Management of sport. Coursebook for the study branch: Projekt Nové kompetence žáků v odborném vzdělávání Č. projektu: CZ.1.07/1.1.36/02.

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1 Projekt Nové kompetence žáků v odborném vzdělávání Č. projektu: CZ.1.07/1.1.36/ Coursebook for the study branch: Management of sport Made by: Mgr. Barbora Lysá Mgr. Eva Šimečková

2 Management of sport 1

3 CONTENT SPORT MANAGEMENT... 4 INTRODUCTIONS... 5 INTRODUCING MYSELF... 5 INTRODUCING SPORTS MANAGEMENT... 7 WORDLIST BASIC SPORTS BUSINESS TERMS SPORTS MANAGEMENT WORDLIST SPORTS MARKETING WORDLIST NEW MEDIA and SPORTS MY CAREER SPORT MANAGER WORDLIST COACH WORDLIST SPORT Why do people do sport? HISTORY OF SPORT SPORT CATEGORIES INDIVIDUAL AND TEAM SPORT WORDLIST PASSIVE SPORT ACTIVE SPORT - RECREATIONAL, COMPETITIVE AND PROFESSIONAL (ELITE) SPORT. 38 WORDLIST AMATEUR AND PROFESSIONAL SPORT SPORT BRANCHES ATHLETICS GYMNASTICS WORDLIST FOOTBALL SOCCER WORDLIST ICE-HOCKEY VOLLEYBALL TENNIS BASKETBALL WORDLIST SPORTS

4 THE HUMAN BODY WORDLIST SPORT INJURIES WORDLIST WORDLIST PRINCIPLES OF SPORT TRAINING WORDLIST HEALTHY DIET WORDLIST WORDLIST SPORT IN THE REGION SUCCESFUL CZECH ATHLETES OLYMPIC GAMES OLYMPIC SYMBOLS WORDLIST REFERENCES Special thanks to Ing. Dravec for technical help and completing the formal side of the textbook. 3

5 SPORT MANAGEMENT Sport management is a branch of education about business aspect of sport. Some examples of sport managers include the front office system in professional sports, college sport managers, recreational sport managers, sports marketing, event management, facility management, sports economics, sport finance, and sports information. Many colleges and universities offer bachelors and masters degrees in sport management Graduates of Sports Management at the Secondary School of Business and Services in Jihlava will gain skills and qualification for organizing activities at economic departments of enterprises of different forms, especially in sport. They will be able to work at the management and marketing departments of sports organizations, clubs and sports associations. Students might be employed at business companies and take part in management of leisure time activities. They will be prepared to carry out economic, commercial and administrative activities as sports managers' assistants, marketing assistants and later even as economists and managers of sports facilities. 4

6 INTRODUCTIONS INTRODUCING MYSELF GREETING INTRODUCTION RESPONSE Hello Let me introduce myself. Pleased to meet you. Good morning / afternoon My name is... I'm... How do you do? I'm... Nice to meet you. Let me introduce... My name is... INTRODUCING SOMEONE ELSE Could you introduce me to...? Have you met...? Of course, let me introduce you to... I'm sorry. This is... Let me introduce you two. This is... Meet Mr / Mrs... Nice to meet you. Come and meet... Very nice to meet you. Make a dialogue with your friend using the phrases above. 5

7 Here are some questions that you could ask a new friend, colleague or client if you want to be friendly and start the conversation: Opening questions: Is this your first trip to Prague? How was your trip? When did you arrive? Where do you come from? How do you find the weather here? Are you staying long? Can I get you anything for drink? How do you find Brno? / What do you think of Brno? Which hotel are you staying in? Who are you? Introduce yourself to other people: Hello, my name is... I am a... I study at the Secondary School of Business and Services in Jihlava. I study Sports Management. I train... I would like to be a... 6

8 INTRODUCING SPORTS MANAGEMENT INTRODUCE YOUR STUDY BRANCH What do you study? Where do you study? What is your study branch? What subjects do you study? What are your favourite subjects? DIALOGUE Peter and Dan are friends, they haven't seen each other for a long time. Dan has just passed his final Maturita exam at Secondary School of Business and Services and Peter is interested in his studies. Peter: Hello Dan, I've heard you have passed your secondary school-leaving examinations, how did it go? Dan: Hi Peter, yes, I have. It was quite hard, but I managed to pass all right, some subjects were more difficult but it all went well in the end. Peter: Great, congratulations. So where did you study? And what study branch? Dan: Thank you. I studied at the Secondary School of Business and Services in Jihlava and my study branch was Sports Management. Peter: And why did you decide to study there? Dan: Well, this study programme offers many possibilities to get a good employment in economic departments of various companies, for example management and marketing of sports organizations, clubs or sports associations. I can also get a job at various sports centres, leisure-time facilities or I can become a coach assistant or work as an assistant of a sport manager. But one of the main reasons was that because I like sports and especially football. My school cooperates with local football club and we had our trainings and school schedule organised. Peter: That sounds really interesting. Was it difficult? Dan: Some of the subjects were more difficult, for example Maths, Economics or Accountancy. 7

9 Peter: And what were your favourite subjects? Dan: Law, Management and Marketing were very interesting for me, and I enjoyed Information Technologies, and also Sports Management in English was good. Peter: And what about going to university? Do you plan any further studies? Dan: Yes, I do. I would like to study at the Faculty of Sports Studies in Brno, Prague or in Olomouc. Peter: And what about your sport career? Dan: Well, I had quite good results at school and I did well in our few last football matches, so I hope I might be drafted by the local club. I will see :) Peter: Good, so good luck at your entrance tests and at football. Dan: Thanks a lot! Answer the following questions: 1. What kind of exam did Dan pass? 2. Where did Dan study? 3. Why did he decide to study there? 4. What were his favourite subjects? 5. What are his future plans? 8

10 Decide if the following statements are true or false: 1. The secondary school-leaving exam was easy. 2. Dan decided to study at Secondary School of Business and Services in Jihlava because he likes football. 3. Dan s favourite subject was Maths. 4. Dan didn t like Sports Management. 5. He wouldn t like to study at a university. Match the Czech and English version: I am a student. I train hard to be a professional sportsman. I will be a professional sportsman. I study to be a sports manager. I am going to be a professional football player. I would like to be a professional icehockey player. Hodlám být profesionálním fotbalistou. Studuji, abych byl/a sportovní manažer/ka. Rád bych byl profesionální hokejista. Tvrdě trénuji, abych byl profesionální sportovec. Jsem student/ka. Budu profesionální sportovec. What would you say in the following situations? You: 1. Your boss says to you: This is Mr. Williams, he is visiting us from England. You: 2. Your friend says to you: Do you know Peter? He is our new team-mate. You: 3. Your new business client asks you: Can you introduce me to your boss? 9

11 You: 4. You've been introduced to someone by name, but later on, you can't remember the person's name. You: 5. Your friend introduces you to his colleague: Come and meet John. You: 6. An HR specialist asks you at the entrance interview: Can you specify your studies? Put the following dialogues into the correct order: Dialogue 1 Really? What did you expect? No, I've been to the States before, but this is the first time in Chicago. So what do you think of Chicago? Fine, I'll see what I can arrange. Well, it's not what I expected. Oh, that won't be a problem. I'll take you to my party on Friday and introduce you to my friends. Well, I suppose I thought that I would meet more people here. That would be nice of you. Is this your first trip over here? (1) KEY Is this your first trip over here? No, I've been to the States before, but this is the first time in Chicago. So what do you think of Chicago? Well, it's not what I expected. 10

12 Really? What did you expect? Well, I suppose I thought that I would meet more people here. Oh, that won't be a problem. I'll take you to my party on Friday and introduce you to my friends. That would be nice of you. Fine, I'll see what I can arrange. Dialogue 2 I'm sure. I hope to get back again. That's a pity. There's a lot to see. Good. Are you here on business then? Are you staying long? (1) Really? That's interesting. No, just a couple of days. Yes, we are thinking of signing some contracts here. KEY Are you staying long? No, just a couple of days. That's a pity. There's a lot to see. I'm sure. I hope to get back again. 11

13 Good. Are you here on business then? Yes, we are thinking of signing some contracts here. Really? That's interesting. WORDLIST Accountancy Arrange Colleague Demanding Expect Graduate Introduce sign a contract Suppose team-mate účetnictví zařídit / domluvit / sjednat kolega náročný očekávat absolvent, absolvovat představit (se) podepsat smlouvu předpokládat spoluhráč 12

14 BASIC SPORTS BUSINESS TERMS SPORTS MANAGEMENT Sport management is a branch of study about the business aspects of sport. The work of a sport manager includes activities at the front office in professional sports. It means dealing with clients, marketing, sales, services, organizing events and others. Sport managers may work in the field of college sports, recreational and leisure time sports, sports marketing, event management, sponsorship, facility management, sports economics, finance and sports information. Sport Broadcast Sport Broadcasting and sport television in particular is one of the primary (if not the primary) driver of the business of sport. It includes sport television, sport radio and web casting. While some leagues are still gate-driven (dependent primarily on ticket sales to make a profit), leagues such as the NFL receive more money from television rights than any other revenue stream. 13

15 Sport Law Contract management both with highly-paid players and with sponsorship and other commercial agreements, including broadcast contracts has become a defining characteristic of the business of sport. For that reason, in addition to increasing importance placed on finance, marketing and salary cap professionals in recent years, lawyers and legal specialists have emerged as critical players in most professional sport organizations. Sport Licensing Sport licensing covers everything from the licensing of merchandising rights (i.e. Reebok having the rights to market and sell replica jerseys in the NHL) to the licensing of video games (EA Sports licensing the FIFA name and logo for FIFA 11, as an example). It entails the formal process of issuing a license, typically governing sales or marketing or branding rights. In the business of sport, licensing almost universally involves written permission or consent in the form of a license. The vast majority of Sport Licensing in North America is in the area of sport merchandising or apparel by manufacturers or professional leagues or collegiate institutions. Sport Media Sport Media typically includes newspapers, television, radio, magazine and their online applications. The branch of the business of sport has expanded significantly since 1995 and the rise of Internet, and with it, sport web sites and blogs. Sport Sponsorship In most sport organizations, Sport Sponsorship accounts for a significant percentage of revenues, often second only to ticketing in gate-driven businesses and third behind ticketing and broadcast in the most sophisticated of leagues which carry strong broadcast partnerships. Sport Television Sport television is the primary distribution channel for the sports entertainment sector and is by far the primary driver of revenues for leagues such as the National Football League in the U.S. It is the way most fans "consume" professional sport, in some cases by a factor of 20:1 compared to inarena attendance. 14

16 QUESTIONS 1. What are the duties of a sport manager? 2. What does the term a sport broadcast refer to? 3. Based on the text, explain the difference between a sport law and a sport licensing. 4. Name at least three types of a sport media. 5. Explain (in your own words) the basis of a sport sponsorship. 6. Is watching sport events on TV popular? ACTIVITIES Making a presentation The classroom will be divided into six groups. Each group will have a different topic and will have to prepare a presentation on the given topic. The topics for the presentations are: 1. A Sport Manager choose a famous sport manager and describe his/ her job and add your own opinion (if you would like to work as a sport manager and why) 2. The Advantages of Working as a Sport Manager 3. The Disadvantages of Working as a Sport Manager 4. Sport Media you should include some information about sport newspapers, radio, magazines and online applications 5. A Sport Sponsorship explain the basis, add some famous examples, add your own experience and opinions 6. A Sport Television name some examples of Czech as well as foreign sport television, add some interesting information, statistics 15

17 WORDLIST Include deal with Field Receive Rights revenue stream Emerge Cover Entail Involve Permission Consent License Expand Significantly account for Sophisticated zahrnovat jednat s pole působnosti obdržet práva zdroj příjmů objevit se pokrýt, pokrývat mít za následek zahrnovat povolení souhlas dát povolení rozrůst, rozšířit se výrazně, významně mít podíl, tvořit důmyslný, propracovaný 16

18 SPORTS MARKETING Sport Marketing is the engine that drives the business of sport. Sport marketing is a subdivision of marketing which focuses on the promotion of sports events and teams as well as the promotion of other products and services through sporting events and sports teams. The goal is to provide the client with strategies to promote the sport or to promote something other than sport through sports. Sport marketing is also designed to meet the needs and wants of the consumer. The Sports Marketing Mix The marketing mix is the strategic combination (mix) of four elements called the four (4) P s. These are: Product Price Place Promotion Reaching the optimal combination depends on manipulating each of these variables until they are 17

19 right for a product. The four C s, that change all of the time are: Consumer Competitor Company Climate As a result of the continuous change of the 4 C s continuous monitoring and research is needed. Product The product is what the sport marketing business is trying to sell. The challenge is to create the right product offering for the right target market. The product can be manipulated. For example, beach volleyball can be played in 2,3, or 4 player format. Price Price is the exchange of value for a product Price can be manipulated by promotion e.g. 2 for 1 Price can be altered by quantity/quality Place This is the process of getting the sport product to the consumer. Place is also called distribution. The right place means where the sports consumer shops, travels or is. The distribution of a sports product can be changed. One can purchase season tickets to various sporting events through many different ticket outlets. 18

20 Promotion Promotion includes advertising and other promotional methods The goal of promotion, regardless of type used is always the same to create enough interest in a product so that the consumer will purchase it. Television commercials, print ads, direct-mail, giveaways are forms of promotion What is the marketing mix? Product, Price, Promotion, Place Complete the correct expressions: (satisfy), (Price), (image), (design), (rival), (commercials), (radio spots), (Product), (posters),(newspaper advertisements), (threats), (labels), (Promotion), (materials), (Place), (distribution), (public relations), (end-users), (strengths), (competes), (weaknesses), (opportunities). The marketing mix consists of the four Ps : providing the customer with the right P 1 at the right P 2, presented in the most attractive way called P 3 and available in the easiest way P 4. What is a product? A product is not just an assembled set of components: it is something customers buy to s 5 a need they feel they have. The i 6 and the d 7 of the product are important. What is price? The product must be priced so that it c 8 effectively with r 9 products in the same market. What is promotion? The product is presented to customers through advertising (e.g. TV c 10, r 11, n 12, p 13, packaging (e.g. design, l 14, m 15, publicity, P.R. ( 16 and personal selling. 19

21 What is place? Your product must be available to customers through the most cost-effective channels of d 17. A consumer product must be offered to e 18 in suitable retail outlets, or available on hire purchase or by mail order. What is meant by SWOT? A firm must be aware of its S 19 and W 20 and the O 21 and T 22 it faces in the market place. KEY 1 (Product), 2 (Place), 3 (Promotion), 4 (Price), 5 (satisfy), 6 (image), 7 (design), 8 (competes), 9 (rival), 10 (commercials), 11 (radio spots), 12 (newspaper advertisements), 13 (posters), 14 (labels), 15 (materials), 16 (public relations), 17 (distribution), 18 (end-users), 19 (strengths), 20 (weaknesses), 21 (opportunities), 22 (threats) Sport marketing is divided into three sectors: 1. The first is the advertising of sport and sports associations such as the Olympics, Spanish Football league, NHL, etc. 2. The second concerns the use of sporting events, sporting teams and individual athletes to promote various products. 3. The third is the promotion of sport to the public in order to increase participation. 4. In the first case, the promotion is directly related to sports. In the second case, the products can but do not have to be directly related to sports. When the promotion is about sports in general, the use of this kind of strategy is called Marketing of Sports. When the promotion is not about the sports but about sports events, athletes, teams or leagues promote different products, the marketing strategy is called Marketing through sports. To promote the products or services, the companies and associations use different channels such as sponsorships of teams or athletes, television or radio advertisement during the different 20

22 broadcast sports events and celebrations, and/or advertisement on sporting venues. One element that sport marketing takes advantage of is that athletes tend to be brand loyal and fans tend to be loyal to their favourite athletes and teams. The players and athletes sign contracts with sports companies in which they get paid to wear or use their products in each game or sporting event. By doing so, the players and athletes and also their fans develop a loyalty to the products for a longer time. Q: What does Marketing of Sports mean? What does Marketing through sports mean? 21

23 WORDLIST engine hnací síla to be altered by změněný (čím) subdivision (pod)sekce purchase zakoupit, nakoupit focus on zaměřit se na regardless bez ohledu na promotion Reklama direct-mail reklamní leták goal Cíl giveaway reklamní dárek provide Poskytnout end-user koncový uživatel reach Dosáhnout be divided into být rozdělený do depend on záviset na concern zabývat se ethical mravní, morální increase participation zvýšit účast legal právní, zákonný take advantage of využít, využívat constraint Omezení tend to klonit se k něčemu consumer Spotřebitel brand loyal competitor target Konkurent Cílový to meet the needs and wants of the consumer to be directly related to být oddaný jedné značce uspokojit potřeby a přání spotřebitele primo se vztahovat k něčemu 22

24 NEW MEDIA and SPORTS The days when sport could only be watched at a few television channels have long gone. Sport and media are connected. Many television channels broadcast important sport events so we can watch them. Internet is also a very important medium. It allows fans to access the latest news about their favourite team, sport or event. The technology is growing rapidly. Thanks to the development of technologies there are more sports texts and new styles of sports writing. The new media explosion also breaks the border between gaming and reality. There are many ways how to broadcast sports events, for example: high definition and 3D television, IPTV, mobile phones, YouTube, web streaming, digital radio, iplayer, games consoles, and social networking sites. Fans use Social Media channels not only to consume information but also to create and interact. Facebook, Twitter, Linkedln, Digg, Blogspot, Wordpress, and Flickr are examples of popular social networking channels that fans are used to interact with their teams, individuals or companies related to their teams There are about 200 million active users in Twitter. There are official accounts of celebrities which helps users interact with them easier and safely. World-wide famous football player Kaká has an Official Twitter page which is followed by 2,598,450 people. (January 15, 2013 statistics). It is an amazing number for sponsors which are trying hard to reach millions of the specific segment. Lance Armstron, famous cyclist, has numerous of social networking account which helped him get a new sponsor for Tour de France. 23

25 MY CAREER SPORT MANAGER BEFORE READING A/ Try to remember some of the activities a sport manager can do. Name at least three and discuss them in class. B/ Try to remember some of the advantages of this job. Name at least three and discuss them in class. C/ Try to remember some of the disadvantages of this job. Name at least three and discuss them in class. Sports managers coordinate all business activities for the team that employs them. During the playing season they work seven days a week. When they work for college or professional teams they stay in their office while the team travels to away games. A few who have been in the business for many years travel with the team from city to city, but they are the exception. During the off-season, the manager is busy negotiating trades and signing contracts with agents, players, guest players and organizing the players' transfers. The sports manager or general 24

26 manager, as they are sometimes called, signs all players to the professional team. According to one successful manager, It is more important to know which deals not to make than which deals you should make. This is often the most delicate aspect of the job, as a manager must make deals that satisfy the owners, without alienating any of the players. Managers who work for a professional sports team draft the young players every year. They work closely with the coach and scouts to determine which players are the most talented, economically feasible, and play positions the team needs. Managers must do this while keeping an eye on the team s budget. They are in charge of everyone s salary, from the coach and players down to the assistants. They also make financial arrangements for travel, equipment, and uniform purchases and must factor into their budgets players' injury and the possible team success that leads to additional playing and travel costs. Sports managers have to participate in press conferences and explain the reasons for their decisions to the media, without giving away their intentions for the future. They may be the subject of both complimentary and critical press reports which they must be able to ignore. When they sign a great player, they are considered heroes. When a respected player leaves the team or slides into a losing streak, managers are often seen as contributing to the team s downfall. Managers should expect to be dismissed or forced to relocate a number of times during their careers. For all of these reasons, this is a highly stressful job. Sports managers should, of course, love the game they are managing and should have experience playing or coaching it. Most managers have spent time as an assistant to a manager or coach while in high school and college. Most managers begin managing local school teams, work their way up to the college level and eventually work with professional athletes. Some may have a degree in physical education, with a business minor, which allows them to handle the business aspects of their work. For managers of professional teams, a business degree is recommended. The manager should be familiar with contract laws, economics, and accounting. There are no licensing requirements for managers. They may belong to an organization or association of managers in their particular sport. ARE THESE STATEMENTS TRUE OR FALSE? All sport managers always work seven days a week. A sport manager always travels with the team he is working for. A sport manager is not busy during the off-season. To work as a sport manager might be stressful. A sport manager working for a professional team should have a university degree. 25

27 WORDLIST coordinate koordinovat deal dohoda, obchod playing season hrací sezóna sign podepsat smouvu exception výjimka responsibility zodpovědnost away game zápas venku budget rozpočet off-season mimo sezónu expect očekávat busy zaneprázdněný explain vysvětlit negotiate vyjednávat arrange zařídit, dojednat alienate znepřátelit complimentary pochvalný purchase nákup losing streak série proher COACH BEFORE READING A/ What should a good coach be like? Name at least three attributes. B/ What are the duties of a coach? Name at least three. C/ How do you understand the term a coaching style? 26

28 A coach organizes practice schedules and develops playing strategies for the team. Coaches usually have three objectives when coaching their athletes: 1. To have a winning team 2. To help young people have fun 3. To help young people develop physically, psychologically and socially Successful coaches know the difference between their objectives for the contest, their objectives for their athletes participation, and their personal objectives. We can distinguish various coaching styles - such as authoritative style, submissive style, democratic style, cooperative style, liberal style, etc. Authoritative Style - all the decisions without any input from his/her athletes. This style may help the athletes learn to follow orders, but will not necessarily help the young athletes develop thinking skills and personal qualities. Also, because one person is making the decisions, athletes may rebel against the coach and not follow the coach s demands. Also, the athletes are told what to do but not necessarily why they are doing it. Democratic Style - a coach outlines the training requirements to the athletes, defines the training conditions, invites ideas or suggestions from the athletes, makes the decision based on the athletes' suggestions, lets the athletes brainstorm to explore possible solutions Command Style commanding coaches make all the decisions. They give instructions to the athletes, who in turn listen and carry out the instructions. This style of coaching is often likened to a dictator and is a style that is being used less and less. The command style is useful however when establishing rules and safety parameters. Submissive Style a coach using the submissive style provides little direction and instruction. This form of coaching is also known as the babysitting style. Coaches who base their philosophy on the submissive style are sometimes perceived as lazy and uninterested. A time when the submissive style can be used is when your players or athletes are taking part in a small game for fun or as part of a warm down. Cooperative Style this is the most modern and most effective style of coaching. The athletes are given the freedom to share decisions with the coach. The style resembles a teacher-pupil relationship where feedback given from the athlete can steer the direction of the lesson. It allows athlete s to set their own goals and gives them a greater sense of involvement. The challenge of this form of coaching is finding a balance with when you should direct the athlete and they should direct themselves. 27

29 UK athletics identify the following coaching styles: Telling - primarily the coach uses instruction and explaining Showing - primarily the coach uses demonstration Involving - primarily the coach allows self discovery and questioning to raise the athlete's awareness Successful coaches must have good knowledge of the sport sciences, sport management, and techniques and tactics. Successful coaches rank their objectives in the right priority. To be successful, coaches adopt a coaching style compatible with those objectives. There are three other attributes of successful coaches: knowledge of the sport, motivation, and empathy. Q: What coaching styles do we distinguish? What are the coach's objectives? WORDLIST practice schedule playing strategy exceptional player contest technique tactic rozvrh tréninků herní strategie vyjímečný hráč soutěž, závod technika taktika 28

30 ACTIVITIES Make a presentation on your favourite coach. You might speak either about a famous coach, or your favourite coach (someone you know personally). The presentation should include: 1. a brief summary of his/ her biography 2. a brief summary of his/ her career and success 3. a description of his/ her coaching style Write a correct name to each picture

31 B/ Fill in the sentences with a correct expression a sport manager or a coach... is also busy during the off-season...organizes practice schedules...develops a playing strategy for the team...must keep an eye on the team's budget...must have good knowledge of the sport...is sometimes forced to make a decision under pressure. C/ Based on the text, try to guess the correct name. The person is a former Czech professional tennis player currently working as a coach of the Czech Fed Cup Team. The person used to be a very famous Czech professional ice hockey player. After quitting his sports career, he started to work as a coach of the Czech national ice hockey team. He had a car accident in 2004 and died. This sportsman is connected with Jihlava. He was born in Havlíčkův Brod and became a successful ice hockey player. Later on, he also worked as a coach's assistant of the Czech national ice hockey team. KEY A/ Vladimír Šmicer, Petr Novák, Jaroslav Navrátil, Slavomír Lener, Lubor Blažek, Jozef Chovanec B/ a sport manager, a coach, a coach, a sport manager, a coach, a sport manager C/ Petr Pála, Ivan Hlinka, Josef Augusta 30

32 SPORT SPORT is an outdoor or indoor game, competition, or activity where people need physical effort and skill and usually carried on according to rules. In organised sport, records of performance are often kept, and for popular sports, this information may be widely announced or reported in sport news. Sport is a major source of entertainment for participants as well as for non-participants. Why do people do sport? People do sport because they want to keep-fit, improve their physical and mental fitness and health. They want to be flexible, have strong muscles, shape their body, experience new feelings, meet their friends. People who do sports want to spend their free time actively, sport is their hobby. Sport gives people enjoyment, happiness, friendship, satisfaction, health, fitness, popularity, the feeling of victory and success. 31

33 Are there any negative sides of sport? Sometimes sport may be boring, cause sadness, sorrow, disappointment, fatigue or exhaustion. In case that the safety rules are not followed, sport may cause injuries, illness, and in some cases even death. QUESTIONS TO DISCUSS Why do you do sport? What does sport mean to you? When you do sport in your free time for fun, for example with your friends, is it always necessary to follow the rules? Why? Why are there negative sides in sport? How can you prevent them? From what age should children start doing sports? 32

34 HISTORY OF SPORT The history of sports probably extends as far back as the existence of people. The early history of sports often involved the preparation and training for war or hunting. There were sports games that involved the throwing of spears, stakes, and rocks, and of course lots of play-fighting. The first records or documents in the history of sports take us back at least years. Chinese were engaged in sporting activities as early as 2000 BC. Gymnastics was a popular sport in China's ancient past. Monuments to the Pharaohs indicate that a number of sports, including swimming and fishing, were welldeveloped and regulated several thousands of years ago in ancient Egypt. Other Egyptian sports included javelin throwing, high jump, and wrestling. Ancient Persian sports had a close connection to the warfare skills. Among other sports that originate in ancient Persia are polo and jousting. Ancient Greece introduced formal sports, with the first Olympic Games in 776 BC, that included sports such as human and chariot races, wrestling, jumping, disk and javelin throwing, and more. Sports have been increasingly organised and regulated from the time of the ancient Olympics up to the present century. Industrialisation has brought more leisure time to the citizens of developed and developing countries, so people could attend and follow spectator sports and also could participate in athletic activities. These trends continued with the advent of mass media and global communication. Professionalism became prevalent, further adding to the increase in sport's popularity as sports fans began following the exploits of professional athletes through radio, television, and the internet. 33

35 SPORT CATEGORIES INDIVIDUAL AND TEAM SPORT An individual sport refers to a sport in which participants compete as individuals. The sports in this category usually have individuals, rather than teams, as participants, although it is possible to create a team competition in any sport by combining the results of several individual competitors or by having team members who take turns to play. A team sport includes any sport which involves players working together towards a shared target. A team sport is an activity in which a group of individuals, on the same team, work together to accomplish an ultimate goal which is to win. This can be done in a number of ways such as outscoring the opposing team. Team members set goals, make decisions, communicate, manage conflict, and solve problems in a supportive, trusting atmosphere in order to accomplish their objectives. This can be seen in sports such as football, American football, rugby, hockey, ice-hockey, basketball, volleyball, tennis, water polo, handball, cricket and many others. 34

36 Team sports usually involve strategic planning, good preparation, and a mental and physical strength of each individual that is part of the team. Team sports rely on all of the players working together equally in order to succeed the task. Being part of a team sport requires a good deal of dedication, hard work, also a good leadership of the team is important to reach success. However, some types of team sports do not involve team-mates facilitating the movement of a ball or similar item in accordance with a set of rules, in order to score points. For example, Swimming, Rowing, Sailing, Racing, Track and Field among others are also team sports. In other types of team sports there may not be an opposing team or point scoring, for example, Mountaineering. Instead of points scored against an opposing team, the relative difficulty of the climb or walk is the measure of the achievement. QUESTIONS TO DISCUSS What are the advantages and disadvantages of individual sports in comparison with team sports? Why do you think that the team sports are more popular than individual sports? How do you feel when your team loses the match but you know you did your best to win? What qualities does an athlete have to have to be a good individual sportsman/sportswoman? What qualities does an athlete have to have to be a good team-mate? Is Formula 1 racing a team or an individual type of sport? Why? Can you think ofn any similar sport like that? 35

37 WORDLIST refer to vztahovat se k strength síla participants účastníci rely on spolehnout se na compete soutěžit equally stejně take turns střídat se dedication oddanost target cíl achievement úspěch, výsledek outscoring vyskórovat accomplish an ultimate goal preparation příprava require vyžadovat dosáhnout vrcholného výsledku PASSIVE SPORT Besides taking an active part in sport, it is also possible just to watch sport events as a spectator or TV watcher, or to bet money on certain sport results. Passive sport is also important because spectators and fans can encourage sportsmen and players and this way they help to improve their performance. Spectators can be one of the income sources for sport clubs too. 36

38 QUESTIONS TO DISCUSS How can the fans support the sports teams or individual athletes? How do you feel when the fans support you? What are the ways of cooperation of the sport clubs and their fans? What do you think of hooligans? What do you think of the penalties for clubs whose fans misbehave? 37

39 ACTIVE SPORT - RECREATIONAL, COMPETITIVE AND PROFESSIONAL (ELITE) SPORT Recreational sport can be also called sport for all and is done for various reasons, but mainly for fun and entertainment in leisure time. People are becoming health-conscious and do recreational sport activities and various keep-fit exercises to maintain or improve their physical and mental health. They want to be more flexible, strengthen and shape their body, etc. Some people desire to learn new skills or experience new feelings. There are also social reasons for participation in sport, for example meeting with friends. Competitive sport is done mainly for performance, for achieving good results in competitions, defeating opponents and becoming the winner or record holder. People who do competitive sport train hard and regularly and participate in various forms of competitions. They are organised and belong to different sport teams, clubs, associations or federations. The highest level of competitive sport is professional sport (elite sport, top performance sport). It lasts many years to become an excellent sportsman. Such a process means years of everyday hard training and effort, years of pain and stress as well. Financial and social background is a necessity. Elite athletes are often professionals who make living through sport. They follow principles of sport training to make progress, including various regeneration programmes. Professional sport is also linked with a serious problem doping, the use of illegal substances to improve performance. WORDLIST health-conscious být si vědom svého zdraví to be linked with být spojen s maintain udržovat background zázemí mainly hlavně illegal substances zakázané látky 38

40 QUESTIONS FOR YOU AND YOUR FRIENDS QUESTION YOU YOUR PARTNER Do you prefer individual or team sports? Why? Which individual sport do you like doing? Which team sport do you like doing? Which sports do you like doing just for fun? Have you ever done a competitive sport? Which one? Would you like to do sports professionally? Why? Why not? Are you an active or a passive sportsman? How often do you watch sports news? AMATEUR AND PROFESSIONAL SPORT Amateur sports are sports in which participants are engaged for enjoyment and satisfaction from the activity. They train and compete in their leisure time, usually after work or at weekends. They are not paid for practising sports. Professional sport is a paid form of participation in sport events. Professional athletes make living through sport, do sport as a job and are paid to compete in sport. They usually train full-time. They sign contracts with different organisations or companies, have to train regularly, participate in competitions, promote the employer or his/her products, take part in press conferences, advertising campaigns, etc. There is a difference between amateur sporting participants and professional sporting participants, who are financially rewarded for the time they spend playing or training. In the majority of sports, the professionals participate at a higher standard of play than amateur competitors. However, the majority of worldwide sporting participants are amateurs. The Olympic Games started with a principle of amateur competition with those who practiced a sport professionally considered to have an unfair advantage over those who practiced it only as a hobby. Following the 1988 games, the IOC decided to make all professional athletes eligible for the 39

41 Olympics, with only boxing and wrestling still competed on an "amateur" basis, although this revolves around rules, and not payment. Mass media have brought larger audiences, so that sports organizations or teams can command large incomes. Professional sport is perhaps the only activity that defies the commercial norm. The media expect to be paid for carrying publicity for non-media organizations; in professional sport they are expected to pay for the privilege of doing so. As a result, more sports-people can afford to make athleticism their primary career, they can devote the training time to increase skills, physical condition, and experience modern levels of achievement. This proficiency has also helped increase the popularity of sports. QUESTIONS TO DISCUSS What are the good reasons to do sport according to you? How much would you be willing to devote to sport? Is taking drugs or doping to increase the athlete's performance justifiable? What do you think of it? What do you think of high salaries of the professional football players, ice-hockey players, golfers and other professional sportsmen, do they deserve such financial rewards? 40

42 SPORT BRANCHES We can group sports according to the use of similar physical activity, technique, equipment, environment or sport facility. Track and Field Athletics Gymnastics: general gymnastics, artistic gymnastics (apparatus gymnastics), rhythmic gymnastics, acrobatics, trampoline Games: Ball games (football, handball, rugby, basketball, volleyball) Goal games (football, handball, basketball, hockey, ice hockey) Racquet games (tennis, table tennis, badminton, squash, baseball, softball, golf) Aquatics: swimming, diving, synchronised swimming, water polo Water sports: Canoeing and kayaking (whitewater events and flat water events), rafting Surfing, windsurfing, sailing and yachting Rowing and sculling Cycling sports: road cycling, track cycling, cyclo-cross, mountain biking, cyclo-trial, BMX, indoor cycling (artistic cycling, cycleball) 41

43 Ski sports: Alpine skiing, Nordic skiing (cross-country skiing, ski jumping, biathlon, Nordic combined), Freestyle skiing, Snowboarding Sports on the ice: figure skating, speed skating, short track, ice hockey, curling, bobsleigh, luge, skeleton Technical sports: Air sports: parachuting, paragliding, hang gliding, aerobatics Motor racing, motorcycle racing, rally, motor-cross, Scuba diving, water skiing, power-boating Shooting, archery Combat sports and Martial Arts: wrestling, boxing, judo, karate, taekwondo, kung fu, aikido, fencing, sumo Outdoor sports: skiing, snowboarding, cycling, canoeing, rafting, windsurfing, climbing, orienteering, hiking Equestrian: horse racing/ the turf, steeplechase, chariot races, show jumping, dressage, military Combined sports: Modern Pentathlon (shooting, fencing, swimming, show jumping, cross-country run), Triathlon (swimming, cycling, cross-country run), Biathlon (cross-country skiing, shooting), Nordic Combined (cross-country skiing, ski jumping), etc. 42

44 is interested in gymnastics is good at ball games is keen on swimming is interested in martial arts is interested in cycling is good at snowboarding is good at hiking is keen on volleyball is interested in tennis is good at squash is interested in handball is good at basketball FIND SOMEONE WHO prefers individual sports to team sports does sports three times a week likes ball games doesn't like combat sports enjoys water sports has tried windsurfing has never tried rock climbing would like to meet his/ her favourite sportsman has never had any injury thinks boxing might be a dangerous sport likes wrestling Is not keen on cross-country skiing TEST What is SPORT? Why do people do sport? What are the differences between the individual and team sports? To accomplish their objectives, what are the principles that the members of a team should keep? Why do people do recreational sports? What are the differences between the recreational, competitive and elite sport? What are the differences between the amateur and professional sports? Describe - Individual sport Team sport Passive sport Active sport Recreational sport Competitive sport Elite sport 43

45 Amateur sport Professional sport Sort and complete the information: Players working together towards a shared objective participate in What type of sport is it? People do it for fun and to keep fit, shape their body, they want to meet with friends. It takes many years and a lot of every-day hard work to become a Participants compete as individuals - they do an You belong to a sport club, train regularly, but you are not a professional player, what type of sport do you do? Match the expressions: PASSIVE SPORT ROWING OUTDOOR SPORT SQUASH GAME PENTATHLON SPORT ON ICE BASKETBALL WATER SPORT JUDO COMBINED SPORT FIGURE SKATING ROCKET GAME ORIENTEERING 44

46 ATHLETICS Athletics is called Queen of sports - it is an exclusive collection of sporting events that involve competitive running, jumping, throwing, and walking. The most common types of athletics competitions are track and field, road running, cross country running, and race walking. The simplicity of the competitions, and the lack of a need for expensive equipment, makes athletics one of the most commonly competed sports in the world. Athletics is mostly an individual sport, with the exception of relay races and competitions which combine athletes' performances for a team score, such as cross country. Organized athletics are traced back to the Ancient Olympic Games from 776 BC, and most modern events are conducted by the member clubs of the International Association of Athletics Federation (IAAF). The athletics meeting forms the backbone of the modern Summer Olympics and other leading international meetings include the IAAF World Championship and World Indoor Championships, and athletes with a physical disability compete at the Summer Paralympics and the IPC Athletics World Championships. Track and Field Athletics: Track events: sprints, middle-distance runs, long-distance runs, relays, hurdles, steeplechase Field events: throwing events (javelin throw, discus throw, hammer throw, shot put) jumping events (long jump, high jump, triple jump, pole vault) Road events: Marathon, walks Combined events: decathlon, heptathlon Q: What are the athletic disciplines called? What type of events are they? 45

47 46

48 GYMNASTICS Gymnastics is a sport involving the performance of exercises requiring physical strength, flexibility, power, agility, coordination, grace and balance. Competitive artistic gymnastics is the best known of the gymnastic sports. It typically involves the women's events of uneven bars, balance beam, floor exercise and vault. Men's events are floor exercise, pommel horse, still rings, vault, parallel bars and high bar. Gymnastics evolved from exercises used by the ancient Greeks that included skills for mounting and dismounting a horse, and from circus performance skills. Other gymnastic disciplines include: rhythmic gymnastics, trampolining, Team Gym, tumbling aerobic gymnastics and acrobatic gymnastics. WORDLIST grace ladnost Vault přeskok agility hbitost parallel bars bradla (muži) uneven bars bradla (ženy) pommel horse kůň na šíř (s madly) balance beam kladina still rings kruhy floor exercise prostná high bar hrazda 47

49 FOOTBALL SOCCER Football is the most popular sport in the world, it is not only most widely watched but also played all over the world. It is internationally acknowledged most popular game on earth. Football is a game with two teams of eleven players, played over the course of 90 minutes. This period is split into two 45-minute halves. The objective of the game is to score more goals than the opponent. Football refers to a sport that involves kicking a ball with the foot to score a goal. History Various forms of football can be identified in history, often as popular peasant games. There are a number of references to traditional, ancient, or prehistoric ball games, played by peoples in many different parts of the world. The Ancient Greeks and Romans played many ball games, some involved the use of the feet. These games were similar to rugby and football. The Chinese version describes a practice known as cuju - "kick ball", which was originally kicking a leather ball through a small hole in a piece of silk cloth which was fixed on bamboo canes and hung about 9m above ground. The Japanese version of cuju is kemari. In kemari several people stand in a circle and kick a ball to each other, trying not to let the ball drop to the ground. ancient ball game cuju kemari Contemporary football can be traced back to the games at English public schools in the eighteenth and nineteenth century. The influence and power of the British Empire allowed these rules of football to spread all around the world. 48

50 The first documented clubs called "The Foot-Ball Club" were located in Edinburgh, Scotland, during the period (The club forbade tripping but allowed pushing and holding and the picking up of the ball.) In 1888, The Football League was founded in England, became the first of many professional football competitions. FIFA Fédération Internationale de Football Association - International Federation of Association Football - is the international governing body of association football, futsal and beach soccer. Its membership comprises 209 national assocations. Its headquarters are in Zurich, Switzerland. FIFA is responsible for the organisation of football's major international tournaments, notably the World Cup. FIFA was founded in Paris on 21 May The first football World Cup took place in Uruguay in Fairplay in football FIFA advocates a Fair Play programme. These rules inform footballers and spectators on proper behaviour on and off the field: Play fair on the field. Play to win but accept defeat properly. Observe the Laws of the Game. Respect everyone involved in the game. Promote football s interests. Honour those who defend football s reputation. Reject any corruption, drugs, racism, violence and other harmful vices. Help others to do exactly the same. Denounce any who discredits the integrity of football. Use football to make a better world. 49

51 Field of play football / soccer pitch Football can be played on a natural or artificial surface. However, the shape of the field must be rectangular, with the dimensions of metres long by metres wide. The guidelines for international matches are stricter ( metres x metres). Equipment Basic equipment is the team jersey, shorts, shinguards with socks and studded boots. The goalkeeper is also permitted gloves and a different coloured jersey for identification purposes. Duration of the match The match officially lasts 90 minutes, split into two 45-minute halves with a half-time interval of no longer than 15 minutes. 50

52 Start of play A coin toss takes place just before the game starts, the winner gets the choice of choosing which end to attack or whether to kick-off. Fouls and misconduct A foul can take place anywhere on the pitch, and a free kick is awarded where that foul takes place (excepting fouls in the penalty area, which result in a penalty kick). The referee can choose simply to award the foul, speak to the player about his conduct or take matters further. The referee decides about the punishment. A faul can result in a free kick, faul in the penalty area result in a penalty kick. Punishment for offences Yellow Card - a caution to a player. If two yellow cards are shown to the same player, it means a red card. Red Card - showing a red card to a player means he/she is expelled from the match. A straight red card (no previous caution ) can be shown for extreme offences such as serious foul play, violent conduct, spitting, deliberate hand-ball to prevent a goal, a professional foul and insulting language and/or gestures. EXPRESSIONS: Kick-off Free kick Penalty kick Throw-in Goal kick Corner kick Positions in Football Goalkeeper Permitted to handle the ball in his/her team s penalty area. Who are the notable goalkeepers you know? Central defender/centre-half Starting out on the edge of his/her team s penalty area, the central defender s role is to protect the goalkeeper. 51

53 Fullback/Wingback Hold the same starting position, on the left and right of each central defenders, the difference between the fullback and the wingback is that the windback moves forward and supports attacks. Both positions need strong defensive skills. Central midfielder Situated in the most important area of the field, the central midfielder s task is to provide support to both defenders and attacks. This post requires unique defensive or offensive responsibilities. Attacking midfielder/ Hole player The attacking midfielder is situated in the space between the midfield and the strikers, directly influencing the attack high up in the field. Attacking midfielders are often called on to fill in as forwards due to their potency in front of goal. Notable attacking midfielders Pelé Edison Arantes do Nascimento (Brazil) Kaká Ricardo Izecson dos Santos Leite (Brazil) Winger Like their defensive equivalents, there are two wingers in a side, starting on both touchlines alongside the central midfielders. Their tasks is to pressurise the opposition fullbacks, attacking from wide positions. However, as the position has developed, wingers have increasingly been called on to score goals, as they have the chance to run from deep positions and cause problems for defenders. Notable winger Cristiano Ronaldo (Portugal) Striker/Centre forward The goal of the striker is exactly that - goals. Forward players start out just behind the opponent s penalty area, with the number varying from one to three. Striker is a forward player with both goalscoring and creative abilities. 52

54 WORDLIST breach [bríč] of the defensive line průnik defenzivní linie opposition soupeř counter-attack protiútok offence přestupek pass přihrát, nahrát - míč, puk ap. choice volba dribbling driblování, kličkování coin toss hod mincí dribble move forward driblovat, kličkovat pohyb dopředu / vyrážet / vybíhat dopředu Central defender/centre-half Fullback/Wingback střední obránce obránce/křídlo support podpora / podporovat Central midfielder střední záložník behaviour chování Striker/Centre forward útočník conduct chování 53

55 ICE-HOCKEY Ice hockey is one of the most popular sport games in the world. The best national teams in the history are in Russia, Canada, the Czech Republic, Sweden, Finland, Slovakia and USA and ice hockey is very popular in these countries. Ice hockey is played with two opposing teams wearing ice-skates. Each team has six players on the ice rink. The aim of the game is to knock the hockey puck into the opposing team's net. The net is guarded by the goalie (goalkeeper). History Games where some players hit a ball (or something similar) with a stick can be found in Ancient Egypt (4000 years ago) and in many other civilizations like Ancient Persia, Ancient Greece, Aztec empire, etc. Game similar to golf on an ice-covered surface, was popular in the Netherlands and Benelux countries in the Middle Ages. A similar game had been played for a thousand years or more by the Vikings, as documented in the Icelandic sagas. Modern hockey has evolved from outdoor stick-and-ball games adapted to the icy conditions of Canada during the 19th century. The games of British soldiers and immigrants to Canada (influenced by First Nations stick-and-ball games) influenced the game played on ice skates (often with a puck) with sticks made by the people of Nova Scotia (Canada). In North America, the National Hockey League (NHL) is the highest level for men, and the most popular. It is the official national winter sport of Canada, where the game is very popular. The first organized game was played on March 3, 1875, in Montreal, Canada. 54

56 Stanley Cup Champions 1905 Lord Stanley: At the Montreal Winter Carnival in 1889, at a match between the Montreal Victorias and the Amateur Athletic Association, Sir Frederick Arthur Stanley, Governor General of Canada, with his wife and two children stopped to watch the game. Stanley was taken with the game, and helped to form a team - the Rideau Rebels and a league, the Ontario Hockey Association (OHA) which formed in Two years after the formation of the OHA, Stanley created the concept of a regional competition and gave a cup for the victor, the Dominion Challenge Trophy. In 1893, it was decided that the cup would never become the property of any team and was renamed the Stanley Hockey Championship Cup. The Stanley Cup is still awarded to the champion of the National Hockey League today. Ice-hockey basic rules Each match is played in three 20 minute periods, with a 15 minute break between periods. Each team can have a maximum of 20 players, including two goal keepers. Although only six players from each team can be on the ice at any one time, substitutions can be made at any point (even during active play). 55

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