1 E-LEAVE AND CLAIM SYSTEM FOR STRADEX CORPORATION SDN BHD NOR BAHYAH BINTI ABDUL RASHID This report is submitted in partial fuifillment of the requirements for the Bachelor of Computer Science (Database Management) FACULTY OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY UNIVERSITI TEKNIKAL MALAYSIA MELAKA 2007
2 ABSTRACT The purpose of this report is to document all the processes that involved during planning, analyzing, designing, implementation and testing the e-leave and Claim System In the Chapter I, the report will give a clear view about the project background, problem statements for existing system. Rather than that, the objectives, scopes, project significance, expected output for the enhanced system will be defined clearly. This report also concentrates on literature review and project methodology in Chapter 11. The literature review gives a detailed description about what has been published on a topic by the researchers. Moreover, the software, hardware and other related requirements also identified. In Chapter I11 the report will explain about the analysis phase where it produces the problem analysis result for the current system and data flow diagram for to be system. In Chapter IV, the report will focus more on the system design. The major activities that will take place in during this phase are evolving the set of analysis representations into design representation. This chapter also gives a clear view on the system high-level design of the entire system which included the user interface design, navigation design, input and output design and database design in logical and conceptual database design. Furthermore, Chapter V will give a brief description about implementation status of Leave and Claim System. The implementation phase will focused more on the construction and implementation process that involved in delivering the final system to operation. In Chapter VI, the report will illustrate about testing on the system. Software testing has been carried out in order to determine whether the system matches its specifications. Finally, Chapter VII will be the project conclusion where it concludes the strengths and weakness of the system. Moreover, it also provide proposition for improvement.
3 ABSTRAK Tujuan laporan ini adalah untuk mendokumentasikan semua proses yang terlibat dalam proses perancangan, analisis, rekabentuk, implementasi dan pengujian untuk membangunkan "e-leave and Claim System". Bab I, akan menerangkna tentang latar belakang sistem yang sedia ada. Tambahan pula, skop, objektif, kepentinagn sistem baru yang dicadangkan, masalah-masalah yang dihadapi dalam sistem lama akan ditetapkan. Laporan ini juga akan tertumpu pada bahagian kajian literature yang akan menbincangkan tentang kaedah yang akan digunakan dalam pembangunan sistem baru. Selain itu, perisian dan perkakasan yang sesuai turut dipilih dan dikenalpasti. Bab 111 akan menerangkan bagaimana projek ini akan dianalisa mengikut masalah-masalah yang dikenalpasti dalam sistem lama. Dengan ini, gambarajah aliran data turut dihasilkan. Diikuti dengan it3 Bab IV akan merangkumi reka bentuk keseluruhan sistem yang akan dibangunkan. Bab ini juga akan menerangkan tentang rekabentuk interface pengguna, rekabentuk aliran sistem, rekabentuk input dan output, rekabentuk pangkalan data dalam merekabentuk pangkalan data logikal dan konseptual. Tambahan pula, Bab V akan menjelaskan tentang status proses implementasi bagi "e-leave and Claim System". Fasa ini memainkan peranan penting dalam pembangunan sistem yang berguna dan diperlukan pada man sekarang. Selain daripada itu, Bab VI akan menerangkan tentang proses pengujian yang telah dijalankan terhadap sistem ini. Pengujian ini akan merangkumi penentuan sama ada sistem ini telah mencapai spesifikasi yang ditetapkan.
4 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION This chapter is an overview of the proposed system which will be included in project background. The problem statements of the existing system also will be defined together with objectives, scopes, project significance, expected output and conclusion for the chapter. 1.1 Project Background Many of company used system computerized to manage all their business. This is because, system is easy to used and it saved time. Stradex Corporation Sdn Bhd is one of the business companies that moving forward in the business environment. In beginning, the director of this company thinks that they do not need the leave and claim system due to the lack of staff. They still using manual system for all the application. Day after day, they realize that they need to have leave and claim system to make sure all the management will manage easily. e-leave and Claim System is proposed for Stradex Corporation Sdn Bhd to allow and support applications by staff through web. This system is combination of two systems that are leave and claim. This system is develop to help them to keep or save all the leave and claim application details in this system. This system will provide the features such as insert, delete, save, view, generate report and statistic, update and calculate the quantity of the leave and claim application to user.
5 This system will avoid the company to use the documentation to check and to apply new leave and new claim. e-leave and Claim System will guarantee that all record are saving securely and no need to worry about losing data. 1.2 Problem Statement Stradex System is a company that has few staff. That is one reason why they still used manual system to apply a leave and claim. The current system used the documentation (paper heavy) to save all record details. All the application form will be keep in file. There are several problems that has been identified in current manual system. The proposed enhancement system can prevent and overcome the existing problems. The problems are: i. Data not efficient The current system cannot perform the record keeping intelligence applications because it is lack of technology in the storage system and need improvement. ii. May cause unexpected incidents Such as lost of data, misplacing the important files, fire and so on. iii. Waste time When the staffs need to apply a leave, they need to undergo a lot of steps where it need time to do. Other than that, the manual system also can say as not robust because it is vulnerable to attack by the third person who was not authorized to access these files. iv. Lack of data security Where there are no protections at all. Each records and changes are visible to by the person. It is not protected and responsible by a certain people.
6 13 Objectives The main objectives in this project are: i. To apply leave and claim through web based system ii. iii. iv. To make record keeping more efficient and secure. To calculate process of claim easily To generate report effectively 1.4 Scope This system is enhancement of the manual and web based e-leave and Claim System. The current system has features of apply leave and claim. The additional feature of the proposed system is to generate the statistic graph about the total of application. After the analysis process, a report about the application details will be generated User The target users of this project are a staff, manager and a director in the Stradex Corporation Sdn Bhd. The secondary users are the manager who is working under that director. The director has the full priority and privilege on the e-leave and Claim System.
7 1.4.2 Module i. Maintain Leave Record ii. iii. The target users of this project are a staff, a manager and a director in the Stradex Corpopratin Sdn Bhd. System will maintain all the record about all the application View Leave Record To make sure the application that is applied by staff can easily be view. Apply Application With this system, the leave application is under control. That mean, staff only can apply leave if they have balance of leave iv. View Status of Application To make sure the application that is applied by staff can easily be view. v. Manage Claim easily Manager can easily manage all information or details about claim. The manager and the director will correct the data about the staff that make claim. vi. Generate Report Director will generate a report about the application details vii. Generate Graph Director will generate a graph about the application details
8 1.5 Project Significance This e-leave and Claim System is develop to give benefit to all staff at Stradex Corporation Sdn Bhd. From this system, this company will have a specific system to keep all data about leave and claim application. Staff can check their leave balance fiom this system. All the application that has submitted by the staff, will be send to the manager and director Staff application and record can be managed more eficiently when they are stored in database. This project is fully computerized by using XAMPP which is combination of MySQL and Apache Server. A collection of data will build a block of information. Information is can be produce by processing data. Good relevant and effective information is a key to make a good decision-making. Good decisionmaking can lead and guide an organization to survive in a global environment Database security is most important aspect in order to save and access data fiom the system. The proposed system will be protected with login password where each level of users will have their own privileges to access the data. In addition to that, fully computerized database helps to do backup for the system and it will save the space to store the data. Each and every updates and changes are reliable to the database system. 1.6 Expected output e-leave and Claim System will have a few of fbnction that will help the staff or the user to make their application easily. From this system, staff will submit the application through this system and manager will receive the application. Manager can check and view the details about staff leave report. After manager give their
9 feedback, the supported application need to get approve from manager before staff can take a leave. Staff can cancel the application and they must do that before director give approve. Director and manger have an ability to generate a report and also generate a graph to view the percentage of leave and claim record. Manager has a responsibility to key in data if staff does overtime. All the information will get from company time attendance system. The system will calculate the payment that the staff will get for the overtime that they have done. Staffs who want to claim a payment have to upload a receipt as prove. The manager who receives the claim application will check the details and have to give feedback whether the application is prove or not. All the data and record of application will be saved in database. The person in charge will receive an notification about the application. 1.7 Conclusion The e-leave and Claim is very important due to the company. The Stradex Corporation Sdn Bhd needs a computerized system in order to keep a large amount of data to ensure the data consistency. This system also can make all the transaction smoother. The data also can easily find and can be more efficient compare to the old manual system. This e-leave and Claim System is hopefully can reduce manual efforts on handling papers forms, improves data, facilities leave administration, improves staffs productivity, prevents incorrect delivery or loss of form and more importantly, helps to create paperless office environment. Chapter I1 describe about the literature review and project methodology. This chapter focused on the fact and finding based on topic and will discuss about system that are related or past research, case study and other finding. It also focused on
10 project methodology, software and hardware requirement and the project schedule and milestone.
11 CHAPTER I1 LITERATURE REVIEW AND PROJECT METHODOLOGY This chapter will give a detailed description about what has been published on a topic by scholars and researchers. The project methodology is a clear overview about the database design. The project requirements such as software, hardware and other related requirement will be identified in this session. 2.1 Introduction This chapter provides detailed examination literature which has assisted with development methodology and survey instrument. Support discussion relating to the survey finding, and present material which will be used to later develop an instructional design model for e-leave and claim system 2.2 Fact and Finding Basically facts and findings is a result after reading, analyzing different types of resources, collecting information from websites, books, and other materials.
12 Furthermore, the facts and finding also can based on the major components of the enhanced system such as backup and recovery, system architecture, export and import data and the integrity within different application Domain One of the greatest challenges facing the world trade today is how to adopt trade capacity to the new concept, structures and requirement emerging at both the national and international level. Lnformation technology is the one of the challenge that is moving forward. System is one of the famous computer technologies that are used in this word today. According to journal written by Ives, B. and Richardson, G. (2004). "Managing System Development" Information and Software Technology 45, during the 1960s and the 1970s, system development was a simple, informal process, often manually drawn flow cart defined user requirement and even less rigorous approaches was common. According to one article ii-om internet, Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2007), System that are retrieved on May 2007 fiom system is a set of entities, real or abstract, comprising a whole where each component interacts with or is related to at least one other component and they all serve a common objective. Any object which has no relation with any other element of the system is not part of that system but rather of the system environment. A subsystem then is a set of elements, which is a system itself, and a part of the whole system. Leave System and Claim System is examples of the useful system nowadays that are used by company to record all staff details. Leave means time when staff has official permission to be away from work and definition of claim is to request for something as a right. Allen R and Delahunty A, (Eds) (2002). "Oxford Student's Dictionary."New York: Oxford University Press 2002.
13 There are many types of leave. One of the leave types is annual leave that provides employees with paid leave for vacations and other personal purposes. Sick personal leave is provides employees with paid leave fiom work for personal healthrelated reasons. This sick leave may be used for absences due to personal illness, injury or pregnancy and for doctor visits. Compensatory leave is used to provide paid time off from work for any purpose. Family and personal leave provides employees with paid leave for absences due to personal and family reasons as well as personal illnesses or injuries. Overtime leave may be used to provide paid leave fiom work for any purpose. Administrative leave provides paid leave for court appearances (including jury duty and traffic court), to interview for other state positions, to serve on state councils and other bodies, to resolve work-related conflicts, to resolve complaints of employment discrimination, and to attend work-related administrative hearings. Employees should request administrative leave as far in advance as practicable. Employees may use community service leave for community service activities, school assistance and home schooling. Bone MarrowIOrgan Donation Leave provides employees with paid leave to donate bone marrow or organs. Employees must request leave according to agency procedures. Employees must submit medical certification to support the use and expected duration of the leave. Each day leave encashment is same with gross rate of pay for each day. Gross rate is the total amount of money including allowances that an employee is entitled to under their contract of service excluding overtime payment, bonus payment, traveling, and food or housing allowances. Gross rate of pay is used to calculate paid public holiday, salary deduction for unauthorized absence from work and approved paid leave.
14 2.2.2 Existing System e-leave and Claim System is a system that have a combination of leave and claim system. Before this, the system is divided into two systems that are leave system and claim system. After the research that has done, there are a few of leave system and claim system that already exist that have been used by company. Majority of company still using the manual system which is they still used form to apply leave. All the record will be saved into a file. The same thing also happens to the claim record. The data about the claim that have made by staff is record in a book and it is lack of security. Manager or director is hard to view old record and it takes time to generate a graph. Sometimes, staff or employees apply an application of leave more than the limitation. One of the leave systems that already developed is E-Leave. This system was developed by the Budget and Control Board's Division of the Chief Information Officer. Table below is show the different about leave system between the E-leave that have been develop by the Budget and Control Board's Division of the Chief Information Officer and the &re e-leave that will be develop. Table 2.1: Different Between Existing System with New System - Exi isting sys ;tern E-I,cave NI m e-,leave (thc: strengtl I and the : weakne sses) le streng th and th le weakn esses) - P Have two users that is employees and supervisor. - this system is used by employees and supervisor only. A11 the decision about leave is make by supervisor Have three users that is stae manager and director - this system has three users. Staffs need to have support from manager before the director approves the application.
15 Existing system E-Leave (the strength and the weaknesses) New system e-leave (the strength and th le weakn esses) 9 Have donate leave's function. - employees can take the previous leave to the next leave 9 Cannot generate report and statistic graph > Create a Leave Request for Employee - supervisor can search the employees application request 9 All the matter to take the previous leave to next leave is made by manager. > Manager and director can generate report and also can generate a statistic graph- > All the leave application will be appearing automatic in manager and director interface and they also can search the old application by year or by month. The second leave system is Sistem Pemohonun Cuti Online that have developed for staff at University Putra Malaysia (UPM). The fbnction of this system is same with the new leave system that will be develop. But the new system can generate a report and also the statistic graph. Mostly, the system that have been developed and used is only have the basic function that is apply leave, view leave application and the status, cancel the application and all the feedback about the application will be send to . For claim, fie systems that exist are mostly about track and errsure construction and contractor timeliness on claims and also the system about insurant's claim. Even though the claim system is not really relate with the company claim system, but the basic function of this system is same. With manual system, staffs who want to claim a payment just give a receipt as prove and all the receipt is keep into a file. All the record about the claim did not have a security and might be lost. The new system that will develop will keep all data safely and the probability that the data will lost is less. The new system also will calculate the payment that the staff will get if they have duty.
16 2.23 Technique There are so many way to develop the system. One of the different between systems is the software that is used. The software that can be used is MS Visual Basic Professional v.6.~ VI3.net, ASP and etc. This software is a good example of software to develop system but the Dreamweaver and PHP is choose because it was easy to understand and very suitable to develop to develop a web based system Besides using MySQL, Oracle and SQL server is a good platform to create a database. This database is not used because oracle and SQL server need more storage than MySQL. Oracle takes time to install and sometimes it got problem during the installation. For this system, the methodology that is chosen is SDLC and DBLC. This methodology is suitable to develop this web based system. 23 Project Methodology 23.1 System Development Life Cycle (SDLC) The Systems Development life Cycle (SDLC) is conceptual model used in project management that describes the stages involved in an information system development project from initial feasibility study through maintenance of the completed application. Various SDLC methodologies have been development to guide the processes involved including the waterfall model, Rapid Application Development (RAD), Joint Application Development (JAD), the fountain model and the spiral model. The SDLC traces the history of an information system. Perhaps more important to the system designer, the SDLC provides the "big picture" within which the databasedesign and application development can be mapped out and evaluated.
17 Database design takes place within an information system. In short, it is difficult to divorce database design from the SDLC. The traditional SDLC is divided into five phases: planning, analysis, design, implementation and testing and the last phase is maintenance. The SDLC traces the history (life cycle) of an information system. The DBLC traces the history (life cycle) of a database system. Since the database serves the information system, it is not surprising that the two life cycles conform to the basic phases. Because the database Life Cycle (DBLC) is fits into and resembles the System Development Life Cycle (SDLC), a brief description of the SDLC is in order Planning The feasibility study is used to establish a high level view of intended project and determines its goal. If the project is to proceed, the feasibility study will produce a project plan and budget estimates for the h r e stages of development. In this phase, the development team visits the customer and studies their system. They investigate the need for possible software automation in given system. By the end of the feasibility study, the team furnishes a document that holds the specific recommendation for candidate system. The essential purpose of this phase is to find the need and to define the problem that need to be solved. The SDLC planning phase yields a general overview of the company and its objectives. An initial assessment of the information-flow-and-extent requirement must be made during this discovery portion of the SDLC. Such as an assessment should answer some important question:- > Should the existing system be continued? > Should the exiting system is modified? > Should the existing system is replaced?
18 Analysis Analysis gathers the requirement for the systems. This stage includes a detail study of business need of the organization. Options for changing the business process may be considered. Analysis phase refines project goals into defined function and operation of the intended application. Problem defined during the planning phase are examined in greater details during the analysis. The analyst must make a macro analysis of both individual needs, addressing questing such as: > What are the precise requirement of the current system's and user? P Do those requirements fit into the overall information requirement? The analysis phase of the SDLC is, in effect, a thorough audit of user requirement. The existing hardware and software are also studied during the analysis phase Detailed System Design Design focuses on high level design like what programs are needed and how are they going to interact, low-level design (how the individual programs are going to work, interface design and the data design. During this phase, the software's overall structure is design Implementation and Testing During the implementation phases, the hardware, the DBMS software and application program are installed and the database design is implementation. The real code is also written here. In this phase the design are translated into code. Computer programming is written using a conventional programming language or an application or an application generator. Programming tools like Compilers, Interpreters, and Debuggers are used to generate the code. Different high level programming languages like C, C*, and Pascal Java are used for coding. With
19 respect to the type of application, the right programming language is chosen. In this phase the system is tested. Normally programs are written as a series of individual modules, this subject to separate and details test. The system is tested as a whole. The separate modules are brought together and tested as a complete system. The system is tested to ensure that interface between modules works and that system does what the user requires Maintenance and Evolution Inevitably the system will need maintenance. Software will definitely undergo change once it is delivered to the user. Change could happen because of some unexpected input values into the system. The software could be developed to accommodate changes that could happen during the post implementation period.some of the periodic maintenance activities are as follows: - Backup and recovery. Performance enhancement. Assignment of access permissions for new and old users. Periodic security audits based on the system-generated statistics. Periodic system usage summaries.
20 1 Planning t Analysis v Detailed System Design v Implementation and Testing -- Initial assessment Feasibility Study 9 User Requirements. 9 Existing System Evaluation 9 Logical System Design 9 Coding, Testing and Debugging > Installation, fine-tuning P Introduce changes 9 Make enhancement 9 Test the System 9 Implement the system to Figure 2.1: System Development Life Cycle (SDLC)
21 2.3.2 Database Life Cycle (DBLC) The Database life Cycle categorized into six phases. Those are database initial study, database design, implementation and loading, testing and evaluation, operation, and maintenance and evolution Database Initial Study In the initial study the designer will be play the main role as a lone operator or a part of the systems development team. It also depends to the complexity and scope of the database environment. A development team is a combination of project leader, one or more senior system analyst and junior systems analysts. The overall purposes of the database initial study are as follows:- i. Analyze the company situation. In order to analyze a company situation, the database designer needs to discover the company's hctional components and how they interact with each other. Moreover, the designer must satisfl with the operational demands which created by the organization. By knowing the organization structure, the designer can easily produce the required information flows. Rather than that, it also makes easier the process to produce specific report, query format and so on. ii. Define problems and constraints. Information can be divided into two categories which are formal and informal. The paper trail will be informative to the development team, especially designer. The designer must always alert to differences in information. The problem definition process might appear unstructured. Other than that, the company's end user unable to describe the large scope of company operations and hard to identifl the real problems which are occurred during the company operation. In overall, the managerial view of
22 company operations has a large difference compare to the end-users who perform the actual routine work. The designer will be the main person who collects very broad problem description in the initial problem definition process. iii. Define objectives. The database system that wants to be developed must be designed in order to solve at least the major problems that identified during the problem discovery process. Sometime sources cannot be discovered. So, the designer will always keep note of the initial study phase where it also contribute to the problem solution. The designer's job is to make sure the database objective always fblfill the end-users expectation. In any cases, the designer will begin to address the following questions: - > What is the proposed system's initial objective? > Will the system interface with other existing or future systems in the company? > Will the system share the data with other systems or users? iv. Define scope and boundaries. The designer must get to know about the existence of two sets of limits which are known as scope and boundaries. The system's scope will define the extent of the design related to the operational requirement. By knowing the scope, it will help to define the required data structures, the type and numbers of entities, the physical size of the database and so on. The boundaries are known as external to the system. Boundaries also required by existing hardware and software. Preferably, the designer can choose the hardware and software that will best accomplish the system goals.
23 Database Design The second phase focuses on the.design of the database model that will support company operations and objectives. We are now ready to begin what is arguably the most critical DBLC phase: making sure that the final product meets user and system requirements. In the process of database design, we must concentrate on the data characteristics required to build the database model. In short, we have 2 views of the data within the system: the business view of data as a source of information, and the designer's view of the data structure, its access, and the activities required to transform the data into information. Below are the main processes in database design: - i. Create the conceptual design In this stage, the data modeling will be used to create the abstract database structure, which represents the real world objects in more natural. It also will be easier to understand. Moreover, it also must represent a clear view of the business and its' fbnctional parts. Abstraction level can define where the hardware and the database model not yet identified. The design must be software and hardware independent, where the system can be built within any hardware and software platform which will be chosen later by the development team. ii. DBMS Software Selection The selection of the DBMS software is very important to the information's system for a smooth operation. Therefore the proposed DBMS sohare has its' own advantages and disadvantages where it must be studied carefully. Other than that, the end users also must be always aware of both DBMS and the database limitation to avoid false expectations.
24 iii. Create the logical Design Logical design can be define as the major component where it will be used to translate the conceptual design into the internal model for a selected database management system (DBMS) such as SQL Server, Oracle, Access, MySQL and so on. Further more, all the objects in the model will be mapped to a specific constructs that used by the selected database. The logical design for a relational DBMS is included by tables, indexes, views, transactions, access authorities and so on. iv. Create the physical Design Physical design can be define as a process of select the data storage and data access characteristics of the chosen database. The characteristics of storage are the types of devices supported by the hardware, type of data access methods supported by the system and the DBMS. The physical design will affect the location of the data in the storage device and also the performance of the system. Other than that, can also say that the physical design described the technical job and more typical of the client or server Implementation and Loading In modern relational DBMS such as IBM DB2, Oracle or Microsoft SQL Server, a new database implementation requires the creation of special storagerelated constructs to address the end-user tables. After the database has been created, the data must be stored in to the database tables. If the data currently stored are different from the new DBMS requirement, the data must be converted fmt before loaded. During the implementation and loading phase, we also must address performance, security, backup and recovery, integrity, company standards and concurrency control.
25 Testing and Evaluation Once the data have been loaded into the database, the DBA will test and fine tunes the database for performance, integrity, and concurrent access and security constraints. The testing and the evolution phase occur in parallel with programming applications. Moreover the programmers will use the database tools to prototype the applications during the coding session. If the database implementation is fails to meet the system's evolution criteria or requirement, several options will be considered to enhance the system such as bllows: - > For performance related issues, the designer must consider fine tuning specific system and DBMS configuration parameters. The best sources of information are the hardware and software technical reference manuals. > Modify the physical design. > ModifL the logical design. > Upgrade or change the DBMS software or the hardware platform Operation Once the database has been passed the evolution stage, it will consider being operational. At this point the database, management, users and the application programs will compose a complete information system. The beginning of the operational phase consistently starts the process of the system evolution. When all the targeted end-users entered the operation phase, the problems that could not predict during the testing phase can be detected.
26 Maintenance and Evolution The database administrator must be prepared to perform routine maintenance activities within the database. Some of the required periodic maintenance activities included such as follows: - P Preventive maintenance (backup) P Corrective maintenance (recovery) > Adaptive maintenance (enhancing performance, adding entities and attributes and so on) P Assignment of access permission and their maintenance for new and old users. > Generation of database access statistics to improve the efficiency and usefklness of system audits and to monitor system performance. P Periodic security audits based on the system generated statistics.
27 1 Analyze the company r ~ ~ n I Database Initial Study situation. problems and Database Design design. 9 DBMS software selection. %Create the lopical desim. Implementation and 9 Install the DBMS. 9 Create the databases. 9 Load or convert the data. Evaluation Operation 9 Fine-tune the database % Evaluate the database and its annlication nroprams 9 Produce the required information flow Maintenance and Evolution I I 9 Introduce changes 9 Make enhancement Figure 2.2: Database Life Cycle (DBLC)
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