1 SafeNet Authentication Service Security Considerations Publication Date: Nov Revision 1.1
2 Information provided is confidential and proprietary to SafeNet, Inc. ( SafeNet )
3 Executive Summary Service robustness is one of the main concerns when enterprises are considering a cloud-based offering; even more so when the offering is a fundamental data security solution, such as strong authentication and identity management. This document discusses the measures SafeNet has taken in ensuring the robustness of SafeNet Authentication Service. Major Takeaways SafeNet Authentication Service is designed to ensure a multi-tenant/multi-tier architecture, ensuring data separation between tenants of the service. The scalable architecture of SafeNet Authentication Service ensures high availability and disaster recovery. OTP Seed data is protected using FIPS certified hardware security modules, ensuring that authentication sensitive data is never exposed. Customer user directories are synched with SafeNet Authentication Service using a lightweight synchronization agent. All communication between this agent and the service point of presence (POP) is encrypted with AES256 encryption running on Secure Tunnel. Service Points of Presence run at military grade datacenters, ensuring physical protection, network protection and monitoring, and network and power resilience. SafeNet is periodically running penetration tests by third-party auditors to ensure the robustness of the service. SafeNet Authentication Service is undergoing ISO certification, as well as SAS 70 certification, with the expectation to finalize these processes in
4 Introduction For more than a decade, the software industry has been shifting towards service-based solution delivery and information security solutions in general, with specific focus on multi-factor authentication. According to Gartner s User Authentication Magic Quadrant 2012, By 2017, more than 50 percent of enterprises will choose cloud-based services as the delivery option for new or refreshed user authentication implementations, up from less than 10 percent today. One of the main concerns when moving to a cloud-based/service delivery model is the robustness and availability of the solutions. These concerns become an even bigger issue when delivering info-security solutions from the cloud as a service, and more so when offering a fundamental solution, such as user authentication service, which is usually the most important layer in the organization s info-security architecture. SafeNet, a leader in the user authentication and data protection markets, sees great importance in assuring its customers that info-security services offered by SafeNet will comply with the highest standards of data protection for managed services. SafeNet considers protection of sensitive information as critical for the success of SafeNet Authentication Service. Compliance to the standards and regulations of generally-managed services, as well as to specific information security management systems, continues to be at the forefront of SafeNet s strategy. Currently, SafeNet is undergoing ISO certification, with the expectation to finalize this process in This document discusses the security and data protection methodologies and technologies SafeNet uses to ensure the robustness and continuous availability of SafeNet Authentication Service. It starts with a discussion on the technologies needed to ensure the protection of SafeNet Authentication Service sensitive and critical data, as well as to ensure the high availability of the service. The document also discusses the operational aspects of ensuring the robustness of the service, including a description of the Point of Presence (PoP) for the service, and the way the equipment and service is set up to meet the defined level of robustness. At the end of the document, the development process of SafeNet Authentication Service is outlined, highlighting the process for eliminating security vulnerabilities in the code that runs at the heart of the service. 2
5 Using Security Technologies to Ensure the Robustness of SafeNet Authentication Service General Service Architecture Figure 1 illustrates SafeNet Authentication Service architecture. Each of the two points of presence (PoP) is a replica of the other, and the architecture is scalable in the sense that more PoPs and more service instances per PoPs can be added to support more authentication traffic, as well as additional geographic regions. User data is synchronized from the customer s user repository to the hosted environment using SafeNet Authentication Service s Directory Sync Agent, and a secure tunnel between the agent and the users database in the PoP. Authentication requests are handled by RADIUS and SAML protocols that are considered to be secured and trusted. Access to the service for customers and service providers is delivered via the Administrator s Portal. Connection to this portal is secured via HTTPS, ensuring that users have a secure connection from their browsers. Prior to being given access to the portal, each administrator must authenticate to the service using their dedicated two-factor authentication token. Multi-Tenant and Multi-Tier Figure 1: SafeNet Authentication Service High-Level Architecture SafeNet Authentication Service works in a secure multi-tenant environment, where the information of each account is separated from one another, and administrators have access only to the users that 3
6 belong to their account. The sensitive information related to a specific account is stored with an AES256 encryption key. Keys are created, stored, and maintained through a Windows Data Protection API (DPAPI). The use of Windows DPAPI ensures that encryption keys are protected by Windows, and that they cannot be copied to another system. Note that any attempt to access information in the service database requires an encryption key. These encryption keys are needed not only for reading the data but also for copying, moving, deleting, or restoring items (rows) in the database. SafeNet Authentication Service uses a hierarchy of parent-child relationships for all accounts, whereby there is a central root account from which all sub-accounts are derived, up to an infinite level. That being said, privacy is protected in the chain, as an account can only be viewed and managed by its parent unless the account has explicitly delegated control to its grandparent or has explicitly invited an external operator to manage its operation. Figure 2 illustrates such a multi-tier environment. User Store Synchronization Figure 2: SAS in Multi-Tier Environment Synchronization between a customer s User Store and the SafeNet Authentication Service User Repository is performed using an on-premise agent, which supports a large number of user stores and databases, including LDAP, Active Directory, and many more. The agent s key features are: LDAP Support: The agent can be used with almost any LDAP Directory Server. The agent supports custom LDAP schemas. 4
7 Non-Intrusive: The agent does not write to the user repository and does not require any scheme change. An administrator account is not required in order to connect to the Directory Server. Multiple Directory Servers can be synchronized. Secure Tunnel: All communication between the Synchronization Agent and SafeNet Authentication Service is encrypted with AES 256 encryption. In addition, an SSL secure tunnel is supported between the LDAP Synchronization Agent and the LDAP Directory Server. AES key exchange is done by AES key wrapping using RSA 1024-bit keys. OTP Seed Protection One Time Password solutions use a shared secret between the user s authenticator and the authentication system, which serves as a root of trust from which a publicly known mechanism creates the random One Time Password. These shared secrets are called OTP Seeds and they are the root of trust between the authenticators and the authentication server, protecting mainly confidentiality but also integrity. SafeNet Authentication Service encrypts the OTP seeds database, and uses FIPS Level 3-certified Hardware Security Module (HSM) to protect the system s confidentiality and integrity by protecting the seeds. In addition, the HSM is used to manage the keys needed to encrypt the other parts of the system. Hardware Security Modules (HSMs) are secure cryptographic processing appliances targeted mainly at managing and protecting encryption keys, and accelerating the cryptographic processes (in that sense, it acts as a cryptographic accelerator) for high-performance environments. The use of HSMs ensures that OTP seed records and authentication secrets never exist in a decrypted form in the host memory and cannot be copied or stolen. The FIPS Level 3 HSM is tamper-resistant, protected from physical or logical attempts to break into the device and gain access to the keys. The use of HSMs to protect the service OTP seeds provides a unique level of security, and ensures robust and secure service delivery. 5
8 SafeNet Authentication Service Operations Security and Compliance SafeNet Authentication Service operational security and robustness are at the top of the deployment strategy. The service is based on a number of strategically located global Points-of-Presence (PoP). The datacenters are fully redundant at every point, be it Internet connectivity, network switching, or application and database access between the centers, as well as hot standby of all equipment within the datacenters themselves. Compliance is also at the top of SafeNet s priorities. SafeNet Authentication Service is currently undergoing ISO certification, as well as SAS 70 certification. These two processes are expected to be completed in The next sub-sections discuss the security, robustness, and business continuity of SafeNet Authentication Service, with focus on operational aspects in the service Points of Presence. Points of Presence and Compliance SafeNet Authentication Service is deployed using two Point of Presence (PoP), where one PoP is in the UK and the other is in Canada. The SafeNet Authentication Service PoPs are both certified, and both ensure network separation between applications and allow for multi-factor authentication for specific applications (refer to the next sub-sections for more details). All of these are mandatory requirements to ensure PCI-DSS compliance. The two PoPs are working under Canada s Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act (PIPEDA), ensuring that sensitive information is protected under the Canadian privacy law and that the Canadian PoP complies with EU privacy regulations and vice versa. Datacenter Access Control and Physical Security Physical security underpins any cloud-based service and so all datacenters have 24-hour manned security, including foot patrols and perimeter inspections with biometric scanning for access. SafeNet datacenters are fully equipped with video surveillance throughout each facility and their perimeters with tracking of asset removal, ensuring that equipment and security of data held within that equipment is assured. SafeNet s equipment within the datacenter is housed within dedicated concrete-walled rooms, with all computing equipment located in access-controlled steel cages again assuring a high level of protection over both equipment and data. The following is a list of physical security features of SafeNet Authentication Service PoPs: Each PoP is surrounded by 3.5 meter/11.5 feet high perimeter fence. Army-trained guard dogs patrol the perimeter fence. The PoPs walls are 3 meter/10 feet thick. All doors within the datacenter are made of solid steel. Video surveillance cameras are spread throughout each facility. Protection against electromagnetic pulse attacks. 24x7 manned protection - no unsecured access to the datacenter. Three-factor authentication used for entrance to the datacenter. 6
9 Network Resilience Each PoP is provided with multi-vendor and neutral-network connections to major Internet Service Providers (ISPs), and is located near major Internet hubs so that SafeNet can retain the ability to select the most resilient network at any time. Network connections to the datacenters are provided using secure links with high-capacity bandwidth over fiber connections to ensure minimum latency of authentication requests turn-around. All fiber-based connections enter the datacenter buildings via secure concrete vaults. The internal network infrastructure of the PoP is built upon a high-speed fiber based network to ensure high-capacity throughput. This infrastructure uses multiple connections through highly secured network firewalls and routers to deliver full redundancy, as well as optimal traffic delivery. The following is a list of network security features of SafeNet Authentication Service PoPs: Datacenters are network carrier neutral Multiple fiber channels at each datacenter Use of multiple Internet service providers to ensure continuous and high-bandwidth Internet access Power Supply Redundancy Power is delivered to the datacenters using an underground utility power feed, which is then supplemented and backed up by on-site redundant (N+1) diesel generators with local diesel fuel storage. Power is delivered into the rooms via redundant (N+1) CPS/UPS systems to ensure ongoing supply, with power delivered to the PoP equipment racks using redundant power distribution units (PDUs). Redundant air conditioning units guarantee stable temperature and humidity levels that are needed for proper operation of the datacenters. Disaster Recovery Each user s access device will typically be set up to connect to both a primary and a secondary PoP. As SafeNet Authentication Service performs real-time data replication between datacenters, should the primary connection fail, the customer s device will automatically authenticate users to the secondary PoP without any service interruption. Data between PoPs is transmitted across encrypted links using AES256-based encryption to create a trusted and secure tunnel between the sites. Regular disaster recovery tests are conducted to verify projected recovery times, as well as prove the ongoing integrity of customer data within the PoPs. Network Security and Monitoring Assuring Integrity Within each PoP, a sophisticated network of routers and firewalls ensures network separation, integrity, and confidentiality of the data and access to that data. Within the network itself, internal firewalls segregate traffic between the application and database tiers to ensure confidentiality and integrity, as well as deliver a high level of availability. 7
10 Intrusion detection monitoring is deployed throughout the internal network in order to capture and report events to a security event management system for logging, alerts, and reports thus delivering a high degree of network traffic auditability. A third-party service provider continuously scans the network externally and alerts changes in the baseline configuration to increase audit levels. Additional levels of network traffic monitoring are conducted on a 24x7 basis across key points within the infrastructure and automated reports are delivered on a daily basis to the network administrator. Service Penetration Testing SafeNet undergoes regular application and network penetration testing by third parties. The assessment methodology includes structured review processes based on recognized best-in-class practices as defined by such methodologies as the ISECOM's Open Source Security Testing Methodology Manual (OSSTMM), the Open Web Application Security Project (OWASP), Web Application Security Consortium (WASC), and ISO Information Security Standard. A grey-box approach of application security audit is adopted for the purpose of the audit. Figure 3 shows the security attack vectors that are usually being tested during such tests. To date, no major security issues were found in these penetration tests, and all minor issues are being fixed as part of the regular development cycle. Figure 3: Application security attack vectors tested in Penetration Testing 8
11 SafeNet Secure Application Development Lifecycle To ensure service security and robustness, SafeNet engineering teams are working using a strict Application Development Lifecycle method. SafeNet Authentication Service is developed using the Agile development method that ensures quick yet reliable turnaround between requirements gathered until service delivery. The Agile methodology enables SafeNet to react fast to new risks and changes in the global threat analysis. Requirements Definition Product managers gather requirements as part of their day-to-day duties. According to SafeNet development methodology these requirements are turned into User Stories. The input for these User Stories arrives from analysis of the market, and requirements from SafeNet prospects and customers, as well as innovative ideas coming from SafeNet CTO office or from the engineering teams. As part of this step, a threat model is being carried out. The process considers the macro cyber-security environment and all known attacks. Changes to the current working assumptions are translated into User Stories and gain high priority in the Sprint Planning (see below). Sprint Planning Development sprints are scheduled once in a number of weeks. For each sprint, product management, engineering leaders, and a representative from the CTO office evaluate the User Stories that are still open and decide on the content of the sprint. Implementation Code is being implemented. As part of the engineering process, code undergoes source code review. Code reviews and walk-throughs are conducted regularly using a structured approach. A particular emphasis is being put on security and making the system invulnerable to threats. Unit testing is done by each developer. Sprint Testing As all the different teams working on a specific sprint hand in their developed code, sprint testing is being carried out by SafeNet Quality Assurance group, who perform black-box testing on the entire sprint code. Service Update Upon Product Management decision, all development is done in sprints since the latest service update has been released. Prior to the actual service update, the following tasks are being performed: Provisioning Testing: Equal in its scope to alpha testing in product development. This is done on the updated service in a controlled environment and performed by SafeNet Cloud Operations team. With the conclusion of these tests, the code has successfully passed three rounds of testing, each done by a different group. Unit testing done by the developer, Sprint Code Testing done by the QA group and Service Update Provisioning Testing done by Cloud operations. 9
12 A Planned Release Notification (PRN) is sent to all existing customers notifying them on the scope of the update and planned date of the actual service update. Penetration testing: Penetration testing is usually done on a dedicated system that is not in use but runs in the same environment as the operational service. As penetration testing may cause service disruption, SafeNet is running these tests on non-operational services. At the last stage, all data is backed up from the operational service, which allows SafeNet to roll back immediately in case of unexpected catastrophe. 10
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