1 1 Creating Credible, Actionable Energy Audits Jim Kelsey, PE kw Engineering
2 What We ll Cover 2 Elements of ASHRAE Audit Levels 1, 2 and 3 Summary of audit levels On-site techniques Actionable Audits Cool Tools/ Resources
3 Energy Audits are like photography 3 Everybody thinks they can do it Tools are cheap and available Producing a product is easy But results may vary Lack of Standard Methods Lack of Consistent Reports Need to maintain: Safety / IAQ Comfort Reliability
4 1 st Edition emphasized: Levels of Effort I, II, III Forms Audit forms Site use Became de facto standard 4
5 De facto standard Best Practice Methods Site visit methods Measurement methods Economic evaluation How to get a good bid Resources Audit forms EEM ideas Simulation checklists 5
7 7 ASHRAE Audit Procedures What are the ASHRAE audit levels?
8 8What they re not: versions of the same thing
9 What they re not: continuously adjustable scale 9
10 Preliminary Energy Use Analysis Calculate kbtu/sf Compare to similar Level 1: Walk-through Rough Costs and Savings for EEMs Identify Capital Projects Level 2: Energy Survey & Analysis End-use Breakdown Detailed Analysis Cost & Savings for EEMs O&M Changes Level 3: Detailed Survey & Analysis Refined analysis Additional Measurements Hourly Simulation 10
11 Detail Accuracy Rigor Confidence Risk Cost of Service Cost of Saved Energy 11
12 12 Before going on site
13 Preliminary Energy Analysis 13 bpd.lbl.gov
16 16 Benchmarking for Labs
17 17 Take sample over your campus, or multiple campuses Compare buildings with similar occupancy, end uses. E.g. labs vs. labs, data centers vs. data centers, classrooms vs. classrooms, dorms vs. dorms. or against your own buildings
18 18 Spy cams!
19 19 Level 1- Walk-through Process Conduct Preliminary Energy Analysis (PEA) Conduct walk-through survey Meet with owner to review operations Space function analysis Identify low-cost/no-cost recommendations Identify capital improvements
20 20 Level 1- Walk-through Report Estimate savings from utility rate change Summarize utility data Determine load shape irregularities Compare EUI to that of similar sites E.g. EnergyStar PM or Energy IQ Estimate savings if EUI met target Total energy costs by fuel type O&M deficiencies, safety deficiencies Low-cost, no-cost savings Rough costs for capital projects
21 Savings to meet target 21 Level 1 emphasis Is there potential here? If so, roughly how much and where?
22 22 Utility Data Summary
23 23 Level 2 Energy Survey and Analysis
24 Level 2 Energy Survey and Analysis 24 Process Detailed site visit Review M&E design, condition and O&M practices Measure key parameters List all potential recommendations Analyze capital measures (savings & costs including interaction) Meet with owner/operators to review recommendations
25 Level 2 Energy Survey and Analysis 25 Report Estimate low/cost / no-cost savings Perform detailed end-use breakdown Estimate capital project costs and savings Complete building description and equipment inventory General description of considered measures Recommended M&V method Financial analysis of recommended EEMs
26 Capture Interactive Effects 26 E.g. reduced lighting loads result in smaller capacity HVAC Provide integrated bundles of recommendations when appropriate Analyze up from loads to heat rejection
27 Interactive Effects Cascade Up and Out 27 System Heat Rejection Final Heat Rejection Distribution Plant Water Distribution Air Distribution Space Load Examples Cooling tower, evaporative condenser, air-cooled condensers Condenser water loop, refrigeration condensing Chillers, boilers, refrigeration compressors Air handlers, RTUs Plug loads, lighting, people, From loads to distribution, to heat rejection
28 28 End Use Allocation / Energy Balance
29 Combined Fuels (by kbtu) AKA End Use Disaggregation 29 Detailed End Use Allocation
30 Separate fuels 30 More valuable, eh?
31 31 Monthly kwh and Peak Demand
32 32 Total Monthly Cost Summary
33 33 Sample Interval Plots
34 34 Sample Interval Plots
35 Sample Interval Plots 2014 kw Engineering, Inc.
36 Daily Load Profiles 2014 kw Engineering, Inc.
37 Daily Load Profiles 2014 kw Engineering, Inc.
38 Calendar Heat Map 2014 kw Engineering, Inc.
39 Load Duration Curve 2014 kw Engineering, Inc.
40 Baseline Model 2014 kw Engineering, Inc. Pre-Installation Period
41 Baseline Model 2014 kw Engineering, Inc. Pre-Installation Period
42 Performance Period Savings 2014 kw Engineering, Inc. Post-Installation Period
43 43 Resource Highlight ECAM
44 Daily Profiles 44
45 Sample Load Profile 45
46 Scatter Plots 46
47 One of these things is not like the other 47
48 Initial Measures List 48 Review on site with customer Discuss each recommendation Basis
49 EEM Summary Table 49 NRG Geeks Inc.
50 Measure Recommendations 50 Be explicit and clear Organize lighting like lighting vendors do Organize HVAC like a scope Make it easy Remember this is a sales document Motivate to action Bundle projects to avoid cream-skimming
51 Measure Recommendations 51 Observations Recommendation Costs Assumptions Specific Equipment Changes Specific Control setpoints or algorithms Other info: Cut sheets, vendor contact, pricing info Sensitivity analysis for key inputs
52 Recommendation 52 We recommend replacing these fixtures with bi-level models such as the OccuSmart Monitor series. Bi-level fixtures use an occupancy sensor to detect occupants and go to a low-power mode after detecting no occupancy for a certain time. They will ensure that minimum light levels are provided at all times in the stairwells for safety, while providing the same light levels as currently when the stairwells are occupied. We estimate that this measure can save about 4,000 kwh per year by reducing the full-power operating hours of the stairwell fixtures by about 45%. We estimated the cost of this measure at about $20,000, based on an installed cost of $300 per fixture.
53 Consider Human Factors 53 Don t believe everything you hear Don t ask leading questions Involve staff with solutions Leave site staff with the knowledge to follow through Follow up with show me questions
54 Build a Balanced Team 54 Committed management Engaged financial staff who understand risks and rewards Trained building engineers Trusted contractors and vendors Utility account representatives Engaged and informed building occupants Trained and experienced energy auditor
55 Level 3 Required Elements 55 Virtually never requested directly by clients We get to this scope through requests for implementation assistance Individual measure focused
56 Level 3 Additional Scope & Value 56 Level 2 and then some Modeling or extensive measurement recommended Report Detailed description of recommended measures (specs, cut sheets, Detailed EEM cost estimates LCCA
57 57 Level 3 Requirements
58 Level Process Conduct Preliminary Energy Analysis (PEA) Conduct walk-through survey Identify low-cost/no-cost recommendations Identify capital improvements Review M&E design, condition and O&M practices Measure key parameters Analyze capital measures (savings & costs including interaction) Meet with owner/operators to review recommendations Conduct additional testing/monitoring Perform detailed system modeling Provided schematic layouts for recommendations Level Report Estimate savings from utility rate change Compare EUI to that of similar sites Summarize utility data Estimate savings if EUI met target Estimate low/cost / no-cost savings Perform detailed end-use breakdown Estimate capital project costs and savings Complete building description and equipment inventory General description of considered measures Recommended M&V method Financial analysis of recommended EEMs Detailed description of recommended measures Detailed EEM cost estimates 58 Level Summary
59 59 Site Visits
60 Sources of Data 60 Interview Staff Controls systems Drawings / Specifications System Manuals Nameplates Spot measurements Logged data
61 Data Collection 61 Photos, photos, photos Rule of thumb if you don t leave the site with it, you re not going to get it New tools e.g. kwhours, emat and others
63 63 On a roof? Make sure you have your phone, or else
64 64 Data Collection - EMS
65 Approx surface temp with IR gun 65
68 68 Universal Translator Converts your data to common platform Includes common diagnostics and M&V
69 69 ASHRAE Audit Procedures What s the intended use?
70 The Green Book intended use 70 Consumers Define the process Set common standards for scopes Practitioners Provide guidelines for minimum standards and best practices Define a common vocabulary Provide technical resources
71 Audit Forms
72 72 After the Audit
73 Power (kw) Time (the next morning) 73 Audits can lead to instant savings
74 Tracking Results There are many tools now available Sub-metering Whole building interval Fault detection & diagnostics (FDD) 2014 kw Engineering, Inc.
75 Address persistence with tracking 2014 kw Engineering, Inc.
76 Selling Efficiency 76 Emphasize other benefits Comfort, reliability Incentives Tax deductions Water savings Productivity / Sales Property value impacts
77 77 ASHRAE Audit Procedures Who s using them?
78 Adoption / Reference 78 Agencies National beq Cities: San Francisco, New York, Austin EDF Investor Confidence Project ASHRAE Standard 100: Energy Efficiency in Existing Buildings Commercial PACE Programs Many others by reference in RFPs/RFQs
79 79 ASHRAE Audit Procedures What s next?
80 What next? 80 A real standard ACCA/ASHRAE Data exchange (BEDES)
82 Also coming 82 ASHRAE Standard 100 Energy Efficiency for Existing Buildings For most buildings uses energy targets For buildings w/o targets, requires ASHRAE Level 2 Energy Audits (within 10% annual spend cost cap)
83 Thanks! 83 Questions? Jim Kelsey, PE, LEED AP President, kw Engineering
Updated d Procedures for Commercial Building Energy Audits www.kw-engineering.com Jim Kelsey, PE kw Engineering What we ll cover 2 Background of ASHRAE s Procedures for Commercial Building Energy Audits
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