1 The Process of School Counselors in Major Campus-Level Crisis Events Stephan Berry Ph.D. LPC-S Janet Froeschle Ph.D. LPC-S Charles Crews Ph.D. LPC-S
2 History of Crisis Management Cocoanut Grove Fire Eric Lindemann Gerald Caplan 1960 s Creations of suicide prevention clinics 1963 Community Mental Health Centers Act
3 History of School Crisis Management 1851 Greenwich Ave School fire alarm tragedy 1881 Fire drills were mandated in New York 1927 Bath Consolidated School bombing 1937 New London School explosion 1976 Chowchilla kidnapping 1990 s School shootings Pearl River, West Paducah, Jonesboro, Columbine 1986 Space Shuttle Challenger explosion /11 terrorist attacks 2005 Hurricane Katrina 2006 Amish school shooting 2012 Superstorm Sandy
4 Role of the Professional School Counselor (PSC) in a Crisis PSCs provide services other mental health providers are ill-equipped to perform due to the PSCs insight into the unique social structure and sense of community in schools. (Allen, et al. 2002)
5 Role of the Professional School Counselor (PSC) in a Crisis U.S. Department of Education PSCs are called to be part of the response team that assesses the emotional needs of students, staff, families, and responders in a crisis. Once the assessment is completed, the PSC can determine who is in need of intervention services.
6 Role of the Professional School Counselor (PSC) in a Crisis American School Counselor Association The role of the PSC is an integral part of the prevention, intervention and post-incident support of school crisis/critical incident responses in both planning and implementation (ASCA, 2007, p.1)
7 Role of the Professional School Counselor (PSC) in a Crisis CACREP Standards Counselors are trained in their roles and responsibilities as members of an interdisciplinary emergency management response team during a local, regional, or national crisis, disaster or other trauma-causing event (p. 10)
8 CACREP Standards The professional counselor knows school and community collaboration models for crisis/disaster preparedness and response (p. 45)
9 Crisis Management Framework U.S. Department of Education Model Practical Information on Crisis Planning: A Guide for Schools and Communities Model is broken down into four areas of emphasis
10 Component Areas Mitigation/Prevention Actions that will decrease the need for a response by eliminating potential threats and providing actions that will decrease the acuity of any crisis that should occur
11 Component Areas Preparedness Focuses on planning for the worst-case scenario. This phase involves the development of a crisis plan to facilitate a rapid, coordinated, effective, response to a crisis.
12 Component Areas Response This phase involves the implementation of the crisis plan. Structure and flexibility are key to effective implementation.
13 Component Areas Recovery This phase involves the efforts to restore the learning and teaching environment after the crisis.
14 Active Shooter Response Training developed by Lubbock Police Department The training has been given to schools, churches, businesses, and civic groups Contact information: Officer Michael Matsik -Lubbock Police Gang Unit/SWAT Team Office: Cell:
15 Active Shooter Response A.D.D. Campaign AVOID DENY DEFEND
16 AVOID - RUN *Each work location should identify at least two avenues of escape (if possible) *Move away from the sound of gunfire, screaming, chaos *Path may include evacuation of personnel and public into a secure area, regardless of their clearance status *Evacuate regardless of whether others agree to follow
17 DENY When evacuation is not possible: Find a hiding place out of shooter s sight Cover vs. concealment Find a room with a solid door - lock and barricade Dial 911 from a land line Leave line open Remain silent Turn off lights, silence cell phones Stay out of sight No peaking Cover windows to interior doors Remain calm and positive
18 DEFEND Actions to Consider Act as aggressive as possible Convince Yourself that you will survive! What improvised weapons are available? Yelling Commit to your actions - Once the fight has started do not stop - Help is on the way, KEEP FIGHTING! - If you are able, revert to Avoid/Deny
19 Interventions in the Aftermath of a Crisis Psychological First Aid (PFA) National Organization of Victims Assistance (NOVA)Model Critical Incidence Stress Management (CISM) Adapted Family Debriefing Model Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for Trauma in Schools (CBITS)
20 Legal and Ethical Considerations Response and Management Plans Education Code (2001) states that the Texas School Safety Center is to provide information on school safety, including research, training, and technical assistance related to successful school safety programs. Education Code requires the Center to conduct a safety training program, addressing the following issues: (1) development of a positive school environment and proactive safety measures, (2) school safety courses for law enforcement officials, (3) discussion of school safety issues with parents and community members, (4) assistance in developing a Multi-Hazard Emergency Operations Plan.
21 Legal and Ethical Considerations Education Code (2005) requires school districts to adopt and implement a Multi-Hazard Emergency Operations Plan. The plan must address mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery, as recommended by the Federal Emergency Management Agency. It must include emergency response training for all school district personnel and mandatory drills to prepare students and all personnel for emergency response. It also requires measures to ensure coordination between local emergency management agencies, law enforcement and fire departments in the event of an emergency. In addition, districts must perform security audits of facilities every three years, with results reported to the district's board of trustees.
22 Legal and Ethical Considerations Code (2009) requires each school district to establish a school safety and security committee. The committee shall participate on behalf of the district in developing and implementing emergency plans, provide the district with any campus, facility, or support services information required for the safety and security audit required by Code (b), and the audit report required in (c), and review the reports submitted to ensure accuracy.
23 Legal and Ethical Considerations Education Code (2003) requires each school district to report to the commissioner information, including name, race, sex, and date-ofbirth, of all students placed in a disciplinary alternative program or who were expelled. This policy includes all violent offenses, and the information reported must also include whether the juvenile justice system was involved.
24 Legal and Ethical Considerations Education Code (2003) requires the principal of a public school to notify any school district police department and the police department if they have reasonable grounds to believe that the possession of a weapon occurred in school, on school property, or at school-sponsored activity on or off school property
25 Legal and Ethical Considerations Informed Consent Confidentiality Record keeping Scope of practice Self-care Cross-Cultural concerns (Sommers-Flanagan, 2007)
26 Genesis of the Study Dissertation: The Process of Professional School Counselors Working in Campus-Level Crisis Situations: A Grounded Theory Study Critical Incidence Stress Management training Death of campus teacher Terrorist attacks of 9/11
27 Research Questions What were PSCs perceptions of their roles during a major campus level crisis? In addition, what are their perceptions of how they interacted with administration, students, faculty, parents, first responders, and the community? What were PSCs perceptions of the ways in which they have experienced a crisis physically, emotionally, and cognitively while the crisis is happening? What were PSCs perceptions of how they have been changed by working in a crisis event? What were PSCs perceptions of how their training prepared them for managing crisis situations?
28 Results of the Study 110 initial codes 20 focused codes 5 themes Visual Model
29 Theme 1 PSC s training, prevention efforts, and experiences greatly influenced the ways in which they responded to a crisis. Training University and professional development Prevention activities inservice training, drills, monitoring of students Experience personal and professional
30 Theme 2 The unique characteristics of a school-based crisis either impeded or facilitated the PSC s efforts to mitigate the effects of the crisis
31 Impediments Each crisis was unique unto itself Horrific nature of some crises Provision of interventions in non-traditional counseling settings Overwhelming number of victims in some crises Personal relationship of counselor to the victims Administration
32 Assets Familiarity with staff and students Support and guidance of peers Support from administration
33 Theme 3 PSCs were called on to perform and balance multiple roles in their efforts to mitigate the crisis.
34 Roles Crisis team leader Assessor Educator Debriefer Reporter Consultant Role model
35 Theme 4 PSCs needed to maintain a balance of managing the effects of the crisis on themselves while they provided structured interventions and ensured an accurate flow of information
36 Structured Interventions Game Plan Plans were developed prior to the crisis Procedures were in place and followed Roles were defined and assigned Research-based interventions were effective Deviation from the game plan lead to problems
37 Management of Information Provision of current and accurate information Rumor control
38 Effects of the Crisis Stress from experiencing the crisis Stress from providing services Reactions included shock, panic, helplessness, frustration, and fatigue (emotional, physical, mental)
39 Stress Management Downshift Debriefing Escape Other self-care strategies
40 Theme 5 PSCs differed in their response to the stress of a crisis event. Some PSCs reported personal or professional growth, while others struggled with wounding such as interpersonal distress and trauma.
41 Growth Professional growth Importance of having a crisis plan in place Letting go of control Resilience of students and staff Logistics of managing a crisis Effects of traumatic events on students and staff
42 Growth Personal growth Increased bonding with crisis team members Development of new relationships Increased awareness of the importance of family
43 Wounding The distress and trauma from the crisis work had significant negative effects Several PSCs sought counseling post-crisis Several PSCs reported symptoms of compassion fatigue and PTSD The negative effects of dealing with a crisis lasted for years
44 Visual Model
45 Implications and Future Research Counselor Education Programs Staff Development School specific crisis models Specific models for specific types of crises Supervision Concept of wounding
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