1 SERVICE PROVIDER NETWORK EVOLUTION Joel Obstfeld Internet Engineering Group
2 THE HIERARCHY OF NETWORK DESIGN Edge the boundary between the serviceprovider's premises and the customer's location. The concentration point where large numbers of customer connections will be terminated Aggregation A concentration point where data from multiple Edge locations will be funneled Core - the heart of the network. The major switching locations that form the center of the network, where data from multiple Aggregation sites will be funnelled This is typically where one sees the highest volume of data present in the network 2 Copyright 2010 Juniper Networks, Inc.
3 REFERENCE ARCHITECTURE WIRELINE SP Few core locations Larger number of aggregation points Much larger number of access points Core Aggregation Access DSLAM Backbone Network! Regional Network! Speeds and feeds: Access 28.8k to 1Gb 100 s to 1000s of subscribers per device Aggregation 155Mb to 10Gb 1000s to N*10000s of subscribers per device Core 155Mb to N*40Gb N* s of subscribers per device 3 Copyright 2010 Juniper Networks, Inc.
4 REFERENCE ARCHITECTURE CABLE SP Few core locations Larger number of aggregation points Much larger number of access points Encoder CDS-streamer & VQE-Server DRM/CAS Servers DCM STB CMTS Cable Modem VoD Servers VoD Backoffice Middleware Service CDS-streamer & VQE-Server Video Headends Regional/Divisional IP Network Cable Access Network Customer Premises 4 Copyright 2010 Juniper Networks, Inc.
5 REFERENCE ARCHITECTURE MOBILE SP Few core locations Larger number of aggregation points Much larger number of access points and in some instances, they move! Core Aggregation Access Microwave Link Ethernet Access Node WiMAX CPE Residential Services 3G Enabled Laptop 3G Enabled Mobile Device LTE Backbone Network! Regional Network! Sensor networks Acronym soup! WiMAX high-speed radio-based access technology 3G GSM/CDMA/UMTS cellular access technology LTE Long Term Evolution next-gen always-on access technology FemtoCell In your home 3G base-station using IP backhaul xdsl FemtoCells Home hot spot 5 Copyright 2010 Juniper Networks, Inc.
6 REAL WORLD EXAMPLE UK Service Provider Internet Core PoPs 8 PoPs including 2-4 Internet peering points Two Operations Centers Fully meshed multiple parallel 10Gbit/s links Transmission layer resilience Outer Core/Aggregration PoPs 12 PoPs At least triple-parented off Inner Core 10Gbit/s links Transmission layer resilience 6 Copyright 2010 Juniper Networks, Inc. Edge PoPs 86 PoPs Dual-parented off Core 10Gbit/s links
7 WHERE S THE EVOLUTION? 2003 Emerging markets may be 3-4 years behind or MAY leapfrog! Siloed Network Network Convergence ? Service Commonality Full Location & Device Independence 7 Copyright 2010 Juniper Networks, Inc.
8 WHERE S THE EVOLUTION? Mobile handset data traffic already outstripping voice traffic Mobile handset data growth continues to outstrip wireline growth Mobile customers not prepared to pay extra for Data! Pricing plan changes for high-data users, a la AT&T Mobile SPs paid $$$Bn for operating licences Mobile market saturating in many countries Not seeing ROI Need to expand target market -> traditional wireline space? LTE/Sensor networks starting to appear 8 Copyright 2010 Juniper Networks, Inc.
9 WHERE S THE EVOLUTION? Growth of catch-up TV and other over the top services like Gaming networks (Xbox live, Playstation, Wii etc) More content on over the top service Movies on Demand Games rental Business customers looking for value-add services Still very early days of bandwidth intensive collaboration tools like Hi-Definition Video Conferencing, etc. but seeing significant growth Massive costs of last-mile technology investments Are Wireline customers prepared to pay proportionally for increased BW? Proposed UK Broadband tax!!! Are radio-based technologies a more cost-effective solution? Core / Edge bandwidth dilemma New capacity filled in very short period of time Oversubscription vs excess capacity Content Caching back in favour? Intelligent distribution towards the network edge Service-level expectations Return on investment of CAPEX vs SLA penalties OPEX/CAPEX budget reductions 9 Copyright 2010 Juniper Networks, Inc.
10 DESIGN EVOLUTION Converging offerings from Wireline & Mobile service providers Need to define service differentiation to maintain and grow market share (content deals for example) Transmission systems investment choice Ethernet (10GE / 100GE) vs SONET (OC192/OC768) Integrated IPv4/IPv6/MPLS networks Collapsing Core & Aggregation, Core & SP-2-SP Edge (Transit) High-density Multi-service edge 1 box for Layer 3 and Layer 2 services Always-on Bandwidth demand No quiet-periods of the day! Set-top Box evolution LTE/Sensor networks Emerging markets may be 3-4 years behind or MAY leapfrog! 10 Copyright 2010 Juniper Networks, Inc.
11 THE CLOUDS ARE BUILDING IT resources and services that are abstracted from the underlying infrastructure and provided on-demand and at scale in a multi-tenant environment. Software as a Service: Applications services delivered over the network on a subscription basis Platform as a Service: Software development frameworks and components delivered over the network on a pay-as-you-go basis Infrastructure as a Service: Compute, network and storage delivered over the network on a pay-as-you-go basis 11 Copyright 2010 Juniper Networks, Inc.
12 AND TALKING OF BUILDINGS SMART GRID / BUILDING / HOME A smart grid delivers electricity from suppliers to consumers using digital technology to save energy, reduce cost and increase reliability...such a modernized electricity network is being promoted by many governments as a way of addressing energy independence, global warming and emergency resilience issues. A "home grid" extends some of these capabilities into the home using powerline networking and extensions to DC (power over Ethernet). Because the communication standards both smart power grids and home grids build on, support more bandwidth than is required for power control, a home grid generally has megabits of additional bandwidth for other services (burglary, fire, medical and environmental sensors and alarms, ULC and CCTV monitoring, access control and keying systems, intercoms and secure phone line services), and accordingly can't be separated from LAN and VoIP networking, nor from TV Consumer electronics devices now consume over half the power in a typical US home. Accordingly, the ability to shut down or hibernate devices when they are not receiving data could be a major factor in cutting energy use. 12 Copyright 2010 Juniper Networks, Inc.
13 TRANSMISSION EVOLUTION 13 Copyright 2010 Juniper Networks, Inc.
14 TRANSMISSION EVOLUTION CORE & AGGREGATION Leased line E0/DS0, E1/T1, E3/T3 PDH / SDH/ SONET/ WDM OC1 - >OC768 GE -> 10GE DWDM Multiple Terrabit systems IPoDWDM interfaces on routers (10GE/100GE/40G POS) OTN interfaces ATM / Frame-Relay / X.25 DS0 -> E1 -> OC48 Some customers leapfrogging older technologies to leading edge systems Leading edge does not always mean most costly! Legacy systems last a LONG TIME! 14 Copyright 2010 Juniper Networks, Inc.
15 TRANSMISSION EVOLUTION EDGE PSTN/ISDN Leased line E0/DS0, E1/T1, E3/T3, xdsl PDH/SDH Ethernet FTTx Multiple Megabit systems some using EPON/GPON transport Radio-based access 2G,3G,WiMAX, HSDPA, LTE Some customers leapfrogging older technologies to leading edge systems Leading edge does not always mean most costly! Legacy systems last a LONG TIME! 15 Copyright 2010 Juniper Networks, Inc.
16 NEXT GENERATION PON ACCESS Moving to Next-gen fibre access fundamentally changes residential coverage of a Central Office ~8 km on high-quality copper 20km on fibre Idealized geographic distribution of central offices 16 Copyright 2010 Juniper Networks, Inc. Source: BT, AT&T, 2008
17 NEXT GENERATION PON IMPACT OF LONG REACH As operators cherry pick neighborhoods, selected COs would be decommissioned, others upgraded 17 Copyright 2010 Juniper Networks, Inc.
18 NEXT GENERATION PON: ENABLES NEW CO DESIGN Two new central offices could replace dozens of CO in the Bay Area 18 Copyright 2010 Juniper Networks, Inc.
19 NEXT GENERATION PON HOW BIG IS THE NEW CO? There are over 10 COs to serve Sunnyvale, Santa Clara and San Jose. They could all be consolidated into 1. Current intermediate office Fiber routes exist to each CO CO Wireless BTS 19 Copyright 2010 Juniper Networks, Inc. Source: FCC, American Towers, 2008
20 IMPACT OF VIDEO AND IP RICH MEDIA ON SP NETWORKS Worldwide SPs are enhancing their service offering (VoIP, HSD, Video, VPNs, etc ) Significant increase in network bandwidth Continual increase in per flow bandwidth Duration of flows continues to increase High bandwidth flows reduce the number of active flows that can be supported per 10Gig link 20 Copyright 2010 Juniper Networks, Inc.
21 IEEE 40G/100G ETHERNET STANDARDS Higher Speed Study Group (HSSG) formed July, ba Task Force Formed in Jan, 2008 Group is working on development of standards for both 40GE and 100GE, and over distances of up to 40km 40GE originally targeted for server interconnect and DC, but likely to proliferate into other areas as well Standard completed June, 2010 Interface & linecards announced by multiple Router and Transmission vendors Expect 9-12 month delay in adoption 21 Copyright 2010 Juniper Networks, Inc.
22 THAT S TOMORROW WHAT ABOUT TODAY? For some customers, high CAPEX costs of moving to 40G POS make it unattractive are prepared to wait for the expected lower-cost 100GE solutions Many upset by initial prices from vendors for 100GE Options for addressing core bandwidth needs? Big, fat pipes native 40G POS (SR optics) interface compressed signal 40G interfaces Multiple parallel links Options are NOT equivalent when considering available bandwidth Available bandwidth = maximum bandwidth that can be utilized without any packet drops 40Gbps interfaces provide full access to bandwidth With nx10gbps, available bandwidth is non-deterministic 22 Copyright 2010 Juniper Networks, Inc.
23 ROUTER OPTICS & THE TRANSPORT NETWORK Framer & Transponder map SONET payload to multiple designated λ s in order to transport 40G signal Transponder costs are significant portion of CAPEX spend SR Optics on router send 40G signal at nm 23 Copyright 2010 Juniper Networks, Inc.
24 SIGNAL COMPRESSION & THE TRANSPORT NETWORK SR Optics on router send 40G signal at nm Transponder maps coloured 10G λ to transport path Transponder costs for 10G wavelengths are significantly cheaper than 40G. Signal compression means more transport capacity within the transmission network Signal compression unit compresses and converts 40G signal to designated 10G λ 24 Copyright 2010 Juniper Networks, Inc.
25 USE OF PARALLEL LINKS Ways to utilize parallel links L3 Equal Cost Multi-Path L2 Link-bundling Unique IP addresses per link Multiple entries in the Routing table Unique IP addresses per bundle Single entry in the Routing table Distribution of traffic over parallel links done via flow-based hash mechanism in both cases Effectiveness of flow-based Hash distribution determined by traffic characteristics Flow diversity - large number of flows Average bandwidth per flow - determines number of flows that can be supported on any given link Flow-based hash mechanism CANNOT guarantee equal distribution of load With ideal traffic characteristics it is statistically possible to uniformly distribute load over all links 25 Copyright 2010 Juniper Networks, Inc.
26 USE OF PARALLEL LINKS Hash can result in un-equal load distribution Caused by Non-ideal traffic characteristics such as: Small distribution of src/dest IP addresses High per-flow bandwidth Un-equal load distribution can results in under-utilization of available capacity May cause artificial congestion and packet loss Hash result means Red link is oversubscribed even though other links have un-utilised capacity 4x10Gbps is not the same as 1x40Gbps from a real throughput perspective How many parallel 10Gbps links do you need to match usable bandwidth on one 40Gbps link? Depends on traffic characteristics 5 may be 6!! 26 Copyright 2010 Juniper Networks, Inc.
27 ANALYSIS OF IMIX TRAFFIC & HASHING DISTRIBUTION 80% link utilization I.e. 32 Gbps 15% loss in efficiency 27% loss in efficiency 27 Copyright 2010 Juniper Networks, Inc.
28 OPERATIONAL PROS / CONS Equal Cost Multi-Path Ubiquitous & well-understood Link instability causes additional load on Routing Protocol (CPU increase) More links, more address space required NMS overhead for monitoring individual links Per-interface QOS policy with full flexibility 28 Copyright 2010 Juniper Networks, Inc.
29 OPERATIONAL PROS / CONS Link-bundles Reduced address space consumption vs ECMP Easy to add additional link-capacity Easy to manage single interface vs multiple across the router Minimum link-member function to shut down bundle if link capacity drops below threshold Link instability == black-holing Can t readily see link-member loss vs entries in RIB QOS functionality can have limitations not all options may be available Can be harder to t-shoot more complexity in implementation, more layers to investigate Large bundles!= a single large pipe 29 Copyright 2010 Juniper Networks, Inc.
30 SUMMARY Demand for higher bandwidth services driving increased bandwidth requirements on core networks Adoption of new services changing network traffic characteristics (broadband, video, content, OTT service delivery etc) Customers can t wait! Current solutions are already deployed in many large service providers worldwide n*oc768 - ECMP and Link bundles n*oc192/10ge - ECMP and Link bundles 30 Copyright 2010 Juniper Networks, Inc.
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