1 Identify Ways to Save with Energy Audits Kristine Chalifoux Director of Management and Operations, SEDAC Mary Bentsen Education & Training Coordinator, SAIC, an Ameren Illinois ActOnEnergy partner
2 Kristine Chalifoux Director of Management and Operations Smart Energy Design Assistance Center University of Illinois
3 What city are you in today? Type your response into the Chat window.
4 Quiz Questions: What do you already know about energy audits? 1. What does ECRM stand for? 2. To check light counts and levels, you should do which of the following? 3. What are the two types of buildings in regard to what dominates the energy use of a building?
5 Getting Started Performing a do-it-yourself energy audit is an opportunity to view your building from another perspective: Learn where your energy dollars are going. Learn how you rank against other buildings. Learn what no cost/low cost things you can do to save energy and dollars. Learn what investments you should be making to improve your buildings energy performance. Learn how to present your energy saving ideas in an effective manner.
6 Some Terminology Term Energy Audit ECRM ECI EUI kbtu kwh LPD HVAC Definition Also called an Energy Assessment. A systematic review of the building s energy usage and opportunities to reduce it Energy Cost Reduction Measure Energy Cost Index ($/sf) Energy Use Index (kbtu/sf) One Thousand Btu Kilowatt hour Lighting Power Density (W/sf) Heating, Ventilating, & Air-Conditioning
7 Defining the Level of Effort Preliminary End-Use Analysis - Calculate kbtu/sf - Compare to similar buildings Level 1: Walk-Through - Rough Costs and Savings for ECRMs - Identify Capitol Projects Based upon ASHRAE s Procedures for Commercial Building Energy Audits September 2011 Level 2: Energy Survey & Analysis - End-Use Breakdown - Detail Analysis - Cost & Savings for ECRMs - O&M Changes Level 3: Detailed Survey & Analysis - Refined Analysis & Hourly Simulation - Additional Measurements
8 Pre-visit information gathering Identify Key Stakeholders (owner, operator, occupant, board of directors -- names, address, phone numbers). What are the stakeholder s project interests & concerns? Ascertain: Building function. Gross square footage of floor space. Two years of utility bills and climate data. Building floor plan, construction documents. Results of any previous energy audits. Equipment lists for kitchen/store/shop. Schedule visit with someone with access to and knowledge of building systems (HVAC technician).
9 Preliminary Energy Analysis Analyze historical utility data and preliminary building information to gain insight into: Current building operation. Energy end uses. Overall performance. Review consumption versus climate. (ftp://ftp.cpc.ncep.noaa.gov/htdocs/products/analysis_monitoring/cdus/degree_d ays/archives/) Benchmark the Building: How does this building perform compared to others of a similar type and size (EUI and ECI)? Determine target for energy efficiency.
10 Two Types of Buildings Envelope Dominated Energy usage pattern tied to the climate, generally with some base load electrical and natural gas usage. Internal Gain Dominated Energy usage pattern only slightly or not linked to the climate. Cooling load year-round. Typically small buildings are envelope dominated and large buildings are internal gain dominated although this is not cast in concrete.
11 Is your business housed in an envelope dominated or internal gain dominated building? Envelope dominated: Energy usage pattern tied to the climate, generally with some base load electrical and natural gas usage. Internal gain dominated: Energy usage pattern only slightly or not linked to the climate. Cooling load year-round.
12 Bank Facility Annual Electrical Consumption
13 Bank Facility Annual Natural Gas Consumption
14 Benchmark Performance Energy Star Target Finder Score
15 Utility Bill Analysis/Benchmarking Annual Consumption Annual Cost Annual Unit Cost Electricity 504,000 kwh $50,249 87% $0.10 $/kwh Natural Gas 8,551 therms $7,236 13% $0.85 $/therm Total $57,485 Facility Area 15,753 sf Electric Use Intensity 32 kwh/sf/yr Gas Use Intensity 0.54 therms/sf/yr Energy Use Intensity 163 kbtu/sf/yr Energy Cost Intensity $3.64 $/sf/yr Target Finder Results Bank Average ENERGY STAR Certified Energy Performance 31 Percentile 50 Percentile 75 Percentile Energy Use Intensity 163 kbtu/sf/yr 104 kbtu/sf/yr 82 kbtu/sf/yr ENERGY STAR Target Finder was consulted for a comparison with similar buildings. Target Finder uses a large collection of building energy data to provide an estimate of an average building s energy consumption, taking into account its location, size and use.
16 Do you track the energy use of your building? Have you benchmarked your building to others?
17 Level 1 Walk-Through Analysis Perform a brief walk-through of the facility to become familiar with its construction, equipment, operation, and maintenance Meet with the staff to learn about any special problems or planned improvements, or any O&M issues Review whether there have been any functional space changes that could be impacting energy usage or comfort Identify nocost/low-cost options and estimate potential costs and savings
18 Use a Checklist and/or Forms Forms make it easier to go through the building and guide you to many options: Washington State University Energy Auditor Checklist ( ) Washington State University Energy Program Energy Audit Workbook Rocky Mountain Institute Sample Forms
19 Walk-through Methods Note conspicuous malfunction less than optimal function (room very hot and window open, heating and cooling at the same time, light coming through cracks, lights on nobody home). Make a list of potential energy efficiency improvements for further investigation on the same day as the site visit while information is fresh in your mind. Measures should maintain comfort while reducing energy use. Float ideas of possible efficiency measures to with colleagues. Take a million pictures.
20 Data Gathering - Lighting Counts and Level Check reflected ceiling plans with installed fixtures. Identify T5, T8, & T12s by diameter. Count fixtures and the number, and type of, lamps in each. Maintenance closet may have sample lamps and ballasts. Labeling of lamps may be confusing F32 could mean 32W or 28W or 25W, gathering make, model and lamp code can allow for further investigation.
21 Data Gathering - Lighting Counts and Level Ballasts may be hidden under lamps and cover plate. The make and model can be used to check the type. A flicker checker allows identification of magnetic/ electronic ballasts w/o disassembling fixtures. Compute LPD (w/sf) -- should be Use ceiling tiles to estimate room sizes. Measure light levels at work surface. (No meter? poll occupants for under/over lit conditions.)
22 No-cost / Low-cost Options Some no or low-cost opportunities: Temperature settings and setback/up opportunities. Air sealing (caulking and foaming). Ventilation shutdown at night. Lighting change-outs (CFL or LEDs for incandescent, T12 to T8, LED exit signs). Tune-ups of HVAC equipment (boilers, furnaces, A/C units, steam traps, etc.). Changing utility rates (ARES).
23 Have you performed an energy audit in the past?
24 Develop the Level 1 Report Quantify savings from rate changes Discuss results of utility bill analyses and benchmarking Discuss any special problems or needs identified from the walkthough, including any needed O&M changes List ECRMs and estimated savings List any potential capital improvements with an initial rough cost estimate and savings
25 Level 2 Energy Survey & Analysis Review mechanical and electrical system design, installed condition, maintenance practices, and operating methods Review existing O&M problems and recommended improvements Describe and analyze the energy-using systems of the building based on observations, measurements, calculations, etc.
26 Level 2 Energy Survey & Analysis Include the following systems: Envelope Plug loads Laundry Refrigeration Pools/saunas/spas Domestic Hot Water Lighting HVAC Food preparation Conveying Process loads Prepare a breakout of annual energy uses in the facility by energy and costs. Modeling Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) Use forms to assemble data & info on systems.
27 Estimating Energy Breakouts End-use estimates can be based on the following: Detailed measurements over time. Spot measurements with estimates of run times on an annual basis. Detailed calculation or hourly simulations based on building drawings and specifications (calibrated model). Assumption of typical end-use densities (CBECS or other sources). Accuracy decreases as you go down the list.
28 Bank Facility Usage Breakout by Load Type Energy Usage Breakout Energy Cost Breakout
29 Present Info on ECRMs Yearly Energy Savings Energy Cost Reduction Measure kwh Therms kw Energy % $ % Cost Lighting Wattage Reduction 27,890 (21) 10 4% $2,763 5% Lighting Controls 27,065 (21) - 4% $2,681 5% Thermostat Replacement 26,563 2, % $4,661 8% Testing and Balancing 18, % $2,112 4% Demand Control Ventilation 10, % $1,677 3% VFD on Air Handling Unit 17, % $2,273 4% Computer Power Management 14,397 (92) - 2% $1,358 2% Beverage Cooler Energy Use 1, % $186 <1% Package of Measures 117,682 3, % $14,491 26%
31 Top-10 Recommendations SEDAC s most common energy efficiency measures that either have a short payback or drastically reduce energy: 1. Efficient lighting (T8, T5, vacancy controls, LED exit signs) 2. Weatherization/air sealing 3. Commissioning and retro commissioning of HVAC equipment 4. Temperature setbacks/setups 5. Efficient boilers/furnaces and tune-ups 6. High-efficiency cooling system 7. Ventilation adjustments (demand control: schedule, CO2) 8. Electric motor controls (variable frequency drives) 9. Insulation upgrades 10. Window upgrades
32 Forms & Spreadsheets from ASHRAE ASHRAE PEA Template ( ) ASHRAE Formulas and Unit Conversions ( ) ASHRAE PCBEA Sample Forms ( ) ASHRAE Sample End-Use Breakdown ( ) EEMs to Consider ( ) ASHRAE EEM Summary Table ( ) ASHRAE Hourly Simulation Checklist ( ) Washington State University Energy Auditor Checklist ( )
33 Other Tools and Resources Energy Guide self audit tool (40 business types, interactive and self-advancing): Smart Energy Design Assistance Center: Energy Education Council (Energy Efficiency Resource Center): EPA Energy Star Commercial Building Resources: us_index
34 Illinois Smart Energy Design Assistance Center Web site: Contact:
35 PEM Tool
36 Ameren Illinois ActOnEnergy Energy Advisors
37 Find a Contractor Click here to find a Program Ally contractor.
38 Certified Energy Auditor Seminar March 25-28, 2013 Springfield, IL
39 Objectives of CEA Designation Raise professional standards Improve the practice of energy auditors Identify persons with acceptable knowledge of the principles and practices of energy auditing Award special recognition to those energy auditing professionals who have demonstrated a high level of competence and ethical fitness in energy auditing
40 The CEA Examination Energy Auditing Methodology Energy Audit Instrumentation Auditing Tools Economic Analysis Building Systems Lighting Building Envelope HVAC Controls Boilers and Steam Systems Water Auditing Reviewing Auditing Reports
43 Quiz Questions 1. What does ECRM stand for? 2. To check light counts and levels, you should do which of the following? 3. What are the two types of buildings in regard to what dominates the energy use of a building?
44 Illinois Smart Energy Design Assistance Center Web site: Contact:
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