1 NUKLEONIKA 2006;51(Supplement 1):S19 S25 PROCEEDINGS Structure and properties of nanomaterials produced by severe plastic deformation Zbigniew Pakieła, Halina Garbacz, Małgorzata Lewandowska, Anna Drużycka-Wiencek, Małgorzata Suś-Ryszkowska, Witold Zieliński, Krzysztof J. Kurzydłowski Abstract In recent years, a number of methods for refining the structure of metals by severe plastic deformation (SPD) have been developed. Some of those methods permit grain refinement to a nanometric level. These methods include, among others, high pressure torsion (HPT), equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) and hydrostatic extrusion (HE). The aim of this paper was a more detailed description of these methods and presentation of exemplary applications of these methods for structure refinement and improvement of mechanical properties of chosen materials. The results obtained in the present study show that the microstructures of the materials subjected to SPD studied in this work displayed considerable refinement, characterised by the formation of nanosized grains. Such a refinement resulted in increased tensile strength and hardness of the SPD materials studied in this work. In view of the results obtained on a large number of metals and alloys, a conclusion can be drawn that SPD could become an attractive way of processing materials for variety of applications. Key words nanocrystalline metals severe plastic deformation nanostructure mechanical properties Introduction Z. Pakieła, H. Garbacz, M. Lewandowska, A. Drużycka-Wiencek, M. Suś-Ryszkowska, W. Zieliński, K. J. Kurzydłowski Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, 141 Wołoska Str., Warsaw, Poland, Tel.: , Fax: , Received: 6 January 2006 Nanometric dimensions of microstructure elements were utilised to obtain new material properties for a long time. For example, nanometric particles of carbon black have been used for over a hundred years for rubber vulcanisation and nanometric precipitations of metastable phases in Al alloys enabled a significant increase of strength of these alloys. However, a rapid increase of interest in this field has been noted from the moment of appearance of a review paper on the subject of nanocrystalline materials (NCM) by Gleiter , who was the first to propose a method of producing metal nanoparticles through their deposition from gaseous phase, and is one of the main precursors in this field. At present, four techniques are applied for producing bulk NCM: a) consolidation of nanocrystalline powders, produced by various methods; b) physical, chemical and electrochemical deposition; c) crystallization of amorphous materials; d) severe plastic deformation. Each of the methods mentioned above has its advantages and limitations and the level of technological advancement is still too low for industrial applications of bulk NCM. In the powder methods the main problem is consolidation of these materials. Currently used deposition methods are mainly limited to producing layers on the surface of conventional materials. The crystallization of amorphous materials can only be used in the case of materials prone to
2 S20 amorphization and the obtained structures of materials are specific: nanocrystalline precipitations in the amorphous matrix. Moreover, the amorphous materials are usually in the form of thin ribbons, which restricts their potential application. A group of methods enabling fabrication of nanocrystalline materials without any of the aforementioned flaws are methods of severe plastic deformation, due to which relatively large elements, yet characterized by lack of porosity, can be produced. Large deformations can be achieved through various technological processes, e.g. rolling. However, it was the Bridgman concept  of high pressure deformation of materials, that enabled development of a method of high refinement of materials structure to a submicron or even nanometric scale due to plastic deformation [27, 37]. In recent years, a number of methods for refining the structure of metals by severe plastic deformation (SPD) have been developed. Some of those methods permit grain refinement to a nanometric level. These methods include, among others, high pressure torsion (HPT) , equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) , hydrostatic extrusion (HE), accumulative roll-bonding (ARB) , repetitive corrugation and straightening (RCS) , long-term shot peening of the metallic material surface , (which leads to a nanostructure in the surface layer), cyclic extrusion compression (CEC) [9, 25] or multiple alternate forging . The most prospective out of the aforementioned methods of grain refinement through severe deformation seem to be HPT, ECAP and HE. The aim of this paper was a more detailed description of these methods and presentation of exemplary applications of these methods for structure refinement and improvement of mechanical properties of chosen materials. High pressure torsion High pressure torsion (HPT), as a method of severe deformations, was proposed by Bridgman already in 1952 . However, for obtaining nanostructured metals and alloys it has been used for a dozen or so years. Figure 1 presents schematically the idea of this method. Generally speaking, the method consists in pressing a thin disk of a material between two punches and, subsequently rotating one of them. Friction HPT sample Z. Pakieła et al. Fig. 1. Schematic illustration of high pressure torsion. between the sample and punch is high enough for large deformation of material to occur. Of all the methods of grain refinement through severe plastic deformation mentioned in the introduction, the HPT method allows to obtain perhaps the highest grain refinement. This method has been used to deform many materials, from pure metals to brittle intermetallic phases [10, 23, 38]. The advantage of the method is high refinement of structure and the possibility to process brittle materials. The disadvantage is a low volume of the sample and non-homogeneity of the material processed by this method. The HPT process yields discs in which the material deformation degree and, so, the material microstructure depend on the distance from the disc center. In the central part of the disc, the deformation is the smallest. Therefore, microstructure of the specimens will differ from one another depending on the disc part in which it was observed. It results in considerable differences in the properties between the central part of the disc and the rest. Figure 2a presents the macroscopic image of a specimen of 316L steel processed by HPT. Figure 2b presents the microstructure of this specimen obtained a 2 mm c b 20 µm 100 nm Fig L steel processed by HPT: a macroscopic image of the specimen; b microstructure of the specimen revealed by light microscopy; c nanostructure of the specimen reviled by transmission electron microscopy.
3 Structure and properties of nanomaterials produced by severe plastic deformation S21 Fig. 3. An example of nanostructure of Ni 3 Al processed by HPT. by light microscopy and Fig. 2c by transmission electron microscopy. The photographs reveal that the material microstructure homogeneity differs very much depending on the magnification. Among the materials studied by the present authors, the most spectacular grain refinement was observed in the case of intermetallic phase Ni 3 Al. An example of Ni 3 Al microstructure processed by HPT is shown in Fig. 3. In this case grain refinement was from 0.6 mm (in the initial state) to 20 nm after HPT . However, this grain refinement was obtained only at some distance from the specimens centre. In the central part of the specimens we observed coarse grained microstructure [20, 23]. It is also interesting to note that after deformation by HPT the samples retained monolithic, although pure Ni 3 Al (in the absence of boron doping) is a very brittle material. During and after HPT process some macro- and microcracs can arise, what is presented in Fig. 4 (this figure presents fracture surface of the specimen of 316L austenitic steel processed by HPT). The presented fracture surface was obtained after tensile test. It is typical ductile fracture surface, but on this surface also small flaw is visible. This means that during HPT some flows and materials discontinuities can be produced. Despite some disadvantages, the HPT method provides an extremely high grain refinement, which allows investigations of materials with microstructure not possible to obtain by other methods. Our research results for various materials subjected to deformation by the HPT method are presented in Table 1 [4, 10 12, 20 23, 31, 38]. Fig. 4. An example of microcrack produced in austenitic steel during high pressure torsion . Equal channel angular pressing Equal channel angular pressing ECAP (also named as equal channel angular extrusion ECAE), proposed by Segal , has been growing in significance in recent years. In the case of this method, the obtained grain sizes are larger than in the case of HPT, but also the volume of the processed material is larger. Billets of 60 mm diameter and 300 mm length are obtained [6, 24, 36]. ECAP consists in pressing of billet, usually with circular or square cross-section, through an angular channel, bent at an angle usually of 90. The sample is pressed into the channel by a punch and pressed out by a next sample. Pressing of the sample through the angular channel for several times allows accumulating severe deformations in its structure. Figure 5 presents a schematic rule of material deformation by the ECAP method. At room temperature, ECAP can mainly be applied to pure metals. Numerous works have been published concerning ECAP of FCC metals, such as: Al, Ni and Cu. Less data is available for BCC, e.g. Fe [32 34] and CPH metals, such as, e.g. Ti . In the case of alloys, heating of tools or billet is usually needed. For the process conducted at elevated temperatures, grain refinement can be obtained in hard to deform refractory alloys and even in brittle intermetallic phases [2, 29]. However, grain size for materials deformed at high temperature exceeds several µm. Interesting results have been obtained for Al alloys. In this case grain size reaches a value of about nm, thus it also exceeds the boundary value of 100. However, these Table 1. Mean grain size and mechanical properties of the materials processed by HPT Material Total equivalent strain Grain size Vickers hardness Tensile strength ε eq = 2πnR/(L 3) Initial, d i [µm] Final, d f [nm] HV 0.2 [MPa] Fe armco ~ Pure Ni 3 Al ~ Pure Ni ~ Stainless steel 316L ~ Where: ε eq equivalent strain, n number of the stamp rotations, R distance from the rotation axis, L thickness of the specimen.
4 S22 Z. Pakieła et al. ECAP Force displacement sample Fig. 5. Schematic explanation of ECAP. materials obtain, due to grain refinement, a new property, the so-called low-temperature fast superplasticity. For conventional superplasticity, the required deformation rates are in the range of s. In the case of ECAP-ed Al alloys, the superplasticity is achieved at a deformation rate 3 4 orders of magnitude higher and at a temperature of C lower than for the conventional one . This gives broader perspectives of applications of these materials to manufacture products formed by superplastic deformation. Our own research results for various materials subjected to deformation by the ECAP method are presented in Table 2. Hydrostatic extrusion Hydrostatic extrusion (HE) is one of the methods that allows us to obtain large strains in one pass or in several passes. In this method, the sample is located in a container and surrounded with a pressure transmitting medium (Fig. 6). The piston compresses the medium Fig. 6. Schematic presentation of hydrostatic extrusion process. until the sample starts to extrude. The material flows on the film consisting of hydrostatic medium and a lubricant. As a consequence, the friction between the sample and the die is negligibly small. This results in the unique features of hydrostatic extrusion, which are: (a) very high strain rates and (b) homogeneity of deformation. From the application point of view, the main advantage of this method is the possibility to obtain large volumes of products in the form of rods and wires, which can have complex cross-sections, as well as small tubes. Recently, this method has been used to grain refinement in various metallic materials such as aluminium alloys, titanium, copper and stainless steel [1, 13, 15, 16]. In this paper, the efficiency of HE with regard to different materials is considered. Table 3 summarises the mean grain size in various materials processed by HE. An analysis of the data presented in the table shows that titanium is the most outstanding example of grain refinement in the process Table 2. Mean grain size and mechanical properties of the materials processed by ECAP Material Total equivalent Grain size Vickers hardness Tensile strength strain Initial, d i [µm] Final, d f [nm] HV 0.2 [MPa] Fe armco ~ Pure Cu ~ Pure Ni ~ Table 3. Mean grain size and mechanical properties of the materials processed by HE Material Total equivalent strain Grain size Vickers hardness Tensile strength ε eq = 2ln(Φ i /Φ f ) Initial, d i [µm] Final, d f [nm] HV 0.2 [MPa] Pure aluminium Pure copper (subgrains) Pure titanium Stainless steel 316L 1.4 microtwins nanotwins Where: ε eq equivalent strain, Φ i and Φ f initial and final diameter of the extruded rod.
5 Structure and properties of nanomaterials produced by severe plastic deformation S23 a Fig. 7. Microstructure of HE processed 6082 (a) and 2017 (b) aluminium alloys. (True strain 3,8.) b of hydrostatic extrusion. In the case of austenitic stainless steel, the transformation of microtwins into nanotwins was observed, while HE of pure copper results in the microstructure which consists mainly of subgrains. The mean size of these subgrains is about 260 nm. Pure aluminium exhibits the largest size of grains when compared to the other materials examined in the present study. However, a comparison to pure aluminium processed by other SPD methods [8, 17, 19, 38] clearly shows that the mean diameter of 600 nm is in the middle of the data reported in the literature. The process of HE proceeds in the near adiabatic conditions and, the plastic work is converted mainly into heat. The residual part of plastic work is retained in a material in the form of defects. The heat generated during the process of HE causes a temperature rise, which can result in thermally activated processes such as recovery or recrystallization. On the other hand, the process of HE is very fast (the strain rate exceeds 10 2 s 1 ) which, on the other hand, offers the possibility to suppress the grain growth phenomena. It should be noted that all the extruded samples used here were water cooled at the die exit. The processes of recovery or recrystallization occur very easily in materials with high stacking fault energy and low melting point, e.g. pure aluminium. As a consequence, in this material the possibility of grain refinement seems to be very limited. In order to obtain smaller grain size, the processing of materials more resistant to the temperature rise, e.g. aluminium alloys was performed. The study has shown that in aluminium alloys, the final grain size is much smaller than in pure aluminium. The microstructures of HE processed aluminium alloys are presented in Fig. 7 for (a) non-heat treatable 6082 and heat treatable 2017 (b) aluminium alloy. The results clearly show that by HE, the grain size can be reduced to less than 300 nm in the case of 6082 aluminium alloy and even below 100 nm for the 2017 aluminium alloy. Such microstructure evolution during processing by HE results in the improvement of mechanical properties as is shown in Fig. 8. It should be noted that some materials exhibit excellent mechanical properties, e.g. yield strength more than 1000 MPa for titanium, more than 500 MPa for the 2017 aluminium alloy and 650 MPa for a 7475 aluminium alloy. Such values cannot be obtained by a conventional processing. From the results obtained in the study of HE processing, the following conclusions can be drawn. First, processing by HE reduces the grain size in metallic materials even to less than 100 nm and this method can be used for the fabrications of nanocrystalline metals. Second, the efficiency of HE, defined as the ability to grain size reduction, depends on a material. In particular, it depends on its susceptibility to recovery and/or recrystallization. (The smaller the recovery/recrystallization rate, the smaller the grain size that can be obtained by HE.) Finally, due to a significant grain refinement, the materials processed by HE exhibit very high mechanical properties. Fig. 8. Mechanical properties of materials processed by HE.
6 S24 Z. Pakieła et al. Mechanical testing For nanocrystalline materials, available very often in small quantities, it is necessary to use special testing methods of mechanical properties. In particular, this is true for materials processed by HPT. In this case, tensile tests can be curried out using microspecimens. On the other hand, such specimens call for special procedures in measurements of yield strength, tensile strength, uniform elongation and elongation to rapture. In order to compare properties of materials processed by various SPD methods, including HPT, it is necessary to produce microspecimens with a length of 5 10 mm, gauge length of 2 3 mm, and thickness of mm. Testing of such small specimens requires special efforts. Small specimens require sensitive methods for measuring strain. For example, a 0.2% elongation of a specimen with a gauge length of 2 mm results in a 4 µm displacement. To measure this elongation with an accuracy of ±5%, a measuring device with a resolution of ±0.2 µm is needed. Such a high resolution can be achieved with an electro-mechanical extensometer. A typical small standard extensometer has a gauge length of 5 mm, which permits achieving a resolution of 0.1 µm. If the gauge length of the specimen is below 5 mm, the extensometer is too large to be installed. If this is the case, the extensometer may be fixed to the specimen holders. Knowing the gauge length of the specimen, we can determine its deformation, but the measurements bear a considerable error. This is due to the fact that the strain is localized in stress concentration regions, which in tensile test specimens are located between the holding portion of the specimen and the gauge length. If the specimen deformation is measured indirectly by measuring the displacement of the holders, the flow stress of the material is underestimated and the specimen elongation is overestimated [20, 33, 34]. For this reason, when dealing with small specimen on which an extensometer cannot be installed, the measurements should be performed by optical or other direct methods. One of such direct methods is the digital image correlation method (DIC). This method allows to measure total and local strains of the tested specimen. Therefore, using this method we can obtain deformation maps of the tested specimen. An example of such a map is presented in Fig. 9. This figure presents a deformation map of microspecimen of nanocrystalline Fe, produced by sintering of nanocrystalline powder. Such a map is produced in a digital form by processing images of specimen surface. (Sometimes this may require deposition of graphite spray to produce black and white dots on a specimen surface.) Computer code for DIC measures displacements of these dots by comparing images before and after deformation. Conclusions The results obtained in the present study show that there are now a number of severe plastic deformation methods that can be used to refine the structure of metals. 2 mm Fig. 9. Deformation map obtained by DIC method. (Specimen of nanocrystalline Fe processed by pulse sintering of nanocrystalline powder. Average strain of the sample 14%, maximum strain, measured on the specimen surface 35%.) The microstructures of the materials subjected to SPD studied in this work displayed considerable refinement, characterised by the formation of nanosized grains. Such a refinement resulted in increased tensile strength and hardness of the SPD materials studied in this work. In view of the results obtained on a large number of metals and alloys, a conclusion can be drawn that SPD could become an attractive way of processing materials for variety of applications. Acknowledgment This paper is a part of the research programme currently executed at the Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering of Warsaw University of Technology and was supported by the State Committee for Scientific Research under grant No. PBZ-KBN-096/ T08/2003. References 1. Adamczyk-Cieślak B, Mizera J, Lewandowska M, Kurzydłowski KJ (2004) Microstructure evaluation in an Al-Li alloy processed by severe plastic deformation. Rev Adv Mater Sci 8: Alexandrov IV, Raab GI, Shestakova LO, Kilmametov AR, Valiev RZ (2002) Refinement of tungsten microstructure by severe plastic deformation. Phys Met Metallogr + 93: Bridgman PW (1964) Studies in large plastic flow and fracture. Harvard University Press, Cambridge 4. Drużycka-Wiencek A (2004) Struktura i właściwości stali 316L w stanie nanokrystalicznym. PhD Thesis, Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw 5. Gleiter H (1989) Nanocrystalline materials. Prog Mater Sci 3: Horita Z, Fujinami T, Langdon TG (2001) The potential for scaling ECAP: Effect of sample size on grain refinement and mechanical properties. Mater Sci Eng A 318: Huang JY, Zhu YT, Jinag H, Lowe TC (2001) Microstructures and dislocation configurations in
7 Structure and properties of nanomaterials produced by severe plastic deformation S25 nanostructured Cu processed by repetitive corrugation and straightening. Acta Mater 49: Iwahashi Y, Horita Z, Niemoto M, Langdon TG (1998) The process of grain refinement in equal-channel angular pressing. Acta Mater 46: Korbel A, Richert M (1985) Formulation of shear bands during cyclic deformation of aluminium. Acta Metall 33: Korznikov AV, Pakieła Z, Kurzydłowski KJ (2001) Influence of long range ordering on mechanical properties of nanocrystalline Ni 3 Al. Scripta Mater 45: Korznikov AV, Tram G, Dimitrov O, Korznikova GF, Idrisova SR, Pakieła Z (2001) The mechanism of nanocrystalline structure formation in Ni 3 Al during severe plastic deformation. Acta Mater 49: Krasilnikov NA, Lojkowski W, Pakieła Z, Valiev RZ (2005) Tensile strength and ductility of ultra-fine-grained nickel processed by severe plastic deformation. Mater Sci Eng A 397: Kurzydłowski KJ (2006) Hydrostatic extrusion as a method of grain refinement in metallic materials. Mat Sci Forum 503/504: Lee S, Furukawa M, Horita Z, Langdon TG (2003) Developing a superplastic forming capability in a commercial aluminum alloy without scandium or zirconium additions. Mater Sci Eng A 342: Lewandowska M, Garbacz H, Pachla W, Mazur A, Kurzydłowski KJ (2005) Grain refinement in aluminium and the Al-Cu-Mg-Mn aluminium alloy by hydrostatic extrusion. Materials Science-Poland 23: Lewandowska M, Garbacz H, Pachla W, Mazur A, Kurzydłowski KJ (2005) Hydrostatic extrusion and nanostructure formation in an aluminium alloy. Solid State Phenom 101: Liu Q, Huang X, Lloyd DJ, Hansen N (2002) Microstructure and strength of commercial purity aluminium (AA 1200) cold-rolled to large strains. Acta Mater 50: Lu G, Lu J, Lu K (2000) Surface nanocrystallization of 316L stainless steel induced by ultrasonic shot peening. Mater Sci Eng A 286: Mishin OV, Juul Jensen D, Hansen N (2003) Microstructures and boundary populations in materials produced by equal channel angular pressing. Mater Sci Eng A 342: Pakieła Z, Suś-Ryszkowska M (2004) Influence of microstructure heterogeneity on the mechanical properties of nanocrystalline materials processed by severe plastic deformation. In: Zehetbauer MJ, Valiev RZ (eds) Nanomaterials by severe plastic deformation. Willey-VCH, Weinham, pp Pakieła Z, Suś-Ryszkowska M, Drużycka-Wiencek A, Kurzydłowski KJ (2004) Microstructure and mechanical properties of nanostructured metals processed by severe plastic deformation. In: Proc of the 7th Int Conf on Nanostructured Materials, Wiesbaden, Germany, p Pakieła Z, Suś-Ryszkowska M, Drużycka-Wiencek A, Sikorski K, Kurzydłowski KJ (2004) Microstructure and properties of nano-metals obtained by severe plastic deformation. Inżynieria Materiałowa 140: Pakieła Z, Zieliński W, Korznikov AV, Kurzydłowski KJ (2001) Microstructure and mechanical properties of nanocrystalline Ni 3 Al. Inżynieria Materiałowa 124: Raab GI, Kulyasov GV, Valiev RZ (2004) Study of mechanical properties of massive ultrafine-grained titanium billets produced by equal channel angular pressing. Metall 2: Richert M, Liu Q, Hansen N (1999) Microstructural evolution over a large strain range in aluminium deformed by cyclic-extrusion-compression. Mater Sci Eng A 260: Saito Y, Utsunomiya H, Tsuji N, Sakai T (1999) Novel ultra-high straining process for bulk materials development of the accumulative roll-bonding (ARB) process. Acta Mater 47: Saunders I, Nutting J (1984) Deformation of metals to high strains using combination of torsion and compression. Metal Sci 18: Segal VM (1977) Patent USSR No Semiatin SL, Delo DP, Shell EB (2000) Effect of material properties and tooling design on deformation and fracture during equal channel angular extrusion. Acta Mater 48: Stolyarov VV, Zhu YT, Lowe TC, Valiev RZ (2001) Microstructure and properties of pure Ti processed by ECAP and cold extrusion. Mater Sci Eng A 303: Suś-Ryszkowska M (2002) Wpływ warunków odkształcania na mikrostrukturę i właściwości żelaza w zakresie dużych odkształceń plastycznych. PhD Thesis, Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw 32. Suś-Ryszkowska M, Dymny G, Pakieła Z, Miskiewicz M, Kurzydlowski K (2005) Strain localization in nanocrystalline iron after severe plastic deformation. Solid State Phenom 101/102: Suś-Ryszkowska M, Pakieła Z, Valiev R, Wyrzykowski JW, Kurzydlowski KJ (2005) Mechanical properties of nanostructured iron obtained by different methods of severe plastic deformation. Solid State Phenom 101/102: Suś-Ryszkowska M, Wejrzanowski T, Pakieła Z, Kurzydłowski KJ (2004) Microstructure of ECAP severely deformed iron and its mechanical properties. Mater Sci Eng A 369: Valiakhmetov OR, Galeyev RM, Salishchev GA (1990) Mechanical properties of the titanium alloy VT8 with submicrocrystalline structure. Phys Met Metallogr + 70: Valiev RA, Ismagaliev RK, Alexandrov IV (2000) Bulk nanostructured materials from severe plastic deformation. Prog Mater Sci 45: Valiev RZ, Korznikov AV, Muliukov RR (1993) Structure and properties of ultrafine-grained materials produced by severe plastic deformation. Mater Sci Eng A 168: Zieliński W, Pakieła Z, Kurzydłowski KJ (2003) TEM in situ annealing of severely deformed Ni 3 Al intermetallic compound. Mater Chem Phys 81:
A R C H I V E S O F M E T A L L U R G Y A N D M A T E R I A L S Volume 57 2012 Issue 3 DOI: 10.2478/v10172-012-0095-3 K. TOPOLSKI, H. GARBACZ, P. WIECIŃSKI, W. PACHLA, K.J. KURZYDŁOWSKI MECHANICAL PROPERTIES
Scripta Materialia 52 (2005) 1039 1044 www.actamat-journals.com Tensile properties of a nanocrystalline 316L austenitic stainless steel X.H. Chen a,j.lu b,l.lu a,k.lu a, * a Shenyang National Laboratory
Lecture slides on rolling By: Dr H N Dhakal Lecturer in Mechanical and Marine Engineering, School of Engineering, University of Plymouth Bulk deformation forming (rolling) Rolling is the process of reducing
EFFECT OF SEVERE PLASTIC DEFORMATION ON STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF AUSTENITIC AISI 316 GRADE STEEL Ladislav KANDER a, Miroslav GREGER b a MATERIÁLOVÝ A METALURGICKÝ VÝZKUM, s.r.o., Ostrava, Czech Republic,
1 Unit 6: EXTRUSION Introduction: Extrusion is a metal working process in which cross section of metal is reduced by forcing the metal through a die orifice under high pressure. It is used to produce cylindrical
Materials Transactions, Vol. 44, No. 7 (2003) pp. 1311 to 1315 Special Issue on Growth of Ecomaterials as a Key to Eco-Society #2003 The Japan Institute of Metals Effect of Consolidation Process on Tensile
CONSOLIDATION AND HIGH STRAIN RATE MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR OF NANOCRYSTALLINE TANTALUM POWDER Sang H. Yoo, T.S. Sudarshan, Krupa Sethuram Materials Modification Inc, 2929-P1 Eskridge Rd, Fairfax, VA, 22031
Chapter Outline Dislocations and Strengthening Mechanisms What is happening in material during plastic deformation? Dislocations and Plastic Deformation Motion of dislocations in response to stress Slip
Investigation of Experimental and Numerical Analysis on Extrusion Process of Magnesium Alloy Fin Structural Parts Su-Hai Hsiang, Yi-Wei Lin, and Wen-Hao Chien Department of Mechanical Engineering National
THEORETICAL & APPLIED MECHANICS LETTERS 1, 031008 (2011) Tension fracture behaviors of welded joints in X70 steel pipeline Dejun Kong, a) Yongzhong Wu, Dan Long, and Chaozheng Zhou College of Mechanical
Introduction to Metallography Metallography has been described as both a science and an art. Traditionally, metallography has been the study of the microscopic structure of metals and alloys using optical
Materials Issues in Fatigue and Fracture 5.1 Fundamental Concepts 5.2 Ensuring Infinite Life 5.3 Finite Life 5.4 Summary FCP 1 5.1 Fundamental Concepts Structural metals Process of fatigue A simple view
Copyright 2013 by ABCM EFFECT OF HARDNESS VARIATION ON SURFACE INTEGRITY OF CARBURIZED P20 STEEL Franciele Litvin email@example.com Larissa França Madeira Manfrinato firstname.lastname@example.org
Report of International NanoSPD Steering Committee and statistics on recent NanoSPD activities Ruslan Z. Valiev a,c*, Terence G. Langdon b,c** a Institute of Physics of Advanced Materials, Ufa State Aviation
Friction Stir Welding of Stainless Steel and Nickel Base Alloys R.J. Steel, T.W. Nelson, C.D. Sorensen, Y.S. Sato, C.J. Sterling, and S.M. Packer Acknowledgements Material provided by: Haynes International
416 Rev. Adv. Mater. Sci. 33 (2013) 416-422 P. Lu, Sh. Huang and K. Jiang NUMERICAL ANALYSIS FOR THREE-DIMENSIONAL BULK METAL FORMING PROCESSES WITH ARBITRARILY SHAPED DIES USING THE RIGID/VISCO-PLASTIC
Girish P. Kelkar, Ph.D. (562) 743-7576 email@example.com www.welding-consultant.com Weld Cracks An Engineer s Worst Nightmare There are a variety of physical defects such as undercut, insufficient
Ch. 4: Imperfections in Solids Part 1 Dr. Feras Fraige Outline Defects in Solids 0D, Point defects vacancies Interstitials impurities, weight and atomic composition 1D, Dislocations edge screw 2D, Grain
Solution for Homework #1 Chapter 2: Multiple Choice Questions (2.5, 2.6, 2.8, 2.11) 2.5 Which of the following bond types are classified as primary bonds (more than one)? (a) covalent bonding, (b) hydrogen
Guideline No.: W-22(201510) W-22 STAINLESS STEEL PIPES Issued date: October 20,2015 China Classification Society Foreword: This Guide is a part of CCS Rules, which contains technical requirements, inspection
Focussed on Crack Paths Experimental investigation of crack initiation and propagation in high- and gigacycle fatigue in titanium alloys by study of morphology of fracture M.V. Bannikov, O. B. Naimark,
Chapter Outline iffusion - how do atoms move through solids? iffusion mechanisms Vacancy diffusion Interstitial diffusion Impurities The mathematics of diffusion Steady-state diffusion (Fick s first law)
7-1 CHAPTER 7 DISLOCATIONS AND STRENGTHENING MECHANISMS PROBLEM SOLUTIONS Basic Concepts of Dislocations Characteristics of Dislocations 7.1 The dislocation density is just the total dislocation length
Combining Orientation Imaging Microscopy and Nanoindentation to investigate localized deformation behaviour Felix Reinauer René de Kloe Matt Nowell Introduction Anisotropy in crystalline materials Presentation
J. Phys. IVFrance 11 (2001) Pr8487 EDP Sciences, Les Ulis High temperature CuAINb based shape memory alloys J. Lelatko and H. Morawiec Institute of Physics and Chemistry of Metals, University of Silesia,
Chapter Outline Dislocations and Strengthening Mechanisms What is happening in material during plastic deformation? Dislocations and Plastic Deformation Motion of dislocations in response to stress Slip
Example: 1 A 300-mm-wide strip 25 mm thick is fed through a rolling mill with two powered rolls each of radius = 250 mm. The work thickness is to be reduced to 22 mm in one pass at a roll speed of 50 rev/min.
Homework solutions for test 2 HW for Lecture 7 22.2 What is meant by the term faying surface? Answer. The faying surfaces are the contacting surfaces in a welded joint. 22.3 Define the term fusion weld.
3.5 Show that the atomic packing factor for BCC is 0.68. The atomic packing factor is defined as the ratio of sphere volume to the total unit cell volume, or APF = V S V C Since there are two spheres associated
INDUSTRIAL MATERIALS Development of High-Strength Steel Wire with Superior Weldability Hiromu IzumIda*, Kenichi SHImIzu, Shinei TaKamura, Yasuhiro SHImoda, osamu momozawa and Teruyuki murai High-carbon
Training Objective After watching this video and reviewing the printed material, the student/trainee will learn the basic concepts of the heat treating processes as they pertain to carbon and alloy steels.
, June 30 - July 2, 2010, London, U.K. Friction Surfacing of Austenitic Stainless Steel on Low Carbon Steel: Studies on the Effects of Traverse Speed H. Khalid Rafi, G. D. Janaki Ram, G. Phanikumar and
North American Stainless Long Products Stainless Steel Grade Sheet 2205 UNS S2205 EN 1.4462 2304 UNS S2304 EN 1.4362 INTRODUCTION Types 2205 and 2304 are duplex stainless steel grades with a microstructure,
Iron-Carbon Phase Diagram (a review) see Callister Chapter 9 University of Tennessee, Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering 1 The Iron Iron Carbide (Fe Fe 3 C) Phase Diagram In their simplest form,
Der Einfluss thermophysikalischer Daten auf die numerische Simulation von Gießprozessen Tagung des Arbeitskreises Thermophysik, 4. 5.3.2010 Karlsruhe, Deutschland E. Kaschnitz Österreichisches Gießerei-Institut
-138- Lecture 18 Strain Hardening And Recrystallization Strain Hardening We have previously seen that the flow stress (the stress necessary to produce a certain plastic strain rate) increases with increasing
CHAPTER1 Fundamentals of Extrusion The first chapter of this book discusses the fundamentals of extrusion technology, including extrusion principles, processes, mechanics, and variables and their effects
Properties of optical thin films produced by reactive low voltage ion plating (RLVIP) Antje Hallbauer Thin Film Technology Institute of Ion Physics & Applied Physics University of Innsbruck Investigations
155 CORRELATION BETWEEN HARDNESS AND TENSILE PROPERTIES IN ULTRA-HIGH STRENGTH DUAL PHASE STEELS SHORT COMMUNICATION Martin Gaško 1,*, Gejza Rosenberg 1 1 Institute of materials research, Slovak Academy
The Effect of Temperature and Extrusion Speed on The Consolidation of Zirconium-Based Metallic Glass Powder Using Equal-Channel Angular Extrusion I. KARAMAN, J. ROBERTSON, J.-T. IM, S.N. MATHAUDHU, Z.P.
North American Stainless Flat Products Stainless Steel Sheet T409 INTRODUCTION NAS 409 is an 11% chromium, stabilized ferritic stainless steel. It is not as resistant to corrosion or high-temperature oxidation
Proceedings of the SEM Annual Conference June 1-4, 2009 Albuquerque New Mexico USA 2009 Society for Experimental Mechanics Inc. Interaction of Hydrogen and Deformation in 316L Stainless Steel Bonnie R.
Original papers TENSILE BEHAVIOUR OF OPEN CELL CERAMIC FOAMS LUKÁŠ ŘEHOŘEK*, **, IVO DLOUHÝ*,**, ZDENĚK CHLUP* *Institute of Physics of Materials ASCR, Žižkova 22, 616 62 Brno, Czech Republic **Institute
PHYSICAL TEST OF STAINLESS STEEL 316 BETWEEN DIFFERENT MANUFACTURES ZAITUL AQMAR BT MOHD ASRI Thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of the degree of Bachelor of Chemical
Association of Metallurgical Engineers of Serbia AMES Scientific paper UDC:669.35-153.881-412.2=20 RAPIDLY SOLIDIFIED COPPER ALLOYS RIBBONS M. ŠULER 1, L. KOSEC 1, A. C. KNEISSL 2, M. BIZJAK 1, K. RAIĆ
Lösungen Übung Verformung 1. (a) What is the meaning of T G? (b) To which materials does it apply? (c) What effect does it have on the toughness and on the stress- strain diagram? 2. Name the four main
Stress Strain Relationships Tensile Testing One basic ingredient in the study of the mechanics of deformable bodies is the resistive properties of materials. These properties relate the stresses to the
JOURNAL OF CURRENT RESEARCH IN SCIENCE (ISSN 2322-5009) CODEN (USA): JCRSDJ 2014, Vol. 2, No. 2, pp:277-284 Available at www.jcrs010.com ORIGINAL ARTICLE EXPERIMENTAL AND NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF THE COLLAR
Proceedings of COBEM 2009 Copyright 2009 by ABCM 20th International Congress of Mechanical Engineering November 15-20, 2009, Gramado, RS, Brazil INFLUENCE OF DELTA FERRITE ON MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF STAINLESS
Full Density Properties of Low Alloy Steels Michael L. Marucci & Arthur J. Rawlings Hoeganaes Corporation, Cinnaminson, NJ Presented at PM 2 TEC2005 International Conference on Powder Metallurgy and Particulate
HEAT TREATMENT OF STEEL Heat Treatment of Steel Most heat treating operations begin with heating the alloy into the austenitic phase field to dissolve the carbide in the iron. Steel heat treating practice
ATI 2205 Duplex Stainless Steel (UNS S31803 and S32205) GENERAL PROPERTIES ATI 2205 alloy (UNS S31803 and/or S32205) is a nitrogen-enhanced duplex stainless steel alloy. The nitrogen serves to significantly
MATEC Web of Conferences43, 03005 ( 016) DOI: 10.1051/ matecconf/ 016 4303005 C Owned by the authors, published by EDP Sciences, 016 Process Parameters Optimization for Friction Stir Welding of Pure Aluminium
FRETTING FATIGUE OF STEELS WITH IFFERENT STRENGTH Václav LINHART, Martin ČIPERA, Dagmar MIKULOVÁ SVÚM, a.s., Podnikatelská 565, 190 11 Praha 9- Běchovice,Czech Republic Abstract The investigation of fretting
Chapter 10 Torsion Tests Subjects of interest Introduction/Objectives Mechanical properties in torsion Torsional stresses for large plastic strains Type of torsion failures Torsion test vs.tension test
Numerical Analysis of Independent Wire Strand Core (IWSC) Wire Rope Rakesh Sidharthan 1 Gnanavel B K 2 Assistant professor Mechanical, Department Professor, Mechanical Department, Gojan engineering college,
Think precision, Think HSS REAMING SUMMARY REAMING TOOLS 2 Zoom on a reamer 3 Which HSS for maximum efficiency? 4 Coatings for the best performance 5 Vocabulary 6 Choose the right design 7 Types of bevel
FATIGUE CONSIDERATION IN DESIGN OBJECTIVES AND SCOPE In this module we will be discussing on design aspects related to fatigue failure, an important mode of failure in engineering components. Fatigue failure
Sheet metal operations - Bending and related processes R. Chandramouli Associate Dean-Research SASTRA University, Thanjavur-613 401 Table of Contents 1.Quiz-Key... Error! Bookmark not defined. 1.Bending
Materials Science Forum Vols. 773-774 (2014) pp 784-792 (2014) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland doi:10.4028/www.scientific.net/msf.773-774.784 Effects of laser beam energy on the pulsed Nd:YAG laser
Effective Cooling Method for Spin Casting Process Yong-Ak Song, Sehyung Park, Yongsin Kwon Korea Institute of Science and Technology KIST, CAD/CAM Research Center P.O. Box 131, Cheongryang, Seoul, Korea
Scripta mater. 44 (2001) 105 110 www.elsevier.com/locate/scriptamat A NOVEL SINTERING-DISSOLUTION PROCESS FOR MANUFACTURING Al FOAMS Y.Y. Zhao and D.X. Sun Materials Science and Engineering, Department
North American Stainless Flat Products Stainless Steel Grade Sheet 310S (S31008)/ EN 1.4845 Introduction: SS310 is a highly alloyed austenitic stainless steel designed for elevated-temperature service.
NANOSYSTEMS: PHYSICS, CHEMISTRY, MATHEMATICS, 2011, 2 (2), P. 76 83 UDC 538.97 MOLECULAR DYNAMICS INVESTIGATION OF DEFORMATION RESPONSE OF THIN-FILM METALLIC NANOSTRUCTURES UNDER HEATING I. S. Konovalenko
Etudes in situ et ex situ de multicouches C/FePt : influence de la température sur la structure et les propriétés s magnétiques D. Babonneau, G. Abadias, F. Pailloux Laboratoire de Physique des Matériaux
A R C H I V E S O F M E T A L L U R G Y A N D M A T E R I A L S Volume 54 2009 Issue 2 M. MAJ,J.PIEKŁO MLCF AN OPTIMISED PROGRAM OF LOW-CYCLE FATIGUE TEST TO DETERMINE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF CAST MATERIALS
North American Stainless Flat Products Stainless Steel Grade Sheet 304 (S30400)/ EN 1.4301 304L (S30403) / EN 1.4307 304H (S30409) Introduction: Types 304, 304L and 304H are the most versatile and widely
CHAPTER 6 MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF METALS PROBLEM SOLUTIONS Concepts of Stress and Strain 6.4 A cylindrical specimen of a titanium alloy having an elastic modulus of 107 GPa (15.5 10 6 psi) and an original
CH 6: Fatigue Failure Resulting from Variable Loading Some machine elements are subjected to static loads and for such elements static failure theories are used to predict failure (yielding or fracture).
Microindentation characterization of polymers and polymer based nanocomposites V. Lorenzo Hardness and hardness measurement Vickers hardness Relationships between hardness and other mechanical properties
Functional Materials Letters Vol. 2, No. 2 (2009) 45 54 World Scientific Publishing Company MICROSTRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONAL PROPERTY CHANGES IN THIN Ni Ti WIRES HEAT TREATED BY ELECTRIC CURRENT HIGH ENERGY
EFFECT OF COPPER ALLOY ADDITION METHOD ON THE DIMENSIONAL RESPONSE OF SINTERED FE-CU-C STEELS Michael L. Marucci and Francis G. Hanejko Hoeganaes Corporation Cinnaminson, NJ 08077 - USA Abstract Fe-Cu-C
Additive Manufacturing applications in Aerospace, Automotive, Robotics and beyond JGIF 2015 Tokio, 9th of November 2015 Joachim Zettler Airbus Apworks GmbH Airbus APWorks Founded in 2013 A perfectly harmonized
Ultrasonic Technique and Device for Residual Stress Measurement Y. Kudryavtsev, J. Kleiman Integrity Testing Laboratory Inc. 80 Esna Park Drive, Units 7-9, Markham, Ontario, L3R 2R7 Canada firstname.lastname@example.org
AUSTENITIC STAINLESS DAMASCENE STEEL Damasteel s austenitic stainless Damascene Steel is a mix between types 304L and 316L stainless steels which are variations of the 18 percent chromium 8 percent nickel