the scissors from pushing hair. Once this habit is established, you will cut yourself more often, dull or sharp. Even dull scissors can cut skin. Sharp scissors can cut well even when held away from the fingers, which minimizes the likelihood of cuts. Using the scissors When we started kindergarten, we learned to cut paper for crafts. This was accomplished by using scissors with the thumb UP. Hopefully, you were trained to use the haircutting shears with the thumb DOWN or as it s known, cutting palm to palm. The importance of this is that the thumb blade is the moving blade in haircutting. It is responsible for scooping the hair up to be cut. The finger blade remains stationary for control. Practice holding your hand still and moving just the thumb. This is the action will give you clean, accurate designs from all of your cutting shears. Page 17

20 Other cutting tools So far, we have addressed your primary scissors. Now let s consider the other cutting tools that we use. Techniques for these tools will be included later on in the course. Thinning/blending shears: These are produced with either one or both of the blades notched. They also may be curved or straight and different lengths. You may wish to purchase more than one of these for different effects. Note: the more notches, the more hair that will be removed. You have probably seen shears with just a few notches and large spaces in-between. These remove the least amount of hair while maintaining a desired pattern. If you wish to purchase just one, let it be a good 44/20 blending shears (a barber s tool) because of versatility. Razors: The most aggressive razor is the one with a guard, and the take-off from this is the feather razor or so-called precision razor. These will remove bulk and give texture to the areas desired. The least aggressive would be the unguarded shaving razor. A Tondeo razor is just one of many. With only 1/16-inch blade exposure, this is suitable for cleaning necklines and texturizing in the least obvious way. Whichever you choose, be aware that a razor cut slices the hair ends on an angle. For this reason, using a razor encourages wave and curl pattern. The hair must always be wet. Clippers: From the investment point of view, the motor drive clipper is the most versatile and durable. It will give many years of great service and will not be challenged by thick, coarse hair. The less expensive belt drive clipper is suitable for cleaning necklines and trimming sideburns. It will, however, get very hot and lose power on a clipper cut. Combs: The choices here are endless, beginning with the tapered barber comb all the way to the clipper comb. The spacing of the teeth of the comb dictates its use. Still, the hand-finished nylon comb will give the cleanest and smoothest results. Which prompts the question: Which tool do you consider more important, the cutting implement or the comb? If you said the comb, you are correct! The Italians cut hair with lighted newspaper; the Greeks cut hair with shards of glass. It is the combing, sectioning and holding that produces the design. Client consultations Consider this scenario: A client once challenged a professional on the price of the haircut with this statement: It was only a trim. There s not even a half-inch of hair on the floor! The stylist replied: You are paying for what I leave on the head; that is the balance and proportion of the design. There was no further discussion, and she is still a client to this day. So let s talk about the client. Whatever or whoever brought this client to you is not important. But a comprehensive client consultation is of utmost importance. Ask a first-time client to arrive at least 30 minutes before the scheduled appointment to fill out all of the pertinent information and look at the style books you have available for discussion. Have him or her fill out the form below (or your choice of analysis sheet) and answer the questionnaire. See charts on next page. In anticipation that this client will also become a color client, you may wish to complete this analysis with the information for chemical services. Now, you can discuss with the client the desired design with all of the possibilities. Visualize: Body makeup. Occupation, lifestyle and care. Facial features. Hair density. Growth pattern, cowlicks, hairline. Type of part. Note: The lower the part is placed on the head, the more width is created to the face. The higher the part is placed on the head, the more length is created to the face. Balance. Note: Most faces are not symmetrical. One side will dominate, just as the ring finger on the hands require a different size. One eyebrow will be higher, one side of the nose will flare more, and one eye will be slightly smaller than the other. If we design the hair towards the low side of the face, we will accentuate it. Comb through and move the hair left, then right. Move the part up and down and observe what these balancing techniques will accomplish. Remember that the hairline creates the strongest influence on the features. Be very careful about the hair that touches the face. Will it point to an unflattering feature, such as a pointed nose? We have also found that working with two mirrors is of tremendous benefit, one for the frontal view and one for the profile. Watch that you do not accentuate a poor profile with an extension in that area. The mirrors will tell you things that the eye cannot see directly. In addition, using a haircutting chair gives the best view of the back and sides of the head because you are looking directly into them. If you are looking down at the hairline, your vision is altered. Take a moment to feel the structure of the head. Pay particular attention to the bone protrusions. Is the frontal bone prominent? This will lift the fringe area more. Are the parietals full? This will lift the length on the sides. Is the occipital flat or protruded? Make any notations on the analysis sheet. Do not trust your memory! The actions here are: consult, diagnose and prescribe and importantly, listen to what the client is expressing. Design principles of art in hair definitions Form: Silhouette, external structure. Space: Occupied area. Design: Intelligent, purposeful or discoverable pattern. Texture: Surface design. Emphasis: Visual attraction. Speed: Change of direction or movement. Rhythm: Repetition of any element (with equal or unequal speeds). Harmony: Agreeable organization of elements. Ornamentation: Separate design factors (used in addition to the form and space). Proportion: The relationship between elements. Color: Reflection of a light source. Contrast: Opposing elements. Adaptability: Total concept of visual imagery. (Does everything fit the person?) The importance of understanding all of these principals cannot be stressed enough. And application of these principals will take you, the stylist, from hair cutter to hair designer. Page 18

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