Example of an end-to-end operational. from heat waves

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1 Example of an end-to-end operational service in support to civil protection from heat waves Paolo Manunta pkt _WEBGIS Athens, 8 June 2007

2 OUTLINE Heat Island definition and causes Heat Island impacts Planetek Italia s Heat Il IslandImpact Assessment (preliminary roll out and considerations) 2

3 What Is an Urban Heat Island? On warm summer days, the air in urban areas can be 2-4 C hotter than its surrounding areas Scientists call these cities "urban heat islands " What causes this to happen? There are fewer trees, shrubs, and other plants to shade buildings, intercept solar radiation, and cool the air by "evapotranspiration Buildings and pavement made of dark materials absorb the sun's rays instead of reflecting them away, causing the temperature of the surfaces and the air around them to rise These higher temperatures contribute to a trend of increasing temperatures 3

4 What is the impact of the "Heat Island Effect?" Energy Use (Higher temperatures in urban heat islands bring with them increased energy use, mostly due to a greater demand for air conditioning. As power plants burn more fossil fuels, they increase both the pollution level and energy costs) Air Quality (Urban heat islands are not only uncomfortably hot, they are also smoggier. Smog is created by photochemical reactions of pollutants in the air. These reactions are more likely to occur and intensify at higher temperatures) 4

5 What Are impacts with the "Heat Island Effect?" Public Health (The( UHI Effect prolongs and intensifies heat waves in cities, making residents and workers uncomfortable and putting them at increased risk for heat exhaustion and heat stroke. In addition, high concentrations of ground level ozone aggravate respiratory problems such as asthma, putting children and the elderly at particular risk) Global Warming (Urban Heat Islands contribute to global warming by increasing the demand for electricity to cool our buildings) 5

6 How Can We Reduce the Heat Island Effect? Several cities began to implement laws which require UHI reduction tactics to be implemented Urban system responses of alternative strategies are complex and need a systematic integrated analysis Planetek Italia proposes a preliminary roll out of a Heat Island Assessment Integrated Service 6

7 Heat Island Impact Assessment Components 1. Land Use Map 2. Demographic Data 3. TIR Satellite Data O U T P U T 1. Information about land use typology, that is, the percentage of green areas and artificial surfaces density. 2. House localization of senior citizen that are exposed to urban heat waves 3. Spatial average surface temperature obtained with high resolution sensor (ASTER: TIR(Thermal Infrared Radiometer) ris. 90 m; AVHRR 7 (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer) ris. 1.1 km) I N P U T

8 Land Use Map First component Moland Legend Land SPOTV Use Ancillary Map MS Data BARI - BARI 8

9 Test Area First component San Paolo - Stanic High percentage of artificial i surfaces with very low level of urban green Land Use Map BARI 9

10 Demographic data Second component : GIS Integration Input data: 1. Hospitalization statistics inside the test area 2. Road network Data Processing 1. Geocoding of any single hospitalized individual inside ArcGIS environment 2. Definition of quantitative legend (The circle diameter reflects the hospitalizations number) 3. Integration into Spatial Data Infrastructure Municipality Platform 10

11 Demographic data Second component 11

12 Thermal Infrared Radiometer Data Third component Earth Surface Temperature ASTER (Advanced d Spaceborne Thermal Emission Radiometer) Standard Products Sensor TIR ( Ground resolution 90 m Revisit Interval 16 days Dynamic Range 12 bits Swath 60 km ) Earth Surface Temperature (The ground surface temperature is derived d from the thermal infrared emissivity entering the five 12 TIR sensors)

13 National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Third component Earth Surface Temperature AVHRR (Advanced d Very High Resolution Radiometer) Standard Products Sensor TIR ( Ground resolution nadir- 1.1 km Revisit Interval 6 hours Dynamic Range 10 bits Swath 3000 km ) Land Surface Temperature (LST) (The land surface temperature is derived from the thermal infrared emissivity entering the two TIR channels CH4 and CH5) 13

14 Data Assimilation & Data modelling Third component Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) is a process that creates mathematical models of the current weather in order to predict what the weather will be like in the future, usually within the short-term of a few days. Weather Prediction within four or six days, would reduce the waiting time between two sequential high resolution acquisition 14

15 Heat Island Impact Assessment Data integration chain By integrating TIR Satellite Data with Land Use Map and Demographic Data it s possible to extract a Localized Urban Heat Waves Assessment 15

16 Heat Island Impact Assessment Data integration chain A Land Use Map 2003 Localized Earth Surface Temperature from which Urban Heat Waves Assessment is possible B Demographic data C Earth Surface Temperature + Data Modelling 16

17 Products 1. Full resolution product (ASTER data) temporal frequency ground resolution 16 8 days 90 m 2. Reduced resolution product (AVHRR data) temporal frequency 6 hours ground resolution km 17

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