1 Client / Server Programming with TCP/IP Sockets Author: Rajinder Yadav Date: Sept 9, 2007 Revision: Mar 11, 2008 Web: Table of Content Networks... 2 Diagram 1 Communication Link... 2 IPv4 Internet Protocol... 2 IP Address... 2 IP Classes... 3 Subnets... 3 IP and the Hardware... 4 IP and DNS... 4 loopback... 5 IP from hostname... 5 hostname from IP... 5 hostent structure... 5 TCP Transmission Control Protocol... 6 Diagram 3 Network Hop Topology... 6 TCP Window... 6 Byte Ordering... 7 Little-Endian: the LSB (Least Significant Byte) is at the lowest address Big-Endian: The MSB (Most Significant Byte) is at the lowest address Diagram 4 Address Byte Order... 7 htons( ) and htonl( )... 7 ntohs( ) and ntohl( )... 7 Sockets... 7 TCP Ports... 8 Table 1 Well Known Ports... 8 Opening and closing a socket... 8 Initializing Winsock... 9 Socket Address Structure... 9 TCP Server Naming the socket TCP Client TCP State Diagram Connection Termination Running The Programs Network Utilities ping netstat Server Socket Code Client Socket Code... 22
2 Introduction In this article we will look at how to program using sockets by implementing an echo server along with a client that we will use to send and receive string messages. I will start off by giving a quick introduction to TCP/IP fundamentals and then explain how sockets fit into the picture. I am going to assume you already understand basic network concepts. When you get done reading this article you should be armed with sufficient information to be able to investigate other concepts in more detail on your own. Sample code can be downloaded for this article from my website for Windows and Linux. I have also included all the Winsock source code in print at the end of the article for others. Networks Most network applications can be divided into two pieces: a client and a server. A client is the side that initiates the communication process, whereas the server responds to incoming client requests. Diagram 1 Communication Link There are numerous network protocols, such as Netbios, RPC (Remote Procedure Call), DCOM, Pipes, IPC (Inter-process Communication) that can be used for the Communication Link. We will only look at TCP/IP here. In particular we will look at sockets IPv4 since this is widely implemented by many socket vendors. IPv4 Internet Protocol The current version for IP supported by many modern networks is version 4, the next generation of IP is version 6 (IPv6) which is not widely supported as of this writting. IP is both a network addressing protocol and a network transport protocol. IP is a connection-less protocol that provides unreliable service for data communication. Most of the properties of data communication such as transmission reliability, flow control and error checking are provided by TCP which we will look at shortly. Most people know IP in its basic form as a quad dotted-numerical string, such as Each integer value separated by a dot can have a value from 0 to 255 (8 bits). Thus IPv4 is a 32 bit unsigned integer values. IP Address Diagram 2a IP Address
3 IP Classes The IP address is made of a network address and a host address. There can be many subnetworks connect together, so a network address help routers to redirect data packet to the proper destination network, from there the data packet is sent to the final destination host PC. The 4 IP classes are: Class Leftmost bit Start Address End Address A 0xxx B 10xx C 110x D E Class A network.local.local.local (small network, large hosts ) Class B network.network.local.local (medium network, medium hosts) Class C network.network.network.local (large network, small hosts ) Class D network.network.network.network (multicast to many hosts ) Class E reserved (*) A special type of IP address is the limited broadcast address (*) IP Mapping: Class A, B, C 1-to-1, Class D is 1-to-many Subnets An IP address can have the host address subdivided into a subnet part and a host part using a subnet mask. The subnet mask is also a 32bit value, the bits for the network and subnet will be set to 1, this way from the mask and IP class we can determine the network address, the subnet address and the host number. Diagram 2b IP Address with Subnet There IP address can be classified as unicast, broadcast and multicast. A unicast address has a 1-to-1 relationship. A broadcast can apply to: a) all hosts on a network, b) all hosts on a subnet, and c) all hosts on all subnets. For multicast, a host needs to belong to the multicast group in order to receive a packet. The main thing to note is that a broadcast or multicast packet is never forwarded by a router/gateway outside the network.
4 IP and the Hardware IP is used to identify a PC on the network. This is done for us at the hardware level by the NIC (Network Interface Card) like a PC s Ethernet card or a Router. A machine NIC or Ethernet uses ARP (Address Resolution Protocol) to convert an IP address into a network address that can be understood by routers and gateways. Likewise the hardware layer use RARP (Reverse Address Resolution Protocol) to convert a hardware network address at the MAC (Media Access Control) level into an IP address. As data packets move around the network, the hardware layer (router) is checking if a packet is meant for it to process by checking the MAC address. If it s not the data packet is transmitted down the line. If the data packet is meant for a host in the network, then the IP address is checked using a lookup table to determine which host PC to send the data packet off to in the network. We really don t need to be concerned with underlying details as all this is handled for us. IP and DNS Most people don t use IP directly, it s not an easy way to remember addresses, so to help humans the DNS (Domain Name System) maps a hostname strings like yadav.shorturl.com into an IP address. If you re developing any type of network application it s better to use the DSN name format to communicate with another computer. DSN mapping can be easily changed (in the router table) thus allowing one to redirect network traffic to another destination. Host File On your local PC the DNS mapping entries are found in the host file. On Windows NT, 2K, XP the file hosts is located at: %WINDOWS%\system32\drivers\etc\ The host files (shown in blue) contains a space separated IP address and hostname. All this info ends up in the router table, where network traffic control occurs localhost freedom.home.com download.bigdaddy.com sal.home.com
5 loopback Note: the loopback address of also known as localhost is the IP address used when communicating with other process running on the same PC. This is how we will test our client and server application, they will run on the same local host PC. IP from hostname The gethostbyname function retrieves host information corresponding to a host name from a host database. struct hostent* FAR gethostbyname( const char* name ); hostname from IP The gethostbyaddr function retrieves the host information corresponding to a network address. struct HOSTENT* FAR gethostbyaddr( const char* addr, int len, int type ); hostent structure [msdn] The hostent structure is used by functions to store information about a given host, such as host name, IP address. An application should never attempt to modify this structure or to free any of its components. Furthermore, only one copy of the hostent structure is allocated per thread, and an application should therefore copy any information that it needs before issuing any other Windows Sockets API calls. typedef struct hostent char FAR* h_name; char FAR FAR** h_aliases; short h_addrtype; short h_length; char FAR FAR** h_addr_list; hostent;
6 TCP Transmission Control Protocol Although TCP can be implemented to work over any transport protocol, it's usually synonymous with IP. TCP is a connection-oriented stream protocol (like a telephone call). TCP communication happens using a handshake process, where each data that is sent is acknowledge by the recipient within the time of TCP s timer value. TCP provides many services such as data reliability, error checking, and flow control. If a data packet is corrupt or lost (not acknowledged), TCP will retransmitted the data from the client side automatically. Because the route a packet takes can be many, one packet may arrive before the one sent earlier. As data packets arrive, it is the job of TCP to assemble the packets into the proper order. This is shown below with a factious network topology layout, where the data packet takes (n) number of hops to get from the source to the destination. On a bigger network like the Internet, there are many routes a data packet can take to arrive at its final destination. Diagram 3 Network Hop Topology TCP Window Any duplicate data packet is silently dropped with no acknowledgement. TCP controls the flow of transmission by using a window that can grow or shrink based on how responsive the (next-hop) node is. If a lot of packets are getting dropped because the receiver s buffer is full, TCP will slow down the rate of transmission by decreasing the size of the window. Usually TCP will negotiate with the receiver for such things as the maximum transmission unit. If the sizes are different, such that the receiver node accepts a smaller sized packet, the out-bound packet will be fragmented by TCP. Again, the data packet segments can arrive at different times by taking different routes. So it s the job of TCP at the destination end to reassemble the original data packet as the segments arrive. The data is placed into a larger buffer by TCP to be read by the application. Data is streamed out from the client side and streamed in at the server side. This is why TCP is called a stream bases protocol, it s work just like a file I/O read and write operation, which is what provides synchronous data access.
7 Byte Ordering There are two types of memory byte ordering in use today that are very much machine dependent. They are known as little-endian and big-endian, because of this we have to be very careful how we interpret numerical data. If we do not take into account the endiannes, the numerical data we read will be corrupt. Little-Endian: the LSB (Least Significant Byte) is at the lowest address. Big-Endian: The MSB (Most Significant Byte) is at the lowest address. Diagram 4 Address Byte Order Generally when working with numeric data, one needs to convert from machine (host) byte order to network byte order when sending data (write-op), and then from network byte order to machine byte order when retrieving data (read-op). The APIs to make the conversion are: htons( ) and htonl( ) // host to network uint16_t htons ( uint16_t host16bitvalue ); uint32_t htonl ( uint32_t host32bitvalue ); ntohs( ) and ntohl( ) // network to host uint16_t ntohs ( uint16_t net16bitvalue ); unit32_t ntohl ( unit32_t net32bitvalue ); Note: network byte order is in Big-Endian, CPU based on the x86 architecture use Little- Endian byte order. Sockets We are now ready to talk about what a socket is. A socket is made up of 3 identifying properties: Protocol Family, IP Address, Port Number For TCP/IP Sockets: The protocol family is AF_INET (Address Family Internet) The IP Address identifies a host/service machine on the network Port defines the Service on the machine we re communicating to/from
8 TCP Ports The port numbers from 0 to 255 are well-known ports, and the use of these port numbers in your application is highly discouraged. Many well-known services you use have assigned port numbers in this range. Service Name Port Number ftp 21 telenet 23 www-http 80 irc 194 Table 1 Well Known Ports In recent years the range for assigned ports managed by IANA (Internet Assigned Numbers Authority) has been expanded to the range of To get the most recent listing of assigned port numbers, you can view the latest RFC 1700 at: In order for 2 machines to be able to communicate they need to be using the same type of sockets, both have to be TCP or UDP. On Windows, the socket definition is defined in the header file <winsock.h> or <winsock2.h>. Our program will be using Winsock 2.2 so we will need to include <winsock2.h> and link with WS2_32.lib Opening and closing a socket To create a TCP/IP socket, we use the socket( ) API. SOCKET hsock = socket( AF_INET, SOCK_STREAM, IPPROTO_IP ); If the socket API fails, it will return a value of INVALID_SOCKET, otherwise it will return a descriptor value that we will need to use when referring to this socket. Once we are done with the socket we must remember to call the closesocket( ) API. closesocket( hsock ); Note: On Unix/Linux the return type for socket( ) is an int, while the API to close the socket is close( socket_discriptor ); Before we can begin to use any socket API in Windows we need to initialize the socket library, this is done by making a call to WSAStartup( ). This step is not required on Unix/Linux.
9 Initializing Winsock // Initialize WinSock2.2 DLL // low-word = major, hi-word = minor WSADATA wsadata = 0; WORD wver = MAKEWORD(2,2); int nret = WSAStartup( wver, &wsadata ); Before we exit our program we need to release the Winsock DLL with the following call. // Release WinSock DLL WSACleanup(); With the basics out of the way, the process of preparing the client and server application is similar, but differ slightly in their steps. We will talk about how to write the server code first. Socket Address Structure For IPv4 the socket structure is defined as: struct sockaddr u_short sa_family; /* address family */ char sa_data; /* up to 14 bytes of direct address */ ; This is the generic structure that most socket APIs accept, but the structure you will work with is sockaddr_in (socket address internet). struct sockaddr_in short sin_family; u_short sin_port; struct in_addr sin_addr; char sin_zero; ; Note: sockaddr_in and the more generic sockaddr struct are the same size. Padding is used to maintain the size by sin_zero. You will need to typecast between the two in your program.
10 struct in_addr found inside sockaddr_in is a union defined as: struct in_addr union struct u_char s_b1,s_b2,s_b3,s_b4; S_un_b; struct u_short s_w1,s_w2; S_un_w; u_long S_addr; S_un; #define s_addr S_un.S_addr #define s_host S_un.S_un_b.s_b2 #define s_net S_un.S_un_b.s_b1 #define s_imp S_un.S_un_w.s_w2 #define s_impno S_un.S_un_b.s_b4 #define s_lh S_un.S_un_b.s_b3 ; This structure holds the IP address which can be accessed in many ways. You can use the inet_addr( ) API to convert a IP dotted-numerical string into a 32bit IP address and assign it to the s_addr member. The use of this API is shown when we discuss the client code. To do an opposite conversion from network to IP string, use the inet_ntoa( ) API. TCP Server The steps to get a server up and running are shown below (read from top to bottom). This is how our sample code is written, so it's a good idea to get familiar with the process. socket( ) bind( ) +---->listen( ) accept( ) (block until connection from client ) read( ) write( ) close( ) close( ) 1. Create a server socket 2. Name the socket 3. Prepare the socket to listen 4. Wait for a request to connect, a new client socket is created here 5. Read data sent from client 6. Send data back to client 7. Close client socket 8. Loop back if not told to exit 9. Close server socket is exit command given by client
11 Naming the socket When we prepare the socket for the server, we use INADDR_ANY for the IP address to tell the TCP stack to assign an IP address to listen on for incoming connection requests. Do not assign a hard-coded value, otherwise the program will only run on the server defined by the IP address, and if the server is multi-homed then we are restricting it to listen on only one IP address rather than allow the administrator to set the default IP address. // name socket sockaddr_in salisten = 0; salisten.sin_family = PF_INET; salisten.sin_port = htons( ); salisten.sin_addr.s_addr = htonl( INADDR_ANY ); Once we have initialize the sockaddr_in struct, we need to name the socket by calling the bind( ) API. bind( hsock, (sockaddr*)&salisten, sizeof(sockaddr) ); Notice how we are required to typecast the socket address to (sockaddr*). Here hsock is the server socket we created earlier and this binds (names) the socket with the information provided in the socket structure. After the socket has been named, we then wait for incoming connection requests by making the next 2 calls. listen( hsock, 5 ); sockaddr_in saclient = 0; int nsalen = sizeof( sockaddr ); SOCKET hclient = accept( hsock, (sockaddr*)&saclient, &nsalen ); The values of '5' passed to listen( ) is the backlog of connection request that will get queued waiting to be processed. Once this limit is exceeded, all new calls will fail. In the call to accept( ), we do not need to initialize saclient, the sockaddr struct because when this calls returns it will fill saclient with the name of the client s socket. The sample echo server provided is a single thread (iterative) application, it can only handle and process one connection at a time. In a real world application, one would general use multithreading to handle incoming client requests. The primary thread would listen to incoming calls and block on the call to accept( ). When a connection request came in, the main thread would be given the client s socket descriptor. At this point a new thread should be created and the client socket passed to it for processing the request. The main thread would then loop back and listen for the next connection.
12 When a client connection has been established, data is read from the TCP buffer by making a call to recv( ). This function returns the number of bytes read. nsent = recv( hclient, wzrec, nsize, 0 ); The first parameter is the socket to the connected client, the second parameter is a text buffer, followed by it's size, and finally flags on how recv( ) behaves. The flags value is normally zero. Other values for the flag that can be ORed are: MSG_PEEK : Copy data to buffer, but do not remove from TCP buffer. MSG_OOB : Process out of bound data MSG_WAITALL : Wait for the buffer to be completely filled Note: the call to recv( ) will only return the data that has arrived, this means the call can return before the entire data has been received into the TCP buffer. So the best way to write a data fetch routine is by using a fixed buffer size that is able to hold the largest transmitted data set. Then to read using a loop that waits till all the data has arrived before handing off the read buffer. // process data char wzrec = 0; int nleft = 512; int ipos = 0; int ndata = 0; do ndata = recv( hclient, &wzrec[ipos], nleft, 0 ); nleft -= ndata; ipos += ndata; while( nleft > 0 ); Likewise we do the same when sending data with send( ), the parameter values are the same as they are for recv( ). Just because send( ) return successfully saying it sent the data, this does not mean the data was placed on the network. It simply means the TCP buffer had enough room to copy the data. There is a TCP option TCP_NODELAY that will cause the data to appear on the network immediately, but its use is only for specialized applications and should be avoided. Once we are done, we need to close the client's socket and then close the server socket. In the sample program of the echo server, the server loops back into listen mode unit a string containing "!shutdown" is received which tells the server to stop listening and to shutdown.
13 TCP Client Now let's take a look at what steps the client needs to take in order to communicate with the server. socket( ) connect( ) write( ) read( ) close( ) 1. Create a socket with the server IP address 2. Connect to the server, this step also names the socket 3. Send data to the server 4. Read data returned (echoed) back from the server 5. Close the socket The initialization of the sockaddr_in structure is different for the client. With the client the socket address needs to assign the port number along with the IP address of the server. Since we're testing on the localhost, we hard-core the IP address of " " sockaddr_in saserver = 0; saserver.sin_family = PF_INET; saserver.sin_port = htons( ); saserver.sin_addr.s_addr = inet_addr( " " ); Notice the use of htons( ) when setting the port number. The call to inet_addr( ) converts a dotted-numerical string into a 32bit IP value that gets assigned to the s_addr member of the sin_addr struct. We have now covered how both the client and server code is written, lets take a quick look at how to use the both the programs.
14 TCP State Diagram Connection Establishment TCP uses a 3 way handshake. A Server makes a passive open by call bind( ). The Client initiates an active open by calling connect( ). For the connection to be established, the client send a SYN to the server. The Server replies with SYN/ACK and finally the Client replied with ACK. Diagram-5 Created using Visual Paradigm Connection Termination TCP uses a 4 way handshake to close the connection. When an endpoint wants to close, it send out a FIN, the other side then replied with an ACK. A connection is half-open when one side has close the connection. The other side is still free to send. A situation can occur where one side closes the connection and then reopens it immediately, so any lost packets that now arrive will not belong to this new connection and thus TCP we need to insure these packets do not get mixed in with the new packets. So the TIME WAIT state allows a connection to remain open long enough for such packets to be removed from
15 the network. This state usually lasts for about 2 times the round-trip, some implementation hardcode the default value to be anywhere from 30 to 120 seconds. You can use the netstat utility to see TCP/IP states.
16 Running The Programs Bring up two command prompts and go the folder were the client and server executable are each located. In one of the shell type, "EchoServer.exe" to start the server. You should see the following output: In the other shell type: EchoClient.exe "Hello World!!!" At this point the server should display that a connection has been made follow by the data sent. The client shell should state that a connection has been made and what the echo message string is. If we type in the client shell: EchoClient.exe!shutdown The server should now shutdown and exit. Highlighted is the output from the server of the second client connection. The source code on the following pages were colorized using Carlos Aguilar Mares "CodeColorizer" tool, which can be found at
17 Network Utilities Some of the basic tools you will need to know about when working with networking applications are: ping and netstat ping This tools lets you determine if a destination node is reachable. If you re application client application in unable to connect to a server located on another machine over the network You would first try to ping the node to see if the connection was alright. Below is an example of me pinging my router, it shows that all pings were acknowledged, along with the time it took. netstat This utility allows you to view protocol statistics and current TCP/IP connection states. I like to use it with the na option to show all network addresses. If we were you make a call to netstate right after we started the server, here is what one might expect to see. I highlighted the line where the echo server is listening in a passive move on port Notice how the outputs are shows as a IP:Port pairs. If we call EchoClient.exe and then use netstate, we will see a TIME_WAIT state as we discussed earlier. Also there will be another line showing the echo server in the listening state (shown by the 2 yellow markers).
18 Server Socket Code // Module: EchoServer.cpp // Author: Rajinder Yadav // Date: Sept 5, 2007 // #include <winsock2.h> #include <iostream> #include <process.h> #include <stdio.h> #include <tchar.h> #include <windows.h> using namespace std; int _tmain(int argc, _TCHAR* argv) // Initialize WinSock2.2 DLL // low word = major, highword = minor WSADATA wsadata = 0; WORD wver = MAKEWORD(2,2); int nret = WSAStartup( wver, &wsadata ); if( nret == SOCKET_ERROR ) // WSAGetLastError() cout << "Failed to init Winsock library" << endl; return -1; cout << "Starting server" << endl; // name a socket WORD WSAEvent = 0; WORD WSAErr = 0; // open a socket // // for the server we do not want to specify a network address // we should always use INADDR_ANY to allow the protocal stack // to assign a local IP address SOCKET hsock = 0; hsock = socket( AF_INET, SOCK_STREAM, IPPROTO_IP ); if( hsock == INVALID_SOCKET ) cout << "Invalid socket, failed to create socket" << endl; return -1;
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The fundamentals of TCP/IP networking TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocols) is a set of networking protocols that is used for communication on the Internet and on many other networks.
Module 6 Internetworking Lesson 2 Internet Protocol (IP) Specific Instructional Objectives At the end of this lesson, the students will be able to: Explain the relationship between TCP/IP and OSI model
A unified network requires a universal communication service. Host identifiers: Name: identifies what the object is Address: identifies where it is Route: identifies how to get there Copyright Jim Martin
Understand TCP/IP Lesson Overview In this lesson, you will learn about: TCP/IP Tracert Telnet Netstat Reserved addresses Local loopback IP Ping Pathping Ipconfig Protocols Anticipatory Set Experiment with
Network Programming with Sockets This section is a brief introduction to the basics of networking programming using the BSD Socket interface on the Unix Operating System. Processes in Unix Sockets Stream
1 Transport Layer Protocols - TCP and UDP - The Transport layer (OSI Layer-4) does not actually transport data, despite its name. Instead, this layer is responsible for the reliable transfer of data, by
Internet Control Protocols Reading: Chapter 3 ARP - RFC 826, STD 37 DHCP - RFC 2131 ICMP - RFC 0792, STD 05 1 Goals of Today s Lecture Bootstrapping an end host Learning its own configuration parameters
Socket Programming Limi Kalita M.Tech Student, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Assam Down Town University, Guwahati, India. Abstract: The aim of the paper is to introduce sockets, its deployment
Application Note IP Addressing A Simplified Tutorial July 2002 COMPAS ID 92962 Avaya Labs 1 All information in this document is subject to change without notice. Although the information is believed to
56982_CH02I 12/12/97 3:29 PM Page 23 2 CHAPTER 2 An Overview of IPv6 This second chapter is meant to provide a general overview of the IPv6 protocol and of the way network layer protocols operate. These
Overview of TCP/IP System Administrators and network administrators Why networking - communication Why TCP/IP Provides interoperable communications between all types of hardware and all kinds of operating
Chapter 2 NETWORK LAYER This chapter provides an overview of the most important and common protocols associated with the TCP/IP network layer. These include: Internet Protocol (IP), Routing protocols Routing
Network Security TCP/IP Refresher What you (at least) need to know about networking! Dr. David Barrera Network Security HS 2014 Outline Network Reference Models Local Area Networks Internet Protocol (IP)
Unix System Administration Chris Schenk Lecture 08 Tuesday Feb 13 CSCI 4113, Spring 2007 ARP Review Host A 126.96.36.199 00:0B:DB:A6:76:18 Host B 188.8.131.52 00:11:43:70:45:81 Switch Host C 184.108.40.206
Transport Layer Protocols Version. Transport layer performs two main tasks for the application layer by using the network layer. It provides end to end communication between two applications, and implements
Transportation Protocols: UDP, TCP & RTP Transportation Functions UDP (User Datagram Protocol) Port Number to Identify Different Applications Server and Client as well as Port TCP (Transmission Control
Computer Networks Introduc)on to Naming, Addressing, and Rou)ng Week 09 College of Information Science and Engineering Ritsumeikan University MAC Addresses l MAC address is intended to be a unique identifier
Networking Test 4 Study Guide True/False Indicate whether the statement is true or false. 1. IPX/SPX is considered the protocol suite of the Internet, and it is the most widely used protocol suite in LANs.
CHAPTER 3 Internet Protocols Background The Internet protocols are the world s most popular open-system (nonproprietary) protocol suite because they can be used to communicate across any set of interconnected
Troubleshooting Tools An overview of the main tools for verifying network operation from a host Fulvio Risso Mario Baldi Politecnico di Torino (Technical University of Turin) see page 2 Notes n The commands/programs
LAB THREE STATIC ROUTING In this lab you will work with four different network topologies. The topology for Parts 1-4 is shown in Figure 3.1. These parts address router configuration on Linux PCs and a
Objectives of Lecture Network Architecture Show how network architecture can be understood using a layered approach. Introduce the OSI seven layer reference model. Introduce the concepts of internetworking
VMware ESX/ESXi 4.x VMware Workstation 7.x VMware Server 2.0 This document supports the version of each product listed and supports all subsequent versions until the document is replaced by a new edition.
Operating Systems Design 16. Networking: Sockets Paul Krzyzanowski email@example.com 1 Sockets IP lets us send data between machines TCP & UDP are transport layer protocols Contain port number to identify
The POSIX Giovanni Agosta Piattaforme Software per la Rete Modulo 2 G. Agosta The POSIX Outline Sockets & TCP Connections 1 Sockets & TCP Connections 2 3 4 G. Agosta The POSIX TCP Connections Preliminaries
Advanced TCP/IP Overview There is one primary set of protocols that runs networks and the Internet today. In this lesson, you will work with those protocols: the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and
Internetworking William J. Taffe Plymouth State University Using the Slides of Randall E. Bryant Carnegie Mellon University Topics Client-server programming model Networks Internetworks Global IP Internet
Objectives After reading this chapter and completing the exercises, you will be able to: Overview of TCP/IP Describe the TCP/IP protocol stack Explain the basic concepts of IP addressing Explain the binary,
SE 4C03 Winter 2007 04 Internet Protocol (IP) William M. Farmer Department of Computing and Software McMaster University 29 January 2007 Internet Protocol (IP) IP provides a connectionless packet delivery
1 IP - The Internet Protocol Magda El Zarki Dept. of CS UC Irvine Email: firstname.lastname@example.org http://www.ics.uci.edu/~magda 2 Overview IP (Internet Protocol) is a Network Layer Protocol. Several versions most