1 Study on Mechanical Insulation in Hospitals and Schools March 1, 2011
2 Study Mechanical Insulation in Hospitals and Schools G. Christopher P. Crall, P.E. Ronald L. King Executive Summary Mechanical insulation is used extensively in commercial buildings. There are approximately 5 million commercial buildings (80 billion square feet 1 ) consuming approximately 18 percent of all primary energy used in the United States. Energy usage in commercial buildings varies by size and by building activity. This study focused on quantifying the use of mechanical insulation in two building types: hospitals and schools. The approach was to contact insulation contractor members of the National Insulation Association (NIA) to obtain insulation specifications and quantity take offs for recent hospital and school projects. Using this data, insulation energy assessments were then performed to estimate the energy savings due to mechanical insulation. The results of the study highlight the importance of mechanical insulation in commercial buildings. The quantities of mechanical insulation in schools and hospitals are large. For hospitals, insulated piping (domestic hot water, heating hot water, chilled water, and steam) averages about 13 miles per hospital, while insulated supply ductwork averages over 4 acres per hospital. Schools contain smaller but still significant quantities of mechanical insulation. Insulated piping in schools (domestic hot water, heating hot water, and chilled water) averages about 2 miles per school, while insulated supply ductwork averages about 2 acres per school. The piping and ductwork in hospitals and schools are generally well insulated. All the buildings analyzed exceed the insulation requirements of ASHRAE Standard Four of the five schools exceed the requirements of the recently published ASHRAE Standard as well. Only one of the nine hospitals exceed the 2010 requirements, and additional energy savings ranging from 0.1 percent to 2.6 percent could accrue with compliance to ASHRAE Standard in the other eight hospitals. For the schools studied, it is estimated that mechanical insulation saves, on average, 13 kbtu/sf/yr of site energy (about 20 percent of the total usage). For hospitals, the energy savings from mechanical insulation are estimated to average about 149 kbtu/sf/yr (roughly 78 percent of the total site energy usage). These large numbers highlight the importance of mechanical insulation in commercial buildings. In fact, it can be argued that some of the energy distribution systems in commercial buildings could not function without mechanical insulation because distribution losses would become excessive. The importance of properly maintaining the insulation on these distribution systems is evident. 1 U.S. Department of Energy, 2009 Buildings Energy Data Book.
3 Background and Objective In May 2009, the National Insulation Association (NIA) and the International Association of Heat and Frost Insulators and Allied Workers (International) created an alliance to work together to educate industry on and promote the benefits of mechanical insulation. One of the major initiatives of the alliance is the Mechanical Insulation Education and Awareness Campaign (MIC). The MIC is being executed under the umbrella of the U.S. Department of Energy s (DOE s) Industrial Technologies Program by Project Performance Corporation (PPC) and NIA, in conjunction with its alliance with the International. The MIC is a program to increase awareness of the energy efficiency, emission reduction, economic stimulus, and other benefits of mechanical insulation in the industrial and commercial markets. The potential of mechanical insulation to play a significant role as a tool to reduce energy intensity is immense. However, the lack of sufficient data to support energy efficiency potential, combined with a deficient understanding of what mechanical insulation is and how it could be utilized, impedes policy makers and actors in industrial and commercial sectors in making a supportable case for increased use and maintenance of mechanical insulation. While current uncertainties hinder mechanical insulation from playing a larger role in energy efficiency decisions, the MIC was created to meet two key initiatives: 1) educate industry on the benefits of mechanical insulation by providing practical data and case studies and 2) launch a public education and awareness campaign targeting multiple industry segments. One of the tasks of the MIC focuses on the use of mechanical insulation in the commercial building segment. There are approximately 5 million commercial buildings (80 billion square feet 2 ) consuming approximately 18 percent of all primary energy used in the United States. Energy usage in commercial buildings varies by size and by building activity. Recognizing the wide range in building size and function, it was decided to focus on two building types in this initial study: hospitals and schools. 2 U.S. Department of Energy 2009 Buildings Energy Data Book.
4 Approach The approach selected was to contact NIA insulation contractor members to request insulation specifications and quantity take offs for recent hospital and school projects. Using this data, insulation energy assessments were then performed to estimate the energy savings due to mechanical insulation. The projects were selected to represent the range of climates reflected in DOE Climate Zones 1 7 (Figure 1). While the vast majority of mechanical insulation applications in commercial buildings are indoors (not exposed to weather), the climate zone location does impact the type of HVAC equipment utilized and the run times of the equipment. Building locations across the range of climate zones were therefore of interest. The process of obtaining data on suitable projects proved more difficult than anticipated. Many of the projects submitted involved renovations or small additions rather than new construction. For this and a variety of other reasons, the quantities of projects hoped for were not achieved in every climate zone, but the 14 buildings that were selected, 9 hospitals and 5 schools, are thought to be representative of the range of climates in the United States. Early on in the project, it became evident that the information needed to complete an insulation energy assessment for each project identified would be difficult to obtain. The data from the insulation contractors generally consisted of the insulation specification for the project and a summary take off identifying the quantities and sizes of mechanical insulation by system. Information about the design
5 and operation of the mechanical systems in the project was not available. For example, while the insulation specification might indicate that all supply air ductwork shall be insulated with 2 in. of duct wrap, that specification will not indicate whether the supply ducts are for a variable air volume (VAV) system, a constant air volume (CAV) system with terminal reheat, or a dual duct system. Another example is that while a take off may indicate the system involved (e.g., medium pressure steam), information about the actual operating pressures (and the associated operating temperatures) involved was not available. Ideally, an insulation energy assessment would involve the gathering of information about the energy systems, the equipment installed, and the operating strategies. In this study, many of the facilities had been designed and bid, but construction was not yet started or not complete. While some information (e.g., floor areas and general information about the project) was sometimes available, the level of detail needed was lacking. The approach was therefore modified to gain as much information as possible with the data available. A number of assumptions were required, so the DOE Commercial Building Benchmark Models 3 were used as a guide. These publicly available benchmark models provided estimates of the total site energy use intensities (EUI) for hospitals and schools in all climate zones. In addition, the Benchmark Models were used to guide the assignment of equipment efficiencies for the buildings in this study (if not available elsewhere). A number of additional assumptions were required to develop the energy savings estimates, including the operating temperatures and the ambient conditions of the piping and ductwork, the operating hours of the mechanical systems involved, and the fraction of lost energy associated with the locations. Scope and Limitations The projects selected for analysis were chosen from a list of projects submitted by participating insulation contractors. No effort was made to randomize the selection or to ensure that the selections were representative or typical of the projects actually being constructed in each region of the country. Likewise, no effort was made to weight the results to the actual construction activity in each region. Any attempt to extrapolate these results to a nationwide basis should therefore include an analysis of construction activity by region with the appropriate adjustments. The scope of the study was limited to reviewing the specifications and take offs provided and, using this information, developing estimates of the energy impact of the mechanical insulation systems in the selected buildings. No effort was made to critique the specifications for adequacy or completeness, or to verify that the insulation take offs were correct or that the insulation systems were installed as specified. 3 accessed Sept 2010
6 As indicated, the energy calculations required many assumptions. While these assumptions are believed to be reasonable for the types of buildings involved, they could not be verified by field visits. The results of this study should be viewed with these limitations in mind. Results A total of 14 projects were analyzed as part of this study (5 schools and 9 hospitals). The locations and general characteristics of the buildings are summarized in Table 1. Table 1. Project Information Facility Location Type Climate Zone Gross Floor Area Notes Schools Elementary School Sunrise, FL Primary School 1A 124,000 All Elec, CAV High School Humble, TX High School 2A 435,000 VAV Middle School Cleveland, GA Middle School 4A 125,700 Roof Top Units and Water Loop Heat Pumps Elementary School Harvard, IL Primary School 5A 120,000 VAV Elementary School Post Falls, ID Primary School 5B 44,500 Water Loop Heat Pumps w/doas Hospitals Hospital Hollywood, FL Hospital 1A 170,000 New Tower Hospital Phoenix, AZ Hospital 2B 685,000 New Tower, CEP Hospital Dallas, TX Hospital 3A 460,000 Expansion Hospital Los Angeles, CA Hospital 3B 460,000 New Building Medical Center Merriam, KS Hospital 4A 240,800 Expansion Medical Center Everett, WA Hospital 4C 680,000 New Tower Regional Health Center Lafayette, IN Hospital 5A 410,000 New Hospital Hospital Helena, MT Hospital 6B 130,000 Addition Hospital Anchorage, AK Hospital 7 85,800 New Tower While most of these hospital projects were additions or expansions of existing hospital facilities, the nature of the projects allowed them to be treated as stand alone facilities for analysis purposes. The results of this study indicate that a significant quantity of mechanical insulation is being utilized in hospitals and schools. Table 2 summarizes the quantities of pipe and duct insulation in each of the 14 facilities analyzed.
7 Table 2. Insulation Quantities Facility Location Gross Floor Area Domestic Hot Water Piping Heating Hot Water Piping Steam Piping Chilled Water Piping Insulated Supply Ductwork Insulated Return Ductwork LF ft/ft 2 LF ft/ft 2 LF ft/ft 2 LF ft/ft 2 SF ft 2 /ft 2 SF ft 2 /ft 2 Schools Elementary School Sunrise, FL 124,000 1, , , , High School Humble, TX 435,000 7, , , , , Middle School Cleveland, GA 125,700 3, , , Elementary School Harvard, IL 120,000 3, , , , Elementary School Post Falls, ID 44,500 2, , , , Averages for Schools 169,840 3, , , , , Hospitals Hospital Hollywood, FL 170,000 18, , , , , , Hospital Phoenix, AZ 685,000 41, , , , , , Hospital Dallas, TX 460,000 19, , , , , , Hospital Los Angeles, CA 460,000 31, , , , , Medical Center Merriam, KS 240,800 9, , , , , , Medical Center Everett, WA 680,000 50, , , , , Regional Health Center Lafayette, IN 410,000 33, , , , , , Hospital Helena, MT 130,000 10, , , , , Hospital Anchorage, AK 85,800 14, , , Averages for Hospitals 369,067 25, , , , , , Insulation Quantities in Schools All the school projects included insulation on domestic hot water piping (DHW).The total lengths of DHW piping ranged from 1,200 linear feet to 7,800 linear feet (1 ½ miles). Within each of the facilities, size and thickness of insulation varied as well. All the facilities contained significant percentages of ½ in. and ¾ in. DHW piping with 1 in. thick insulation (typically used for drops and run outs to fixtures and for recirculation lines). The largest DHW lines in schools were 3 in. insulated with 1 ½ in. thick insulation. On average, the schools analyzed contained about linear feet of DHW piping per square foot of floor space. Insulation quantities for the HVAC systems, as expected, depended on the HVAC systems used. Piping for hydronic heating systems (HHW) was present in three of the five schools. Hydronic piping is commonly used to supply heating coils in air handling units and terminal boxes and for perimeter heating. The three schools that had HHW piping averaged about linear feet per square foot of floor space. Chilled water piping was identified in three of the five schools and averaged about linear feet per square foot of building area. Sizes ranged from 1 in. up to 14 in. Note that two of the schools utilized water loop heat pumps for heating and cooling (no chilled water piping was present). All the schools had insulated supply air ductwork (averaging about 0.47 ft 2 of duct surface per ft 2 of floor area). Current energy codes and standards do not require insulation for supply air ducts in conditioned (or indirectly conditioned) spaces. Condensation control and/or noise control are likely the design objectives for these systems. Four of the five schools had insulated return air ductwork as well. Note that energy codes and standards do not typically require insulation on return air ductwork within the building envelope, but acoustical considerations are important in classrooms.
8 Insulation Quantities in Hospitals Mechanical insulation quantities are greater in hospitals than in schools because 1) on average, hospitals are larger than schools and 2) hospitals contain more energy intensive systems than schools. Additionally, mechanical insulation has a larger energy impact because most hospitals operate 24 hours per day year round. Insulated domestic hot water piping in hospitals is extensive. Quantities ranged from 9,700 linear ft to over 50,000 linear ft (9.5 miles). Piping sizes ranged up to 4 in. The hospitals averaged about linear feet of DHW piping per ft 2 of floor space. Hydronic heating water piping was also identified in all the hospitals analyzed. HHW is used extensively in hospitals to supply air handling units, terminal boxes, and perimeter heat loops. The Phoenix Hospital project has 51,000 linear ft of HHW piping (9.7 miles). Sizes range from ½ in. to 18 in. On average, the hospitals contained about linear ft of HHW piping per square foot of building area. All the hospitals contained a significant amount of steam supply and condensate piping. Hospitals use steam for sterilization, humidification, and laundry facilities. Quantities of steam piping ranged from about 800 linear ft to about 11,000 linear ft. Sizes ranged from ½ in. up to 18 in. On average, the hospitals had about ft of steam piping per square foot of floor area. Chilled water piping was present in all hospitals as well and averaged about linear ft per square foot of floor area. The Phoenix hospital has roughly 12,600 linear ft (2.4 miles) of chilled water piping. Chilled water piping sizes range up to 20 in. in diameter. Large quantities of insulated supply air ductwork were identified in all the hospitals analyzed. Quantities ranged from 39,000 ft 2 to 410,000 ft 2 and averaged about 0.52 ft 2 of supply air ductwork per square foot of floor area. Insulated return air ductwork was present in six of the nine hospitals analyzed and averaged 0.15 ft 2 of duct surface area per square foot of floor area. Energy Impact of Mechanical Insulation in Schools and Hospitals Estimates of the energy savings attributable to mechanical insulation are summarized in Table 3. These energy savings are all estimated relative to a baseline case of no insulation (the bare case). The savings are shown in several different ways: absolute site energy savings in billions of Btu/year, savings normalized to the gross floor area of the project (kbtu/sf), and savings normalized to the projected annual Site Energy Usage of the building (in percentages).
9 Table 3 Energy Savings Due to Mechanical Insulation Climate Zone Gross Floor Area DOE RefBldg EUI, kbtu/sf/yr Projected Annual Site Usage, 10 9 Btu/yr Energy Savings, 10 9 Btu/yr Energy Savings, kbtu/ft2 % of Site Energy Usage Facility Location Type Schools Elementary School Sunrise, FL Primary School 1A 124, % High School Humble, TX Secondary School 2A 435, % Middle School Cleveland, GA Middle School 4A 125, % Elementary School Harvard, IL Primary School 5A 120, % Elementary School Post Falls, ID Primary School 5B 44, % Averages for Schools 13 20% Hospitals Hospital Hollywood, FL Hospital 1A 170, % Hospital Phoenix, AZ Hospital 2B 685, % Hospital Dallas, TX Hospital 3A 460, % Hospital Los Angeles, CA Hospital 3B 460, % Medical Center Merriam, KS Hospital 4A 240, % Medical Center Everett, WA Hospital 4C 680, % Regional Health Center Lafayette, IN Hospital 5A 410, % Hospital Helena, MT Hospital 6B 130, % Hospital Anchorage, AK Hospital 7 85, % Averages for Hospitals % As discussed earlier, most of the projects analyzed were either recently completed or under construction. Actual energy consumption data was not available for most of these buildings. The site energy usage values were therefore projected using the DOE Commercial Building Benchmark Models as a point of comparison. As indicated in Table 3, the savings due to mechanical insulation vary greatly. The largest savings are for the hospital in Los Angeles (85 billion Btu/yr), while the smallest savings are in the elementary school in Sunrise, Florida (0.28 billion Btu/yr). The ratio of high to low is roughly 300 to 1. Normalized to building area, the savings range from roughly 200 kbtu/sf to 2 kbtu/sf (a ratio of 100 to 1). The primary reason for the large variation is the difference in building function and systems. Hospitals are typically large facilities with many energy intensive systems that operate continuously. Schools are generally smaller with fewer energy intensive systems that operate only five days a week for nine months per year. To illustrate, Table 4 contrasts the take off quantities for the Los Angeles hospital with the quantities for the elementary school in Florida.
10 Table 4. Comparison of Quantities in Two Facilities Item Units Los Angeles Hospital Florida Elementary School Ductwork SF 298,500 65,680 Domestic Hot Water Piping LF 31,920 1,194 Chilled Water Piping LF 4, High Pressure Steam Supply Piping LF 300 Medium Pressure Steam Supply LF 588 Low Pressure Steam Supply LF 5,967 Steam Condensate Piping LF 2,014 Heating Hot Water piping LF 38,915 Based on differences in quantities alone, it is obvious that the mechanical insulation systems in the large hospital will result in significantly more energy savings than those in the elementary school. Additionally, most of the systems in the hospital will operate 8,760 hours per year, compared to roughly 2,300 hours per year for the school. Table 3 also shows that the variation in savings within the two categories of buildings is less but still significant. For the schools, energy savings ranged from 10 billion Btu/yr to 0.28 billion Btu/yr (a range of about 40 to 1). Normalized to floor area, the variation is still roughly 12 to 1 (from 27 to 2.3 kbtu/sf/yr). Again, this variation is explained by the differences in the systems installed. Within the hospital category, the estimated savings due to mechanical insulation ranged from a high of 85 billion Btu/yr to a low of 17 billion Btu/yr. This is a 5 to 1 variation. Normalizing to floor area reduces this variation to about 2 to 1 (194 kbtu/sf/yr to 89 kbtu/sf/yr). The average energy savings for the nine hospitals in this study was 149 kbtu/sf/yr. These energy savings are large. Expressed as a percentage of the total projected energy usage of the building, they range from 4 percent to 101 percent. In reality, that doubling of energy consumption could but would probably not occur because the boiler capacity would be exceeded (boilers would be running flat out trying to replace the heat lost from over 15 miles of uninsulated steam and hot water lines), while at the same time the chiller capacity would be exceeded (trying to satisfy the increased cooling load caused by over 15 miles of uninsulated hot lines). Temperature control in the patient spaces would be lost, and the patients would need to be moved to another hospital because the thermal conditions inside would be unacceptable. The hospital would be shut down until the system could be repaired, so the energy usage would not double. These results illustrate the critical nature of mechanical insulation for the efficient operation of the energy distribution systems in many commercial buildings. Without insulation, extensive steam, hot water, and chilled water distribution systems would be impractical.
11 Comparisons to ASHRAE Standard 90.1 An objective of this study was to investigate how the mechanical insulation levels in these buildings compare to levels required by the ASHRAE Standard The ASHRAE Standard , which was recently published, contains more stringent requirements for insulation on above ambient piping than previous versions. The requirements for cold piping and for ductwork are unchanged from earlier versions of the standard. Figure 1 shows the history of thickness requirements for selected sizes of piping. As illustrated in the figure, the requirements had remained essentially unchanged since the 1989 version of the standard. The data available in this study provides an opportunity to address two questions of interest: 1) How do the insulation levels being installed in real buildings compare to the levels required by ASHRAE 90.1? and 2) What is the likely impact of the increase in stringency for the above ambient piping? Table 5 compares the estimated energy savings for the 14 buildings with the savings that would be expected if the insulation requirements of ASHRAE Standard 90.1 had been strictly followed. Savings were calculated for three cases: 1) using insulation levels as specified for the project (labeled As Built
12 in the table), 2) using the insulation thickness requirements in ASHRAE Standard (labeled ASHRAE 2007) 4, and 3) using the insulation thickness requirements in ASHRAE Standard As before, the savings are expressed as billions of Btu/yr (relative to the bare case). The last two columns compute the differences between the cases expressed as a percent of the projected annual site energy usage. Taking the Harvard, Illinois, elementary school as an example, the as built savings are estimated at 1.27 billion Btu/yr. If the piping and ductwork in the school had been insulated in strict compliance with ASHRAE Standard , the energy savings would be 1.25 billion Btu/yr. We conclude that, overall, the school building exceeds the requirements of If the piping and ductwork had been insulated in strict compliance with ASHRAE , the estimated savings would be 1.30 billion Btu/yr. The incremental energy savings (As Built 2010) is 0.03 billion Btu/yr, or about 0.6 percent of the projected annual site usage of this school. Table 5. Comparisons to ASHRAE Standard 90.1 Building Information Energy Savings Facility Location Type Climate Zone Gross Floor Area Projected Annual Site Usage, 10 9 Btu/yr As Built, 10 9 Btu/yr ASHRAE 2007 Compliant, 10 9 Btu/yr ASHRAE 2010 Compliant, 10 9 Btu/yr % Savings ASHRAE ( ) % Savings ASHRAE (AsBuilt 2010) Schools Elementary School Sunrise, FL Primary School 1A 124, % -1.2% High School Humble, TX Secondary School 2A 435, % -0.2% Middle School Cleveland, GA Middle School 4A 125, % -1.2% Elementary School Harvard, IL Primary School 5A 120, % 0.4% Elementary School Post Falls, ID Primary School 5B 44, % -0.8% Averages for Schools 0.7% -0.6% Hospitals Hospital Hollywood, FL Hospital 1A 170, % -0.3% Hospital Phoenix, AZ Hospital 2B 685, % 0.1% Hospital Dallas, TX Hospital 3A 460, % 0.1% Hospital Los Angeles, CA Hospital 3B 460, % 1.5% Medical Center Merriam, KS Hospital 4A 240, % 0.6% Medical Center Everett, WA Hospital 4C 680, % 0.2% Regional Health Center Lafayette, IN Hospital 5A 410, % 1.0% Hospital Helena, MT Hospital 6B 130, % 0.5% Hospital Anchorage, AK Hospital 7 85, % 2.6% Averages for Hospitals 2.1% 1.0% 4 Note that the ASHRAE Standard is used as a base for this discussion. Since the requirements for mechanical insulation are unchanged from the 1999 version through 2007, comparisons hold for those earlier versions as well.
13 Comparing the as built savings with the ASHRAE standard, we conclude that all 14 of the buildings (100 percent) exceed the 2007 standard. In addition, we note that 4 of the 5 schools (80 percent) exceed the 2010 standard. For the hospitals, only 1 of the 9 facilities (11 percent) exceeds the 2010 Standard. Additional savings ranging from 0.1 percent to 2.6 percent are estimated for the 8 other hospitals if they were compliant with the 2010 standard. Comparing the two versions of the ASHRAE Standard 90.1, we see that the incremental savings expected for the 2010 version over the 2007 version range from 0.1 percent to 3.4 percent. The average savings are 0.7 percent for these schools and 2.1 percent for these hospitals. Four of the five schools exceed the requirements of the 2010 standard as well. For hospitals, only one of the nine hospitals exceed the 2010 requirements, and additional energy savings ranging from 0.1 percent to 2.6 percent could accrue if the other eight complied with ASHRAE Standard Acknowledgements The authors would like to thank the participating contractors for their assistance during the study. Authors Christopher P. Crall Christopher P. Crall, P.E., is a mechanical engineer with experience in thermal insulation and energy usage in commercial buildings and industrial applications. He is currently providing consulting services in the areas of building energy standards, energy analysis, heat and moisture transport, and mechanical insulation specifications and applications. He is an active ASHRAE member and was the primary author of the 2005 ASHRAE Handbook chapter titled "Insulation for Mechanical Systems." He is also active as a member of the ASTM Committee on Thermal Insulation (C-16). He can be reached at or Ronald L. King Ron King is a past president of the National Insulation Association (NIA), the World Insulation and Acoustic Organization, and the Southwest Insulation Contractors Association. He was awarded the NIA President s Award in 1986 and again in He is a 40-year veteran of the commercial and industrial insulation industry, during which time he held executive management positions at an accessory manufacturer and a specialty insulation contractor. He retired in 2004 as the chairman, CEO, and president of a large national insulation distributor/fabricator. He is currently a consultant and advisor to NIA and in that capacity is currently the Chairman of the National Institute of Building Sciences (NIBS) National Mechanical Insulation Committee and Vice Chairman of the NIBS Consultative Council. He can be reached at or
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Creating Efficient HVAC Systems Heating and Cooling Fundamentals for Commercial Buildings Heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems account for nearly half of the energy used in a typical
Heat Pumps and Heat Recovery for Healthcare Houston Area Association of Hospital Engineers, January 8, 2015 Bill Chalmers P.E., CPD, CEM, CDT Learning Objectives Ensure healthcare facility people are aware
Energy Tax Opportunities with Data Center LED/ Chiller Combinations and Fuel Cells By Charles R. Goulding and Charles G. Goulding Data centers have traditionally been very high energy users particularly
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SECTION 15010 BASIC MECHANICAL REQUIREMENTS A. DESIGN PARAMETERS 1. Climate Data a. For cooling design utilize the 1% Monthly Design Dry Bulb and Mean Coincident Wet Bulb Temperatures as listed in ASHRAE
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The geothermal well field for Eastern Elementary lies between a soybean field and the school s parking lot. Engineers were able to reuse the piping from the old cooling tower to connect the wells to the
HVAC Characteristics Information on the characteristics of the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system(s) in the entire BASE building including types of ventilation, equipment configurations,
Supply Air Temperature Reset Arik Cohen P.E. Principal AIA Quality Assurance The Building Commissioning Association is a Registered Provider with The American Institute of Architects Continuing Education
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P (5, EFFECTS OF INDOOR RELATIVE HUMIDITY ON REFRIGERATED DISPLAY CASE PERFORMANCE Ronald H. Howell, Professor Luis Rosario, Graduate Student Antonio Bula, Graduate Student Department of Mechanical Engineering
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Part 1 General 1.1 Summary.1 Unless otherwise indicated, follow the standards below when specifying heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) work. These standards are not intended to restrict or