Chapter 11. User Datagram Protocol (UDP)

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1 Chapter 11 User Datagram Protocol (UDP) The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.,

2 CONTENTS PROCESS-TO-PROCESS COMMUNICATION USER DATAGRAM CHECKSUM UDP OPERATION USE OF UDP UDP PACKAGE The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.,

3 Position of UDP in the TCP/IP protocol suite The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.,

4 UDP Services Process-to-process communication using Ports. Fundamentally, this is the only thing it adds on top of IP. Control: No flow control or acknowledgment Minimal error control: simply detect and drop. No Segmentation/Reassembly service. Incoming data must fit in a UDP packet. Connectionless & Unreliable transport. Minimal overhead, compared to TCP The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.,

5 11.1 PROCESS TO PROCESS COMMUNICATION UDP versus IP The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.,

6 Client-Server Paradigm & Ports A Client process on a local host sends a request to a Server process on a remote host. Client process identification: Local host IP Ephemeral port number (0-65,535) randomly chosen by UDP Server process identification Remote host IP Well-known port number The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.,

7 Role of IP addresses vs. Port numbers The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.,

8 IANA Port Number Ranges Port Protocol Echo Daytime RPC NTP SNMP Description Echoes a received datagram back to sender Returns the date and time Remote procedure call Network Time Protocol Simple Network Management Protocol The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.,

9 Socket addresses IP Header UDP Header The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.,

10 11.2 UDP Packets or User Datagram Max UDP Data length = UDP Header (8) - Smallest IP header(20) = 65,507 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.,

11 11.3 Checksum Checksum covers three sections: 1. Pseudoheader (which does not physically exist as part of the user datagram) 2. UDP header 3. Data coming from Application Layer whose length must be an even number of Bytes. Padding may be added to help compute the checksum, then eliminated be. The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.,

12 Pseudoheader added to the UDP datagram The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.,

13 Checksum calculation of a simple UDP user datagram The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.,

14 11.4 UDP Operation Its Connectionless: Independent user datagrams, even if from same source socket to same destination socket. No streaming is supported. Data must be small enough to fit in one user datagram. No flow or error control If checksum fail, destination silently drops the datagram. Source gets no idea whether the user datagram has arrived. The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.,

15 Encapsulation and decapsulation + pair of sockets + data length + sender s socket Protocol = 17 + Sender/Receiver IP The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.,

16 Queues in UDP The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.,

17 Multiplexing and demultiplexing The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.,

18 11.5 Use of UDP Simple request-response communication (no bulk data) Processes with Internal flow and error-control mechanisms (e.g. Trivial FTP). Multicasting and Broadcasting Management processes (e.g. SNMP) Routing Information Protocol (RIP) for route updating. The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.,

19 11.6 UDP Package The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.,

20 Examples Control-block table at the beginning State Process ID Port Number Queue Number IN-USE 2,345 52, IN-USE 3,422 52,011 FREE IN-USE 4,652 52, FREE The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.,

21 Example 1 The first activity is the arrival of a user The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.,

22 Example 2 After a few seconds, a process starts. It asks The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.,

23 Modified table after Example 2 State Process ID Port Number Queue Number IN-USE 2,345 52, IN-USE 3,422 52,011 IN-USE 4,978 52,014 IN-USE 4,652 52, FREE The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.,

24 Example 3 A user datagram now arrives for port 52,011. The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.,

25 Modified table after Example 3 State Process ID Port Number Queue Number IN-USE 2,345 52, IN-USE 3,422 52, IN-USE 4,978 52,014 IN-USE 4,652 52, FREE The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.,

26 Example 4 After a few seconds, a user datagram arrives for port 52,222. The input module checks the table and cannot find the entry for this destination. The user datagram is dropped and a request is made to ICMP to send an unreachable port message to the source. The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.,

27 Example 5 After a few seconds, a process needs to send a user datagram. It delivers the data to the output module which adds the UDP header and sends it. The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.,

Network-Oriented Software Development. Course: CSc4360/CSc6360 Instructor: Dr. Beyah Sessions: M-W, 3:00 4:40pm Lecture 2

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