1 Calle Reforma 113, colonia Palmira, C.P , Cuernavaca, Morelos, México Tel: (777) Fax: (777)
2 ANNUAL REPORT INSTITUTO DE INVESTIGACIONES ELÉCTRICAS 09
3 Directory Jordy H. Herrera Flores Néstor F. Moreno Díaz Rodolfo Nieblas Castro Florencio Aboytes García José R. Narro Robles Carlos Vélez Ocón Julio A. Valle Pereña President Juan E. Granados Nieto José E. Villa Rivera José Lema Labadie Néstor F. Moreno Díaz Board of Directors Alfredo Elías Ayub President Commissary Juan E. Granados Nieto Gabriel Garza Herrera Secretary Proprietary Members Ramiro García Sosa José E. Villa Rivera José Lema Labadie Carlos A. Treviño Medina Juan C. Romero Hicks José A. Valdez Campoy Technical Committee Fernando A. Kohrs Aldape Technical Secretary Carlos A. Treviño Medina José R. Narro Robles Juan C. Romero Hicks Miguel Vázquez Rodríguez Emiliano Pedraza Hinojosa Executive Staff Julián Adame Miranda Executive Director Angel Fierros Palacios Director of Alternative Energy Salvador González Castro Director of Control Systems Rolando Nieva Gómez Director of Electric Systems José Miguel González Santaló Director of Mechanical Systems Fernando A. Kohrs Aldape Director of Planning and Technical Support José Alfredo Pérez Gil y García Director of Administration and Finances Jesús Orlando Pacheco Aguilar Internal Comptroller Published by: Publications Department of Planning and Technical Support with the support of the Institutional Communication Coordination, Institutional Communication Coordinator: Francisco Escárcega Rodríguez, Head of Department of Publications: Gladys Dávila Núñez, Senior Editor: Federico Estrada Arias, Cover and Interior Design: Arturo Fragoso Malacara, Diagramming and Composition: Verónica García Rodríguez, Online Publication: Wendy Lugo Sandoval, Photography: Sergio Ortega López, Distribution: Ana María Sámano Ramírez Printed by: Dicograf, S.A. de C.V., Av. Poder Legislativo 304, colonia Prados de Cuernavaca, 62239, Cuernavaca, Morelos, México
4 Index Chief Executive Message 2 Economic Consumption and Energy Efficiency 5 Renewable Energy Sources 10 Safety and Reliability 13 Automation and Information Technologies 18 Capacity Building and Training 22 Business Intelligence 25 Sustainable Development and the Environment 28 Strategic Relations 33 1
5 Chief Executive Message In order to provide an overview of our 2009 endeavors, I would like to inform you that 2009 was a year full of challenges, plans and projects which allowed us to put into perspective the direction in which we are heading and which allowed us to understand all we can be and do over the next few years. Talking about 2009 forces us to carry out a detailed review of the 35-year history of a renewed organization, which does things differently now thanks to team efforts over the last few years. Those efforts have allowed us to face the challenges of the global world that we now live in. In order to face such challenges, I am convinced that we need to plan using a strategic vision that will allow us to discover the path that the organization needs to take. In order for our Institute to deal with the aforementioned challenges, we have made changes to the organization, such as the creation of the Commercialization Department which will be in charge of creating commercial alliances and searching for new clients. Furthermore, we have also created the Project Arrangement Department, which will unify the project control methodology used by our Divisions. It is important to emphasize that the Education Ministry approved the creation of the Institute Graduate Center, which represents an acknowledgement of many years of effort in which the IIE has contributed its knowledge to the education of engineers in the Electrical Sector. Specialization courses have become a set of Master degree courses, offering a competitive advantage for knowledge which is not yet included in text books. The knowledge and strength of the work carried out over the last 35 years, in addition to the changes recently carried out, will allow us to design a future that will give the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) the opportunity to act as a point of reference. That future shall be linked to the National Energy strategy, the principal aim of which is energy efficiency, renewable sources and climatic change, which will allow the country to tackle the challenges of growth. It is clear that, only through innovation and technological development, will we be able to offer solutions that will provide added value to our customers and therefore to society. The research and test installations in La Ventosa Oaxaca have been completed, together with the Wind Energy Center (CERTE), which will offer wind generator designs, evaluation and test services, taking advantage of the region s wind resources. The development of this Mexican wind machine has been carried out by means of a multidisciplinary project in which the capacities of Turbo Machinery, Electrical Equipment, Control and Instrumentation Materials and Chemical Processes, Civil Engineering and Non-Conventional Energy Source departments have been applied, together with the Center for Advanced Technology of the Instituto Politécnico Nacional (CIATEQ). 2
6 Likewise, the project for the construction of installations in the Technological Research and Innovation Park (PIIT) has begun in Monterrey Nuevo León, which will open up one of the most important regions in the country as far as electrical manufacturing is concerned. I would like to point out that, in 2009, the National Council for Science and Technology (CONACYT), widely supported the IIE with a significant number of projects. One outstanding project is the Mexican Wind Machine (MEM) macro project, which has brought together a network of research centers, universities and industrialists, allowing Mexico to carry out engineering through equipment manufacturing, in an area dominated by foreign companies. I would like to emphasize that 2009 has been the best year for the Institute s Technical Divisions, due to the fact that the Institute obtained the highest incomes ever in its history. I would like to conclude by acknowledging that all of these accomplishments are the result of genuine team work, which was reflected in the Institute as a result of its obtaining the Competitiveness and Quality Morelos Award, a fact which, as an organization, makes us proud and motivates us to continue working hard and to working as a team for a more competitive IIE. Julián Adame Miranda Institute Chief Executive 3
8 Economic Consumption and Energy Efficiency The IIE develops and applies methodologies, analysis and specialized tools for energy efficiency, remaining at the forefront of science and technology. It proposes efficient, profitable, reliable and secure energy solutions taking into consideration benefits to the environment. With regards projects completed by the Federal Electricity Commission (CFE), IIE supervised installation and field tests for the electricity service measurement and bill collection system for assembled users. For this purpose, the company has an effective tool for reducing electricity losses, particularly non-technical, as well as elements to evaluate measurement and advanced client interaction technologies. The National Energy Control Center in Mexico (CENACE) has developed a mathematical model in order to quickly and accurately validate short-term operational strategies for the production of thermo and hydro electricity by the National Electric System. The model was integrated as a component of the Short-Term Hydrothermal Coordination and Unit Commitment System (CHT-AU). The Institute developed an automated system for the non-destructive inspection of furnace wall tubes in steam generators. The system uses a collection of three transducers to measure the thickness of the water wall tubes, allowing for remnant life assessment. This system generates significant savings in the inspection and maintenance of steam generators compared with traditional manual techniques. We are a solid and mature institution with a commitment to protecting nature and to encouraging technological innovation. 5
9 Meanwhile, an accurate diagnostic test technique to assess the remaining life of high voltage current transformers was developed and implemented. The technique has been widely applied and has allowed CFE to identify critical equipment, avoiding catastrophic failures and upgrading maintenance practices on transmission substations. A study of the effects of the natural composition of gas was performed in order to evaluate its impacts on the efficiency and availability of Combined Cycle generating plants. The study evaluated the cost-benefit relationship of different options for dealing with variable natural gas quality due to variable N 2 content. An evaluation of generation technologies and fuel combination was carried out in order to determine the optimal conditions and characteristics for a cogeneration plant in Salamanca, including methodologies for estimating the costs of steam and electricity to be supplied by CFE to PEMEX. An evaluation of the impact of the cyclic operation of power plants on the useful life of critical components of steam turbines and steam generators was performed at the request of CFE s Generation Sub-Directorate. This study led to changes in operation strategies, focusing on the reduction of useful life consumption and maintenance costs. At the request of CFE s Equipment and Materials Test Laboratory (LAPEM), a technology was implemented in order to evaluate micro structure deterioration of materials based on the measurement of their electrical resistance. The results of this study will allow for the fast remnant life assessment of turbine and steam generator components. 6 We contribute to efficient, economic energy in the electric and energy sectors.
11 Furthermore, an automatic system is being developed for the same customer for the non-destructive inspection of disks and rotor blade roots during the last two stages of low pressure steam turbines. This system permits the detection of geometric discontinuities (fissures) due to wear or corrosion cracking, without removing the blades. A technical economic feasibility analysis was carried out for the conversion of oil firing to coal or coke firing in several power plants. Furthermore, preliminary engineering was performed to assess the technical and economic feasibility of a CO 2 capture process for the PALM (Tuxpan) generating plant. A long-term generation expansion planning study was carried out in order to evaluate the impact of the potential cogeneration capacity of Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX). The Generation and Transmission Systems Planning Model Under Uncertainty (PEGyT/AR) was used for the study. As a result, projected expansion costs were calculated, as well as the suitable technology type identification to be installed on each potential PEMEX site. We recommend reliable environmental solutions. 8
12 Moreover, the analysis of the conditions of the electrical network of the Cactus Gas Processing Center and Cadereyta Oil Refinery was performed. Important modifications to the network configuration were recommended as a result of those studies, which will be implemented in the near future. Likewise, a chemical-isotopic analysis was performed on formation water from the Northeastern Marine Production Region in order to define the hydraulic migration of groundwater and the level of communication between structural blocks, providing a final document for the Cantarell Complex. Finally, a study was carried out in order to determine the technical - economic feasibility for the supply of electricity and steam to the Salamanca Refinery, by means of an external cogeneration project, maintaining at least the same level of operational reliability. Emissions of SO 2 will also be reduced due to the use of natural gas as a primary fuel and due to greater efficiency. 9
13 Renewable Energy Sources In order to support Mexico s energy and industrial sectors while looking for higher efficiency and sustainability regarding primary energy sources, IIE is developing research focused on important aspects relating to renewable energy sources that include: (a) estimation of the resource potential through assessment studies; (b) identification of optimal utilization schemes of the resource by means of technical-economic studies and (c) optimal resource exploitation strategies. In this research field, the IIE has achieved significant contributions using geothermal energy to develop large technological projects. One such project was requested by the Federal Electricity Commission (CFE) in order to investigate the level of communication between injection and production wells in the southern zone of the Los Azufres geothermal field. This study was based on the injection of steam and liquid tracers into the reservoir followed by the monitoring of production wells in order to estimate the recovered mass fraction of the tracer in the wells. The results of this project are useful for defining optimal injection strategies in the field. Another important project was also requested by the CFE in order to follow the isotopic monitoring of production and injection wells of the Los Azufres geothermal field. Based on the changes occurring in the isotopic composition of fluids together with chemical and production data, the main reservoir processes caused by field exploitation can be identified. The results are useful for defining optimal exploitation policies for the resource. In order to restore or improve production, acid stimulation has been a common practice in oil systems. In order to investigate the effects of acid mixtures on geothermal reservoir rocks, experimental work was carried out on cores from the Los Azufres and Los Humeros geothermal reservoirs. Chemical, mineralogical and mechanical properties were measured before and after acid treatments. The response to acid solutions depends on the composition and alteration mineralogy of the rocks. There is an improvement in permeability when calcite is present in pores and fractures. 10 We are committed to technologic innovation and clean energy generation.
15 Studies were performed in relation to the technical-economic feasibility of generating electricity using bio-gas combustion, municipal waste incineration, and trash conversion using plasma technology in ten cities throughout Mexico. The aim of these studies was to determine the emission results of processes, as well as to handle requirements and residual availability for each methodology mentioned and the possibility of taking advantage of such mechanisms in order to sell Green Bonuses. Furthermore, a draft project was presented to the Public Works and Human Development Ministry of Tamaulipas State Government, for the construction of an electricity-generating plant based on the conversion of urban solid residue collected from the municipalities of Matamoros and Valle Hermoso. The Mexican National Laboratory for Renewable Energy Resources project continued with the aim of developing the infrastructure and a technology platform which will allow for the creation of a reliable renewable energy resource data base in order to create the needed cartography to be used for project planning and development for the good use and exploitation of such resources. Likewise, the Wind Technology Regional Center (CERTE) project continued and has already installed wind generators. This center will offer, among other things, electricity wind generation courses for businessmen and civil servants. We encourage the useful employment of renewable and non-conventional energy resources in the country. 12
16 Safety and Reliability The IIE increases the quality and reliability of processes and products in electricity and industrial sectors by offering strategic solutions for systems creation, thus enabling modern, secure, reliable operations. With regards projects developed for CFE, a thermo hydraulic analysis involving reactor-level instrumentation condensing chambers for the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plant (CNLV) units 1 and 2 was performed. This analysis was conducted in real operational conditions in order to assess the effect on the container at room temperature, at reactor-level. A project for calculating the jet force generated by a reactor recirculation line rupture was also conducted at Laguna Verde. This calculation supports licensing activities related to forces and loads in equipment already installed in the reactor containment, for the Laguna Verde Extended Power Uprate (EPU) program. The Digital Civil Protection System (SDPC) was implemented on a Web platform for the Industrial Safety Department of CFE. This system helps CFE to respond to information requests from the Government Ministry and to fulfill commitments established by internal regulatory bodies. This new version of SDPC reduces expenditure in relation to licenses and reduces the generation time for reports, schedules and informative notes. Furthermore, the system allows for the exchange of information and experiences between working centers. 13
17 In order to allow for the implementation of Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) programs, an analysis of Chicoasén and Malpaso hydroelectric power plants was carried out. The main objective of both studies was to devise RCM strategies with the purpose of identifying policies to manage failure mechanisms of critical components. As a result, a set of maintenance strategies has been established taking into account safety, environmental, equipment and operational consequences. Likewise, modernization was carried out on the protection, control and auxiliary systems of the High Power Laboratory, the Short Circuit Generator (GCC) of the CFE Equipment and the Materials Testing Laboratory (LAPEM), which permits a substantial increase in operational efficiency in a safe, reliable manner, in compliance with national and international norms in the field. A 350 MW power plant unit was developed for the same laboratory, which permits the reproduction of the inner phenomena of flows, temperatures, and mixture composition in the different components of the boiler, in order to analyze, predict and provide information regarding better and optimal boiler operating conditions. We propose reliable, secure, modern energy solutions. 14
18 A Phasor Measurement System location study was carried out in order to monitor oscillations in the National Electricity System, so that system operators can infer the critical oscillatory modes for different operational scenarios defined by CENACE. A generation coordination scheme was also proposed in order to integrate wind generation into the National Electricity System, allowing CENACE to analyze the impact of wind generation penetration in the southeast region of the country during real time operations. Furthermore, a stage I probability analysis was carried out in relation to risk in Electricity System operational planning. As a result, CFE has a methodology that allows for the identification of highest risk electricity grid operating conditions. A diagnostic technique to evaluate high voltage circuit breakers and load tap changers of power transformers based on external vibration analysis was developed. An instrument for signal acquisition, interpretation and display for field testing resulted from this research. The equipment is being applied by LAPEM on the main CFE transmission substations. Likewise, the tank s vulnerability to earthquake activity was determined by examining structural performance. A methodology was developed for this purpose. This methodology allows the characterization of natural events that affect the integrity of these types of structure. The development of the catalogue of substation major structure vulnerability functions has continued. The purpose of this catalogue is to reduce the risks of earthquakes and strong winds so that CFE can reduce the amount of losses resulting from structural failures and service interruptions which can occur in the event of such natural phenomena. Electrical equipment vibration analysis was also carried out using seismic energy dissipation devices, with the aim of reducing equipment and foundation damage, in the event of strong earthquakes. This will reduce economic losses resulting from repairs, equipment collapse and service interruption. In order to ensure that stator windings comply with standard requirements, a high voltage test is performed during commissioning. Large hydroelectric generators required a special resonant transformer that was not available in Mexico. The IIE developed and provided this special equipment to LAPEM. In order to improve the operational reliability of the electrical substation of CFE s thermoelectric plant Mazatlán II, an analysis of harmonic content was carried out providing, as a result, a guide to control harmonics in the transmission feeders. 15
20 User and design bases were developed for the mechanical testing of transmission line support structure prototypes for the Transmission and Transformation Projects Coordination of CFE. These bases ensure the use of the most appropriate technologies in the field. For the purposes of evaluating the feasibility of biodegradable oil usage in order to increase the security and useful life of 230/115 kv power transformers, oil replacement, commencement of service and performance monitoring of a transformer with such characteristics, was initiated by the Transmission Coordination. Petróleos Mexicanos (PEMEX) offshore platforms required continuously expanding special electrical networks as a result of new oil reserves. The introduction of new electrical generation units in a reduced area and the supply of non-linear loads require careful planning and implementation. Technical assistance has been provided to the Ku Maloob Zaap Oil Field in the Gulf of Mexico. In order to assure the operational reliability and security of the electrical systems of two PEMEX marine oil distribution and dispatch complexes, Rebombeo and Cayo Arcas, studies and verification of the electrical installations were carried out. As a result of the results obtained, the installations will be able to fulfill the requirements of the standard NOM-001-SEDE Furthermore, the client will be able to make decisions regarding the most adequate electric system operative schemes for each complex and maintain their reliability indexes at acceptable operative levels. An analysis of the power quality of the electrical system of the PEMEX Morelos Petrochemical Plant was performed during the startup of a 9,000 HP high power engine. The results allowed us to determine the levels of voltage sags, peak currents, harmonics and transient voltages that occurred during the operation of the soft-starter of the high power motor, providing recommendations to improve the electric system protective schemes and the operating of the soft-starter. These results allowed us to reestablish the proper operation of the Polyethylene Swing Plant. Furthermore, corrosion resistant coatings at high temperatures in corrosive environments and melted salts, were developed based on inter-metal compounds. It is worth mentioning that the design and construction of the IIE Campus Monterrey laboratories continues. This is an essential infrastructure which will allow the Institute to interact with a highly developed industrial area and with other research centers. Three major advantages are expected: the establishing of strategic alliances with the electricity sector, the contributing to the creation of specialized human resources and the creation of new innovative products. We work as a team to guarantee the modernization of the national electric sector. 17
21 Automation and Information Technologies The IIE promotes and supports innovation by means of digital technology through measurement, data acquisition, control, and communications. It provides consultancy and the specific studies required for the development and integration of process supervision systems, both in line and real time and develops equipment and systems as an alternative to solve electricity and energy company technological problems. As far as CFE projects are concerned, the gas turbine unit No. 5 control system for the Laguna - Chavez Gas Turbine Plant has been replaced with a state-of-the-art based design and application software that increases plant availability and facilitates generation package supervision and operation. An information management system was also developed for the CFE norm conformity verification unit, which allows us to provide reliable, quality service, maintaining and improving our corporate image, as well as allowing us to comply with matters relating to security, health and environmental norms. Likewise, the specification of the architecture, design and manufacturing tests and installation was carried out by a CFE Master Central Unit (UCM-CFE) for distribution control centers, which provides us with complete independence from manufacturers and suppliers. This contributes to the improvement in quality of the electricity service with regards the operation of the distribution network, as well as the handling and exploitation of information. 18 We improve the generation, transmission and distribution of electricity systems.
23 Likewise, a real-time New Data Acquisition System (NDAS) was developed and implemented in CNLV units 1 and 2 in order to permit the gradual replacement of Analogical DAQ modules, which need to be replaced as a result of obsolescence. This system is capable of acquiring data from both former Analogical DAQ modules and new DAQ modules, thus allowing a safe and gradual transition. The architecture for the integration of systems for a regional distribution operation center (CORD), supported by the Common Information Model (CIM), was designed for the distribution network. In this respect, CFE was assisted for the evaluation and specification of a commercial GIS system for all distribution areas. We develop digital technology and state-of-the-art information. 20
24 A tool for the structuring of DEI s (Intelligent Electronic Devices) in accordance with international standard IEC 61850, allowing CFE to easily verify that the configuration of DEI s supplied by manufacturers comply with said norm. Finally, in order to coordinate transmission, fiber optic technology has been developed to be used for 400 kv transmission line protection in accordance with international standard IEC 61850, for the purpose of acquiring the knowledge required to allow the evaluation of the suitability of a considerable batch of conventional Optical Instrument Transformers which are near the end of their useful life. 21
25 Capacity Building and Training The IIE offers specialized courses and computerized training systems in order to maintain technical personnel upto-date and at the forefront of scientific and technological developments. Furthermore, the IIE supplies tools which contribute to the training of electrical power plant operators using simulators based on real plant designs, as well as on training center working practices and methodologies. A systems simulator was designed for the Federal Electricity Commission (CFE), taking as a reference a combined cycle power plant unit, with the main feature being to track the operation on the user side. The National Operator Training Center in Ixtapantongo (CENAC) is now equipped with a computer base for the operation of a simulator in order to train operators on-site in relation to handling systems using modern computing equipment based on software compatible with other existing simulators. A Virtual Reality based system was implemented for the training of personnel and for the fine-tuning and maintenance of distribution substations, which offers benefits such as a reduction in the time required to train CFE workforce, allowing them to familiarize themselves with related equipment and tools, with knowledge of maintenance and fine tuning procedures and the necessary conditions needed to increase the safety of equipment, tools and personnel involved in such procedures, in order to reduce the number of undesirable events due to human error. 22 We provide designs and training systems for process improvement.
27 The second stage for the development of a system for the Electrical Design of Distribution Substations using CAD tools (SiDSED) was initiated. It aims to implement the processes required to estimate budgets, increase the system s library and improve the design process for this system. It also includes SiDSED implementation in the CFE Distribution Subdirectorate. Assessment was offered in relation to selected topics regarding research and technological development to the electricity transmission specialist committee, with selected subjects relating to Transmission Subdirectorate performance indexes. These subjects could be used at IIE to obtain Electrical Engineering Master Degrees for the engineers who developed them. The Engineering Approved for Construction (APC) document was developed for the Engineering and Strategic Works Development Subdirectorate (SIDOE) of PEMEX Exploration and Production in relation to the containment package for the Automated Processes Training Center (CAPA) project. Finally, a graphic environment simulation model was also developed, taking into account existing IIE infrastructure. This graphical environment facilitates and shortens the time and costs for preparing a simulation model, as well as its maintenance. We offer simulators based on generating real plant designs. 24
28 Business Intelligence The IIE helps in the process of making the best business decisions for developing the necessary tools and strategies for knowledge creation and management in businesses, through process improvement, security and planning mediation. Thus, the Institutional Innovation System was developed to provide CFE with an implementation mechanism in order to promote company innovation and competitive process, resulting in significant improvement with regards prioritizing actions and investments for the most acute problems, and generating an initiatives portfolio more akin with the needs of the entity. 25