Government Open Data: Benefits, Strategies, and Use

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1 Alumni Perspective Government Open Data: Benefits, Strategies, and Use Bill Schrier Senior Policy Advisor Washington State Office of the Chief Information Officer MPA 03 ABSTRACT Governments collect and generate a wide variety of data and information, ranging from census data to scientific research to healthcare. Making such data available for use by other governments, citizens and businesses has many advantages: More citizens will engage with government to make policy and support government services such as public safety; Citizen advocacy groups and researchers will analyze government data producing new and better insights into difficult problems such as crime and homelessness; New businesses will start using the government open data, combined with information from other sources, to produce new services and products such as smart phone applications; Existing government services could be significantly improved as operational data becomes available to improve business processes and shorten delivery times. But opening the data can be a thorny issue for elected officials. This paper highlights both the benefits and the obstacles facing elected and senior government officials in opening the datasets within their custody. It suggests approaches to overcoming those obstacles, methods to harvest the benefits, and highlights how innovative governments can harness open data to better engage citizens and improve services to constituents. The United States Congress passed the Federal government s Freedom of Information Act (FoIA) in FoIA attempts to guarantee access by citizens to information collected and use by federal agencies.. FoIA is mirrored in most states with similar laws, such as the Public Records Act (PRA) in the State of Washington. 2 However these are pull laws citizens wanting access to information must file a request specifying the information desired with the specific government agency holding the information. In other words, the individual citizen is responsible to know the data exists and then must pursue a formal request to pull the information 12 THE EVANS SCHOOL REVIEW

2 Schrier from the agency. Many types of data are excluded from FoIA and PRA for a wide variety of reasons, such as homeland security and privacy of personal information. In approximately 2006, however, some governments began to take a different approach, where they voluntarily began publishing datasets on public websites. This open data movement has now been adopted by a number of United States cities, counties and states, 3 as well as the federal government and other governments around the world. There are significant challenges to expanding the availability of open data. But there are also direct, indirect and economic benefits to citizens, businesses, governments and public officials. Informed citizens will suggest new government policies and better improved business processes for government services. Researchers will comb datasets to produce new insights into problems facing government, and how to address them. Small businesses will start-up using government data in combination with other information to offer new services to consumers. A betterinformed, more-engaged citizenry will improve democracy. Introduction United States democracy is of the people, by the people and for the people. 4 This definition implies government should be open and transparent in how it makes its decisions. Furthermore, those decisions should be logical and explainable to constituents. Decisions must be data-driven. Data used in decision making should be open to inspection by any constituent or member of the public who, in turn, could suggest alternate interpretations and solutions. Open Data is a relatively new concept in transparency: open data is freely available or accessible, without license, and machine-readable, among other characteristics 5 : Freely available and accessible means the data can be easily obtained, preferably on a website or in another place on the Internet without onerous restrictions such as login-passwords or other security measures. These terms also mean without discrimination as to the user or reason for use. Without license means the data can be re-used and re-published without obtaining a license or other legal contract. Some restrictions, such as attribution 6 and immutability 7, are allowed. Machine readable is another way of saying usable without technological hindrances. Data contained in a portable-document-format (PDF) is not machinereadable it is not easy for a computer to read and use the data. Machine readability is extraordinarily important so that the dataset can be used in applications such as mapping points on a handheld device such as a smart phone or tablet. VOL 4, NO. 1, SPRING

3 Government Open Data: Benefits, Strategies, and Use The Open Data Movement In December 2007, 30 thinkers and activists of the Internet held a meeting in Sebastopol, north of San Francisco. Their aim was to define the concept of open public data and have it adopted by the US presidential candidates. Concurrently Suzanne Peck, Chief Technology Officer (CTO) for the City of Washington DC, opened one of the very first open data portals, DCStat, on the Internet in June, The first feed was a dataset of calls to the District of Columbia Mayor s office. The DC effort really expanded under the leadership of the next DC CTO, Vivek Kundra. He expanded the data catalog to incorporate a wider variety of datasets, and, in concert with istrategy Labs, launched Apps for Democracy, a contest to encourage private individuals and companies to use the data to produce useful applications (apps). The contest cost the DC government $50,000, but returned 47 iphone, Facebook and web applications worth an estimated $2,300,000. When President Barack Obama took office on January 20, 2009, one of his first acts was issuing an executive order on open government and transparency. Obama declared his support not just for a transparent government, but one which is participatory and collaborative. A number of specific initiatives followed this order. For example, on May 21, 2009, the federal government launched an open data portal for federal agencies. The leadership in open government is now mirrored worldwide: at least 45 counties and cities, 40 states many more governments outside the U.S. have established open data portals. A total of at least 300 such governmental portals now exist. Key Characteristics of the Open Data Movement Data Types Many requests for data under FoIA and state public records acts are for unstructured data. Unstructured data includes electronic mail messages, scanned memoranda and documents, images, and video of, for example, car stops performed by a police department. But a considerable amount of the bulk data (large datatsets) are structured. Structured data can be placed on an open data site easily. The simplest way to visualize structured data is as a table or a spreadsheet with rows and columns. Each column contains specific data, e.g. a street address or a telephone number. Each row is another instance of the data. A third type of data is a database. Often a database consists of many different tables, each of which is structured, but each of which probably makes little sense unless joined or combined with data from another table. An example of such a database is a human resource management system (HRMS). One table might contain 14 THE EVANS SCHOOL REVIEW

4 VOL 4, NO. 1, SPRING 2014 Schrier employee name and personal characteristics such as date of birth, social security number, age, employee number and so forth. A second table in the database might have names of dependents of all employees, plus their personal characteristics. A third table might contain all the training classes and certifications the employee has taken or earned. Databases present a special problem in open data, in that the data to be opened often must come from a query or report and then may need to be redacted to remove restricted information such as social security number. Generally the open data movement concerns itself with structured data and data which can be rendered as structured from a database. The term dataset refers to a collection of data, usually in a structured and tabular format. For the purposes of this paper, the terms structured data and dataset are interchangeable. Cultural Obstacles Open data movements face a wide variety of obstacles, almost all of them internal to governments. Chris Martin, researcher at the University of Leeds, has chronicled a number of these obstacles, including: The risk-averse culture of governments; Opening data is an extra activity, rather than day-to-day responsibility of employees, and therefore will not occur in a consistent manner; Governments lack a coherent vision for funding and promoting open data; Government officials feel there is little demand or value in the data within their custody; Government will lose revenue by opening data, while, conversely, the private sector will focus on exploiting the financial value while ignoring the social and environmental value of the data; Many citizens and advocacy groups are concerned about protecting the privacy of individuals; Fear that opening the data will result in criticism for incomplete or inaccurate datasets. Legitimate Constraints Furthermore, there is a set of legitimate constraints as to what data may be available to the public. Such constraints include the Criminal Justice Information Services Policy, the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act, the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act, and others including state and local laws and ordinances. These laws protect personal privacy. But some also protect states and the nation from release of information which may be harmful to collective security, for example the location of critical electric power substations or transportation hubs. 15

5 Government Open Data: Benefits, Strategies, and Use Before placing data on an open portal, governments need to filter the data based on these laws and ordinances. However, most of these rules are well understood by governments because they invoke them daily in response to FoIA and PRA records requests. Executive Support Given the obstacles and culture of government, all successful open data initiatives to date have required strong and explicit support from the chief executive of the government entity involved in the effort. Examples include: President Barack Obama s Executive Order and New York City Council law 11 of 2012, which basically says all data which can be opened, will be opened, with the support of Mayor Michael Bloomberg, and the resulting open data program of the City s Department of Information Technology and Telecommunications Chicago Mayor Rahm Emanuel s Executive Order on Open Data And a number of other examples from Oakland and San Francisco, California, Louisville, Kentucky and other places Executive support is critical to open data movements because every government and its bureaucracy resist change. Governments are, inherently, conservative, always striving to maintain the status quo. Government officials constantly feel their programs are underfunded and already burdened with work. Since this conservatism is inherently a part of government, it takes extraordinary effort to overcome the inertia through senior leadership. A Commitment to Change the Default to Open Converting existing datasets to an open data portal can be a daunting task. Merely cataloging the thousands of datasets typically stored by a government agency may take hundreds of hours. Historically governments do not consider the public when building information technology systems. The users of such systems are always identified as the department or division of the government which will use the system. Ultimately, however, all of government operations are funded by taxpayers, ratepayers or businesses. These constituencies must also be considered users or beneficiaries of the technology system. Therefore procurement processes and, in some cases, laws, should be changed to always require a public output of data from every such system. The output data must conform to the specifications of open data discussed above. Then, as technology systems are updated and replaced, the amount of publicly available open data and the ease by which it is created will gradually increase over time to all of 16 THE EVANS SCHOOL REVIEW

6 the permissible data. Schrier Related Developments in Technology and Private Businesses At the same time the open data movement is occurring in government, private businesses are producing and consuming vast amounts of data. And the technologies to generate and process data are improving. The techniques developed and used by private companies to process data can also be applied to government datasets. Governmental data can often be combined with privately collected data to develop new insights and new economic activity. These insights, in turn, can better inform government policy and services. Some of these related developments are: Generation of data from consumers and businesses who use the Internet Generation of data from use of social media Generation of data by traditional bricks-and-mortar businesses Data analytics Use of data from other sources by agencies such as the National Security Agency Data From Use of the Internet Google became a multi-billion dollar business based on its search engine capabilities. Google has spawned related businesses such as Gmail for electronic mail and Google+ for posting personal news and information. In the process of building these businesses, Google and similar companies have amassed considerable data on billions of internet users including names, search preferences, ages, business locations, online purchases and much more. This trove of data is structured but privately held. It is bought and sold on the internet by data exchanges. Indeed, most advertisements seen on the Internet are specifically tailored and delivered for an individual user based upon data stored about that user in such databases. Social Media Social media is extensively used by consumers and businesses. Facebook, for example, has more than a billion registered users. Other examples of social media are Twitter, LinkedIn, YouTube, Instagram, and Google+. Each social media site collects data on its users from personal profiles and posts. Social media users voluntarily complete such profiles and post news and information about themselves and others VOL 4, NO. 1, SPRING

7 Government Open Data: Benefits, Strategies, and Use (i.e. friends ). They voluntarily make connections to other users. They even voluntarily identify and tag images of faces and objects in their posts. All of this information goes into databases, privately held, which are bought and sold. Such information is, again, used to tailor advertisements, and other messages directed at individual users. Facial identification is increasingly used by businesses to recognize customers who walk in the door of a bricks-and-mortar establishment and for other purposes. Private Business Private businesses collect extensive databases on their customers. That data can be collected online, by, say Amazon or a retail website. But it is also collected in the form of loyalty cards such as those issued by Safeway or many other retail establishment. These databases track not only personal information, but every purchase made by a customer. Again this information is used to tailor and target advertisements, , postal mail and other messages directed at individuals. Big Data Big Data is the term for a collection of data sets so large and complex that it becomes difficult to process using on-hand database management tools or traditional data processing applications. Processing such datasets requires specialized software such as Hadoop and from firms such as Splunk and Tableau. More and more government datasets fall into the category of big data. These include meteorological, data obtained from traffic sensors and license plate reader datasets. Furthermore, as government datasets are combined with a wide variety of external sources (also called a mash-up ), the processing techniques will require Big Data analytics and techniques. National Security Agency In 2013 the data collected, analyzed and used by the National Security Agency (NSA) came to the public attention due to the revelations of former NSA contract employee Edward Snowden. These revelations raised significant concern among elected officials, citizens, foreign nations and private businesses. The information about data collected by the NSA, and how it is used, may give a negative connotation to open data and the efforts of other governments to collect and use data. The open data movement, however, can counteract that skepticism by voluntarily revealing data collected by governments for all to see. Summary: Related Developments Data is collected by governments, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and private companies. Such data from different sources can be combined or mashed 18 THE EVANS SCHOOL REVIEW

8 Schrier up to produce new insights and new businesses. The new insights can inform both better government decisions and improved or new private sector services. Benefits of Open Data Cross-Department Data Sharing The first and primary beneficiaries of the open data movement are other governments and other departments within the same government. Prior to the open data movement, a difficult and complicated protocol evolved for data sharing between agencies. One common example is addresses. The geographic location specified by an address is a common piece of data shared by many government agencies. But addresses come in many different formats, e.g th Avenue Southwest or Ave SW or 1917 Forty-Sixth Avenue SW are all the same location. Initially each department had its own protocol for specifying addresses. While the assignment of addresses is often now left to an agreed upon specific agency, e.g. the postal service or the land use department, the format of the address can still vary from system to system and agency to agency. Today, agencies tend to electronically transfer datasets of addresses to each other, which are often automatically reformatted by computer programs into the receiving agency s specific format. In an open data environment, however, address datasets are placed on open data portals for other agencies, other governments and the general public to use. The datasets can be updated rapidly whenever a new address is assigned. Even more profound benefits accrue from internal-to-government open data portals which contain sensitive information. One example is a child protective services social worker who is dispatched to investigate a complaint of child abuse at a specific address. Ideally, she would have a wide variety of data about that address available prior to arriving on the scene Such data could include previous calls to the same address, photographs of individuals known to live at that address, data about crimes recently committed at the address, especially crimes of violence or involving guns, building and zoning code violations at the premise and much more. Improved Constituent Engagement By far the largest reaction by most citizens to their government is apathy or indifference, until an incident or event occurs which affects their personal quality of life or safety. Residents may pay little attention to crosswalks or traffic in their neighborhood until a child is injured by a speeding car while crossing the street. Citizens may be indifferent to crime until their home is burglarized or a neighbor is hurt by a crime-in-progress. After the incidents, individual residents may become enraged VOL 4, NO. 1, SPRING

9 Government Open Data: Benefits, Strategies, and Use and organize their friends and neighbors to storm city hall to demand changes such as better crosswalk lighting or more police protection. Open data provides new methods to engage citizens. It is now common practice to put datasets of crimes on an open data portal. Some cities even go so far as to put police 911 calls on the portal. This open data, in turn, allows block watches to see what is occurring in their neighborhoods, and to take appropriate actions to protect themselves and their neighbors. A premier example of such an app is the City of Seattle s My Neighborhood Map, which shows 911 calls, crime incidents, building permits, public art and other information about what is happening in a neighborhood or near a specific address. Improved Government Performance Governments have long used data to track performance of their operations. Baltimore Mayor (now Maryland Governor) Martin O Malley launched CitiStat to collect datasets on how well city departments operated. Baltimore tracked everything from employee absenteeism to speed of fixing potholes. Many other governments have replicated the CitiStat model. Boston improved the model by establishing a 311 center and mobile app, Citizens Connect, to accept service calls from constituents. Eighty percent of the calls are handled in the 311 center. All others are dispatched to City departments. Boston City departments use the mobile app City Worker to receive such calls and fix the reported issues. This program is so successful it is now extended to a number of other Massachusetts cities using Commonwealth Connect. A number of other cities also have 311 systems for reporting non-emergency problems and have developed associated mobile and web-based apps to support such reporting. Business and Economic Development The Govlab at New York University, with support from the Knight Foundation, is studying 500 private companies which use public data. These 500 companies use a variety of open data from the government including healthcare, building permits, finance, mapping, weather, agriculture and energy. Clearly many startup companies are founded upon or use government data including Yelp for food inspections and restaurant reviews, Zillow for real estate and property valuations. Seattle s Socrata is the foundation for many government open data sites around the world, including the United States Federal Government s In addition to the businesses, a number of useful applications use open data. San Francisco s open data site has an extensive apps gallery showcasing apps built with San Francisco s open datasets. Seattle Emergency Management is an app devel- 20 THE EVANS SCHOOL REVIEW

10 Schrier oped not just with open data from Seattle s Fire 911 calls, but also from public safety radio dispatch channels users can listen to radio calls as they are dispatched. The United States Federal open data site showcases a number of such applications. The McKinsey Institute estimates the value of open data at $3 trillion or more a year, an enormous sum. McKinsey finds such value in efficiency, new products and services, improving quality, savings and convenience. A Political Win FoIA and similar laws are often seen as liabilities by elected officials. Under FoIA, messages, memoranda and even text messages created by elected (and other) officials must be exposed to public scrutiny. But open data can be assets to politicians and elected officials as well. Making a government more transparent, exposing its data for use by others, and allowing private enterprise to create useful applications all are accomplishments that an official can trumpet when running for election. The Open Knowledge Foundation has created an index of openness for 84 different kinds of open data across 70 countries. Such scorecards or dashboards give elected officials bragging rights for their transparency of their governments. Future Trends: Government Open Data Open Data as Just Part of Transparency Open Data is just part of having an open, transparent government. Governments should strive to place all allowable and available data on an open data portal. But many documents in proprietary formats (Microsoft Office formats, portable document format PDF, electronic mail messages, and so forth) are not conducive to being formatted and placed on such a portal. Elected officials and their governments must remain committed to transparency in all its forms. The Chief Data Officer Several cities and a few states have established the role of the Chief Data Officer (CDO). This officer is responsible to evangelize open data within the government, and to carry out the executive orders or laws which mandate placing information on an open data platform. A CDO is not required in every government, but an open data evangelist is required. This individual is the chief executive s point person, passionate about delivering on the promise of the open data movement within a particular government or private company. VOL 4, NO. 1, SPRING

11 Government Open Data: Benefits, Strategies, and Use Standards Yelp and the City of San Francisco have developed and are promoting the Local Inspection Value-Entry Specification (LIVES) to try and standardize restaurant and food inspection scores. The Generalized Transit Feed Specification (GTFS) is used by hundreds of public transit agencies around the world; ridership on such transit systems is facilitated by apps such as One Bus Away which gives riders not just transit schedule information but also the current location expected arrival of their desired bus or train. But very few similar standards exist. Or, more correctly, many such data standards exist, but almost none are widely accepted or implemented on multiple open data portals. In some cases private companies have overcome this lack of standardization by reformatting the data themselves. Crime Reports is one example where basic crime incident data from more than 2,500 places is now on the web. BuildingEye created its own standard for building permit data. That standard is now widely accepted and used in Ireland in civic open data portals. BuildingEye is working with some cities in the United States and Accela, a leading provider of cloud-based building permit software for government to establish a defacto standard for building permits in the U.S. But additional standards need to be embraced by a significant number of governments for a large number of different data types, e.g. public health, municipal codes, legislation, zoning, permitting and licensing, etc. There is no clear path forward no single data standardization organization for this to happen, however. Engagement Citizen engagement is a holy grail for elected officials. Or, rather, usable citizen engagement is the Holy Grail. Getting widespread engagement is difficult, however, unless the issue is either a hot button or NIMBY ( not in my backyard ) issue. Any example of hot button issues are those relating to schools and students. NIMBY issues include siting of public facilities such as a jail or freeway. Open data and associated apps provide a way for citizens to become engaged with their governments in a set of more normal circumstances, like budget development using open data and mobile apps. Another example of potential engagement is Living Voters Guide, an app with which constituents can discuss and rate arguments for and against initiatives and referenda. A Seattle company, Ideascale, has built an entire business around citizen engagement. The Fed Ex Model for Government Federal Express has created a whole business around not just shipping packages, but 22 THE EVANS SCHOOL REVIEW

12 VOL 4, NO. 1, SPRING 2014 Schrier tracking them. A Federal Express customer can see, at each major milestone along the way, how a package is picked up by Federal Express and when it is transferred between trucks or modes of transportation right up until its delivery time. With 311 applications and tracking, described above, government could adopt a similar model. Take, for example, graffiti. A citizen might use a 311 app to take a photograph of obnoxious graffiti, asking a city government to remove it. The 311 center would receive the report and the photo, and perhaps dispatch it to the gang unit at the police department which may want to have the gang unit investigate the particular location and meaning of the graffiti before it is obliterated. Next the 311 center will have to determine which agency is responsible for cleaning and removing the graffiti. The offensive marks could be on transportation bridges or streets, parks department property, another government (e.g. federal or state building) or even private property. Next the appropriate crew is dispatched to paint it over or remove it, and finally the requestor is notified of the elimination of the graffiti and the completion of the service request. And perhaps the requestor is asked to rate the service rendered on this particular request. Each of the mileposts in this work can be tracked, and can be displayed so the requestor can see the progress. In fact, the government can also watch progress and learn from the process, perhaps re-engineering it to be more efficient. Conclusion Through their legitimate business processes governments generate significant amounts of data about people, property, licenses, crimes, public health and a wide variety of other entities. This data is used by elected and senior officials to make laws, set policies and operate government services. In a democracy like the United States, citizens must be engaged and involved in the processes of law and policy making, and even in service provision. The government open data movement endeavors to open as much of this data as possible for use by citizens, advocacy groups, researchers and private businesses, within the constraints of protection of privacy and security. A small but significant number of governments embrace the concept of open data and have established open data portals on the Internet. At the same time, the Internet is widely used by consumers, citizens and businesses for social media, financial transactions, purchases and simply to find information. Businesses, especially Internet-based ones such as Amazon and Google, are collecting vast amounts of data about their users. Some of this data is open, and most of it is bought-and-sold on private exchanges. A number of new businesses have started using government open data along with other publicly and privately available information. These businesses improve 23

13 Government Open Data: Benefits, Strategies, and Use quality of life by producing new products and services. Citizen advocacy groups use open data to produce new insights into public policy problems. These insights improve the process of creating laws and public policy, and improve the delivery of government services. Most governments, however, are slow to embrace open data due to budgetary and cultural constraints. Senior elected officials Mayors, County Executives and Governors, can follow a playbook with specific actions to overcome the obstacles and open their government data for use by citizens, academics and private businesses. The result will be improved and wider citizen engagement with government, and new services such as 311 which improve quality of life for constituents. End Notes 1. FOIA:, Public Law 5 USC 552 at 2. Chapter 42.56, Revised Code of Washington, default.aspx?cite= Abraham Lincoln, Gettysburg Address: 5. A more complete definition of open data: 6. Attribution means any public use of the data must reference the source under the terms of the license to use the data. See also org/licenses/by/summary/ 7. Immutability refers to keeping the original data intact, i.e. not changing the original data except as explicitly allowed by a license or explicitly noted when the data is used. 8. Paris Tech Review, A Brief History of Open Data, March, DCStat is now the D.C. data catalog : 10. District of Columbia Open Data catalog s history: com/d/developer-world/open-government-meets-it Apps for Democracy: 12. Value of the Apps for Democracy results: apps-for-democracy-yeilds-4000-roi-in-30-days-for-dcgov/ 13. Obama s Executive Order Open Government: the_press_office/transparencyandopengovernment 14. Launch of 15. Open data portals: 24 THE EVANS SCHOOL REVIEW

14 Schrier 16. List of open data portals: 17. For definitions and examples of structured and unstructured data, see: 18. Obstacles to the Open Data Movement: understanding-barriers-to-open-government-data/ 19. CJIS, which restricts how criminal and arrest data may be used and disclosed by state and local governments: 20. HIPPA which restricts access to healthcare records: ocr/privacy/ 21. FERPA limits access to student and educational records: policy/gen/guid/fpco/ferpa/index.html 22. Obama s Executive Order Open Government: the_press_office/transparencyandopengovernment 23. New York City Open Data Law 11 of 2012: doitt/html/open/local_law_11_2012.shtml 24. New York City s Open Data Program: html/open/data.shtml 25. Chicago Mayor Rahm Emanuel s Open Data Order: 26. More examples of executive support of open data: com/ 27. The United States Constitution created three branches of government and enshrined the notion of the separation of powers, an example of inherent conservatism and resistance to change. 28. A Stock Exchange for Your Personal Data, Jessica Leber, MIT Technology Review, May 1, This definition of Big Data comes from Wikipedia: wiki/big_data 30. Mash-up: 31. See, for example, a timeline of Snowden s revelations here: 32. My Neighborhood Map: 33. The CitiStat Model: How Data-Driven Government Can Increase Efficiency and Effectiveness, Teresita Perez and Reece Rushing, April, 2007: VOL 4, NO. 1, SPRING

15 Government Open Data: Benefits, Strategies, and Use 34. Boston Does Digital: What we can learn from a City doing it right, Hana Schank, Fast Company, April, 2013: boston-does-digital-what-we-can-learn-from-a-city-that-is-getting-it-right 35. Is the Cost of 311 Systems worth the Price of Knowing?, Tod Newcombe, Governing Managzine, February, 2014: urban/gov-311-systems-cost.html 36. Press release, State of Massachusetts, December, 2012: gov/anf/press-releases/fy2013/patrick-murray-administration-and-city-ofboston.html 37. A partial list of cities with 311 is here: 38. Preview of the Open Data 500, GovLab at New York University: 39. Now on Yelp: Restaurant Inspection Scores, January, 2013: San Francisco Apps Showcase: 42. Seattle Emergency Radio: 43. Apps on 44. Open Data: Unlocking Innovation and Performance with Liquid Information, James Manyika et al, McKinsey, October, 2013: insights/business_technology/open_data_unlocking_innovation_and_performance_with_liquid_information?cid=other-eml-alt-mgi-mck-oth-2910/ 45. Open Knowledge Foundation Index: 46. See Legitimate Constraints earlier in this paper. 47. San Francisco Looks to Tap Into the Open Data Economy, Alex Howard, O Reilly Radar, October, 2012: 48. Open Data Evangelist is a term used in some businesses and governments. See, for example, the evangelist definition for the World Bank here: https:// BERaQX-l9es2fs/mobilebasic?pli=1&hl=en 49. The Role of the Chief Data Officer, Jane Griffin, Deloitte, 2008: https:// us_consulting_ti_roleofchiefdataofficer_ pdf 50. LIVES specification: 51. GTFS: 52. One Bus Away is available in four metro areas: 53. Crime Reports: 54. BuildingEye: 26 THE EVANS SCHOOL REVIEW

16 Schrier 55. Accela: 56. Budget engagement: See, for example, California s Institute for Local Government at 57. Living Voters Guide: 58. Ideascale: VOL 4, NO. 1, SPRING


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