Evaluation of Landsat-7 SLC-off image products for forest change detection

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1 Can. J. Remote Sensing, Vol. 34, No. 2, pp , 2008 Evaluation of Landsat-7 SLC-off image products for forest change detection Michael A. Wulder, Stephanie M. Ortlepp, Joanne C. White, and Susan Maxwell Abstract. Since July 2003, Landsat-7 ETM+ has been operating without the scan line corrector (SLC), which compensates for the forward motion of the satellite in the imagery acquired. Data collected in SLC-off mode have gaps in a systematic wedge-shaped pattern outside of the central 22 km swath of the imagery; however, the spatial and spectral quality of the remaining portions of the imagery are not diminished. To explore the continued use of Landsat-7 ETM+ SLC-off imagery to characterize change in forested environments, we compare the change detection results generated from a reference image pair (a 1999 Landsat-7 ETM+ image and a 2003 Landsat-5 TM image) with change detection results generated from the same 1999 Landsat-7 ETM+ image coupled with three different 2003 Landsat-7 SLC-off products: unremediated SLC-off (i.e., with gaps); histogram-based gap-filled; and segment-based gap-filled. The results are compared on both a pixel and polygon basis; on a pixel basis, the unremediated SLC-off product missed 35% of the change identified by the reference data, and the histogram- and segment-based gap-filled products missed 23% and 21% of the change, respectively. When using forest inventory polygons as a context for change (to reduce commission error), the amount of change missed was 31%, 14%, and 12% for the each of the unremediated, histogram-based gap-filled, and segment-based gap-filled products, respectively. Our results indicate that over the time period considered, and given the types and spatial distribution of change events within our study area, the gap-filled products can provide a useful data source for change detection in forested environments. The selection of which product to use is, however, very dependent on the nature of the application and the spatial configuration of change events. Résumé. Depuis juillet 2003, le capteur ETM+ de Landsat-7 opère sans le correcteur de ligne de balayage (CLB) qui compense pour le mouvement avant du satellite dans les images acquises. Les données acquises avec le CLB en mode arrêt présentent des discontinuités empruntant un patron systématique en forme de coin à l extérieur du faisceau central de 22 km de l image; toutefois, la qualité spatiale et spectrale des portions restantes d image n est pas diminuée pour autant. Afin d explorer la possibilité d utiliser en continu les images de ETM+ de Landsat-7, avec le CLB en mode arrêt, pour la caractérisation des changements dans les environnements forestiers, nous comparons les résultats de détection de changements générés à l aide d un couple d images de référence (une image ETM+ de Landsat-7 de 1999 et une image TM de Landsat-5 de 2003), avec les résultats de détection de changements générés à l aide de la même image ETM+ de Landsat-7 de 1999, couplée à trois images différentes de Landsat-7 de 2003, avec le CLB en mode arrêt: non corrigée avec le CLB en mode arrêt (c.-à-d., avec discontinuités), discontinuités comblées à l aide de la méthode des histogrammes et discontinuités comblées à l aide de la méthode des segments. Les résultats sont comparés sur la base du pixel et du polygone. Sur la base du pixel, le produit non corrigé, avec le CLB en mode arrêt, a raté 35 % des changements identifiés dans les données de référence, alors que les produits avec les discontinuités comblées à l aide de la méthode des histogrammes et des segments ont raté respectivement 23 % et 21 % des changements. Dans le cas de l utilisation des polygones d inventaire forestier comme cadre pour l étude des changements (pour réduire les erreurs de commission), la quantité de changements ratés était respectivement de 31 %, 14 % et de 12 %, pour chacun des produits non corrigé, avec discontinuités comblées à l aide de la méthode des histogrammes et avec discontinuités comblées à l aide de la méthode des segments. Nos résultats montrent que, pour la période de temps considérée et, compte tenu des types et de la répartition spatiale des changements à l intérieur de notre zone d étude, les produits avec les discontinuités comblées peuvent constituer une source de données utile pour la détection des changements dans les environnements forestiers. Le choix du type de produit à utiliser dépend cependant fortement de la nature de l application et de la configuration spatiale des changements. [Traduit par la Rédaction] 99 Received 4 April Accepted 20 May Published on the Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing Web site at on 25 July M.A. Wulder, 1 S.M. Ortlepp, and J.C. White. Pacific Forestry Centre, Canadian Forest Service, Natural Resources Canada, 506 West Burnside Road, Victoria, BC V8Z 1M5, Canada. S. Maxwell. Scientific Applications International Corporation (SAIC), contractor to the US Geological Survey (USGS), EROS Data Center, Sioux Falls, SD 57198, USA. 1 Corresponding author ( Government of Canada 93

2 Vol. 34, No. 2, April/avril 2008 Introduction Canada s forests represent 10% of the global total and have important ecological, economic, and social implications (Canadian Forest Service, 2007). There are many pressures on global forest ecosystems, ranging from urban and agricultural expansion to resource extraction and climate change (Hansen et al., 2001). The need to collect information over large areas with greater levels of detail has resulted in an increasing reliance on remotely sensed data for forest monitoring programs (Wulder et al., 2004; Hickey et al., 2005). Moreover, there is a wide variety of sensors orbiting the Earth that are capable of capturing the timing and spatial extent of forest cover changes at a range of spatial and temporal scales (Malingreau, 1993; Foody, 2003; Treitz and Rogan, 2004). Data from medium-resolution satellites have been used extensively for forest monitoring research (Franklin and Wulder, 2002). The Landsat program has collected data since 1972 (Cohen and Goward, 2004), and the combination of spatial and temporal resolutions, low cost, and extensive archiving has made the Landsat program uniquely suited to large area change detection (Woodcock et al., 2001; Cohen and Goward, 2004; Wulder et al., 2008). Applications of Landsat data in forest change detection include insect-related disturbances (Price and Jakubauskas, 1998; Allen and Kupfer, 2001; Falkenstrom and Ekstrand, 2002; Skakun et al., 2003; Wulder et al., 2006a; 2006b), harvesting (Wilson and Sader, 2002; Jin and Sader, 2005; Healey et al., 2006a; 2006b), and fire (Rogan et al., 2002; McMichael et al., 2004; Epting et al., 2005). Other medium-resolution sensors, such as SPOT, have similarly been applied for forest defoliation (Muchoney and Haack, 1994), harvesting (Desclée et al., 2006), and land cover change (Nemmour and Chibani, 2006; Prenzel and Treitz, 2006). At present, Landsat data continue to support a range of management, monitoring, and scientific activities (Franklin and Wulder, 2002). The image assessment system developed for Landsat-7 enables rigorous calibration and quality control (Markham et al., 2004), which ensures the radiometric and geometric accuracy of Landsat-7 data products (Irons and Masek, 2006). Unfortunately, the scan line corrector (SLC) onboard Landsat-7 failed in The SLC compensated for the along-track (forward) motion of the satellite; without the SLC, approximately 22% of the area within each image is lost (Zhang et al., 2007), resulting in gaps of up to 14 pixels on the east and west edges of each scene, narrowing to one or two pixels towards the centre of the image. Despite this loss of image data, Landsat-7 continues to acquire imagery in SLC-off mode, and the end-user has the option of using the unremediated product (i.e., with gaps) or selecting from one of several products developed to mitigate the data loss (Zhang et al., 2007). Since the SLC failure, the United States Geological Survey (USGS) has maintained delivery of Landsat-7 data, which continues to meet the observation requirements of many applications (Cohen and Goward, 2004). Furthermore, current policies ensure that data are collected in a systematic manner for archiving purposes, readily available, and distributed on a nondiscriminatory basis and at a low cost. As the geometric and radiometric quality of the remaining portions of imagery are not diminished, options exist for filling the image gaps, namely by compositing multiple Landsat-7 images (Masek, 2007; Wulder et al., 2008), fusing Landsat-7 images with lower spatial resolution imagery (Hansen et al., 2008), applying geostatistical approaches (Zhang et al., 2007), or using decision rules to extend spectral data into gap areas using either histogram matching (Scaramuzza et al., 2004) or segment-based (Maxwell et al., 2007) approaches. For both the histogram- and segment-based infill methods, the general approach is to generate missing image data from one or more Landsat-7 scenes of differing acquisition dates that have dissimilar or no scan gaps or to use decision rules to extend known values into gap areas. For instance, masks may be used to identify missing data, enabling radiometric values from the SLC-on date to be converted to equivalent radiometric values for the SLC-off image using linear histogram matching. This approach shows inconsistent results if the SLC-on and SLC-off dates have highly different target radiances (i.e., cloud, shadow, or snow) and when identifying change for features smaller than the local window size (Scaramuzza et al., 2004; USGS, 2004). The segment-based infill approach of Maxwell et al. (2007) uses segmentation models derived from a base year of Landsat imagery to guide the determination of the missing data values. To populate the missing pixels located in the gaps, the nearest neighbouring pixel value found in an enclosing segment is used (Maxwell et al., 2007). Although issues remain with these two interpolation methods, they both produce a fully populated image, possibly useful for operational purposes. Figure 1 shows a comparison between the Landsat-5 image and the Landsat-7 SLC-off with gaps, segment-based gap-filled, and histogram-based gap-filled images. Bédard et al. (2008) have investigated the impact on land cover map accuracy that results from the use of the segment-based gap-filled standard product in comparison with the use of a Landsat-5 image obtained 1 day later. Using the same training and verification data, area estimates were found to be within 2%, with an average decrease in accuracy of 2.8% (over a range from 0% to 4.9%). Objective The objective of this paper is to explore the impact of using the SLC-off with gaps, histogram-based gap-filled, and segment-based gap-filled products for change detection in a forested environment. By quantifying how much change may be missed by the gap product and how the histogram- and segment-based gap-filled images perform, we aim to determine the nature and quality of change detection possible over a managed forest environment using Landsat-7 SLC-off imagery. We primarily focus on stand-replacing disturbance, driven by forest harvesting activities within the study area Government of Canada

3 Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing / Journal canadien de télédétection Figure 1. Presentation of (a) base Landsat-7 image (T1), (b) reference Landsat-5 image (T2), (c) Landsat-7 SLC-off image with gaps, (d) Landsat-7 segment-based gap-filled image, and (e) Landsat-7 histogram-based gap-filled image. Methods The study area is located approximately 60 km northeast of Fort St. James, British Columbia, Canada, and is centered at north latitude and west longitude. The site was chosen due to the presence of ongoing forest harvesting between 1999 and The Landsat-7 and Landsat-5 images that were used in this study were all on path 49 and row 22 of the Landsat World Reference System. The base image was an SLC-on Landsat-7 image acquired on 12 September 1999 (T1), provided as a level 1G product (atsensor radiance, geometrically corrected). The reference image, used for assessing the consistency of change identified by the SLC-off images, was a Landsat-5 TM image acquired on 29 July 2003 (T2). The Landsat-7 SLC-off T2 image that was used to analyze the impact of the SLC-off data gaps and from which the histogram- and segment-based gap-filled products were generated was acquired on 6 August For our trial, we used images with gaps remaining (GAP), segment-based correction (SEG), and histogram-based correction (HIS). A 1999 Landsat-7 image is used as the base scene for initial (T1) forest conditions and is compared to all four T2 images. This base image was georeferenced to Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) zone 10, using a nearest-neighbour, thirdorder polynomial transformation from the geographic coordinates provided in the header files, in conjunction with vector coverages from the Canadian National Topographic 2008 Government of Canada Database (NTDB) (Geomatics Canada, 1996). Using the T1 image as the master, an image-to-image registration was then performed on each of the T2 images using a minimum of 25 ground control points and a third-order polynomial. The root mean square (RMS) error was less than 15 m for each image-toimage correction. A km2 cloud-free area, common to all four images, was selected for analysis. The Landsat-5 image was converted to Landsat-7 spectral reflectance, and then all Landsat scenes were converted to topof-atmosphere reflectance, with the T2 scenes normalized to the T1 image (Han et al., 2007). For change detection, tasseled cap components were generated for each image (Han et al., 2007), with focus on the wetness component (Skakun et al., 2003). The T2 wetness images were subtracted from the T1 wetness image to produce a series of four enhanced wetness difference index (EWDI) images that showed changes in wetness between the T1 image and the respective T2 image. The distribution of EWDI values showed a classic normal distribution, and a threshold value of 20 was iteratively selected as the threshold value for identifying change (based on visual interpretation of harvesting areas in the TM T2 image). Each pixel that was above the threshold value was classified as having changed from T1 to T2 (Figure 2). Two approaches for comparing the Landsat-7 data products were implemented. The first comparison was on a pixel basis, where the absolute number and locations of pixels identified as having changed from the T1 to the T2 images were examined. 95

4 Vol. 34, No. 2, April/avril 2008 Figure 2. Difference images of change identified pixels (EWDI > 20) of reference T2 and SLC-off T2s, showing the areas of missed change (error of omission) in red and areas of incorrectly identified change (error of commission) in cyan. The identified change in the reference T2 image is shown in (a) for comparison, with the location of the SLC-off gaps in green (additional explanation in text). Second, the identified change pixels were decomposed to preexisting forest inventory polygons according to the methodology described in Wulder and Franklin (2001). The polygon size was restricted to greater than 2 ha, since this corresponds to the minimum mapping size of the forest inventory dataset. To reduce any edge effects along polygon boundaries, an internal 30 m (one pixel width) buffer was applied to the remaining forest cover polygons. Using unique polygon identifiers, the number of pixels that were inside each polygon (exclusive of the buffered area) was identified along with their EWDI values. Any polygon that had more than 50% of its area identified as change (i.e., EWDI > 20) was flagged as a change polygon. Results The masked SLC-off image had a total gap area of 3053 km 2, which represents 19% of the image area. Each (masked) EWDI image contained a total of million pixels and buffered polygons. The T1 T2 (TM) reference image identified changed pixels, representing an area of 640 km 2. Using a pixel-based comparative analysis approach, the GAP image missed 35% of the change pixels identified by the reference EWDI, and the HIS and SEG filled images each missed 23% and 21% of the changed pixels, respectively. The segment-based gap-filled image showed the lowest error of omission, but all three SLC-off products had the same level of commission error (approximately 29%) (Table 1). Out of 1920 change polygons identified by the reference image pair (T1 and TM T2), 31% were missed by the GAP image. The HIS image missed 14% of the change polygons, and the SEG image missed 12% (Table 2). However, the SEG image had the highest commission error, identifying 22% of polygons as change that were not identified as change in the reference image. The GAP image had the lowest commission error at 16%, and the HIS image had a 19% commission error rate. If the threshold used to identify changed polygons is reduced from Government of Canada

5 Table 1. Error matrices for pixel-based comparison (number of pixels). GAP image Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing / Journal canadien de télédétection No change Change Total User s accuracy Commission error HIS image No change Change Total User s accuracy Commission error SEG image No change Change Total User s accuracy Commission error Table 2. Error matrices for polygon-based comparison using a polygon occupancy area threshold: >50% (number of polygons). GAP image No change Change Total User s accuracy Commission error HIS image No change Change Total User s accuracy Commission error SEG image No change Change Total User s accuracy Commission error % to 25% of polygon area, omission errors decrease for the GAP image but increase slightly for the HIS and SEG images; commission errors remain relatively unchanged for all images. Conversely, if the polygon area threshold is raised to 75%, the omission error decreases slightly for the SEG image but increases for both the GAP and HIS images Government of Canada 97

6 Vol. 34, No. 2, April/avril 2008 Discussion and conclusions Overall, for both the pixel and polygon comparisons, the SEG image had the lowest omission error, the GAP image had the highest omission error, and the HIS image produced results with error rates somewhere between those of the other two images. For the pixel-based comparison, it is interesting to note that all the images had the same commission error, and that the omission error was very similar for both the HIS and SEG images. However, the SEG image had the highest rate of commission error for the polygon-based comparisons, indicating that the lower rate of omission error achieved with the segment-filled product may be attributed to the fact that the segment-filled product is identifying more change polygons overall (not correctly identifying more change). Whereas the gaps in the SLC-off image represent 19% of the total image area, when used for change detection, the GAP image correctly identified 65% of change pixels and 69% of change polygons. The success with which the GAP image could be used to detect change is largely dependent on where changes exist on the landscape relative to the location of the gaps in the image. A different spatial configuration of change events relative to image gaps could result in much higher (or lower) rates of omission error that those reported here. From forest monitoring and management perspectives, the polygon-based approach for considering detection of changes is preferred over a pixel-based approach. The use of forest inventory polygons to provide a context for change serves to mitigate georeferencing errors and, more importantly, to reduce the impact of erroneous gap filling through either the histogram- or segment-based gap-filling approaches. The intended use of change information can aid in guiding the selection of SLC-off product for use in forest change detection, as can the spatial configuration of the change events on the landscape. By using a remediated product such as the histogram- or segment-based gap-filled images, the ability to accurately detect change is increased, as is the potential for greater commission errors (i.e., false positives). Further, it is noted that the percent agreement values reported here are indicative of the stability (overlap) of change detection results; differences in the percentage of change captured will also translate into different estimates of area changed over time. Rates of change over time, as a result, may vary because of the choice of image product used, with commission errors possibly leading to an overestimation of change rates with the SLC-off gap-filled products. The trade-off between the relative importance of omission and commission rates is also dependent on the application and must be considered when selecting an appropriate SLC-off image for change detection. Acknowledgements The Landsat data used in this study were contributed by the US Geological Survey Landsat Data Continuity Mission Project through participation of Wulder on the Landsat Science Team. References Allen, T.R., and Kupfer, J.A Spectral response and spatial pattern of Fraser fir mortality and regeneration, Great Smoky Mountains, USA. Plant Ecology, Vol. 156, pp Bédard, F., Reichert, F., Dobbins, R., and Trépanier, I Evaluation of segment-based gap-filled Landsat ETM+ SLC-off satellite data for land cover classification in southern Saskatchewan, Canada. International Journal of Remote Sensing, Vol. 29, No. 7. pp Canadian Forest Service The state of Canada s forests Canadian Forest Service, Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, Ont. Available from [cited 28 February 2008]. Cohen, W., and Goward, S Landsat s role in ecological applications of remote sensing. BioScience, Vol. 54, No. 6, pp Desclée, B., Bogaert, P., and Defourny, P Forest change detection by statistical object-based method. Remote Sensing of Environment, Vol. 102, pp Epting, J., Verbyla, D., and Sorbel, B Evaluation of remotely sensed indices for assessing burn severity in interior Alaska using Landsat TM and ETM+. Remote Sensing of Environment, Vol. 96, pp Falkenstrom, H., and Ekstrand, S Evaluation of IRS-1C LISS-3 satellite data for defoliation assessment on Norway spruce and Scots pine. Remote Sensing of Environment, Vol. 82, pp Foody, G.M Remote sensing of tropical forest environments: Towards the monitoring of environmental resources for sustainable development. International Journal of Remote Sensing, Vol. 24, pp Franklin, S.E., and Wulder, M.A Remote sensing methods in medium spatial resolution satellite data land cover classification of large areas. Progress in Physical Geography, Vol. 26, No. 2, pp Geomatics Canada Standards and specifications of the National Topographic Database Edition Catalogue No. M52-70/1996, Minister of Supply and Services Canada, Sherbrooke, Que. Han, T., Wulder, M.A., White, J.C., Coops, N.C., Alvarez, M.F., and Butson, C An efficient protocol to process Landsat images for change detection with tasseled cap transformation. Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, Vol. 4, No. 1, pp Hansen, A.J., Neilson, R.P., Dale, V.H., Flather, C.H., Iverson, L.R., Currie, D.J., Shafer, S., Cook, R., and Bartlein, P.J Global change in forests: responses of species, communities, and biomes. Bioscience, Vol. 51, pp Hansen, M.C., Roy, D.P., Lindquist, E., Adusei, B., Justice, C.O., and Altstatt, A A method for integrating MODIS and Landsat data for systematic monitoring of forest cover and change in the Congo Basin. Remote Sensing of Environment, Vol. 112, No. 5, pp Healey, S.P., Yang, Z., Cohen, W.B., and Pierce, D.J. 2006a. Application of two regression-based methods to estimate the effects of partial harvest on forest structure using Landsat data. Remote Sensing of Environment, Vol. 101, pp Healey, S.P., Cohen, W.B., Yang, Z., and Kennedy, R. 2006b. Remotely sensed data in the mapping of forest harvest patterns. In Understanding forest disturbance and spatial pattern. Edited by M.A. Wulder and S.E. Franklin. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla. 246 p Government of Canada

7 Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing / Journal canadien de télédétection Hickey, G.M., Innes, J.L., Kozak, R.A., Bull, G.Q., and Vertinsky, I Monitoring and information reporting for sustainable forest management: An international multiple case study analysis. Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 209, pp Irons, J., and Masek, J.G Requirements for a Landsat data continuity mission. Photogrammetric Engineering & Remote Sensing, Vol. 72, pp Jin, S., and Sader, S.A Comparison of time-series tasselled cap wetness and the normalized difference moisture index in detecting forest disturbances. Remote Sensing of Environment, Vol. 94, pp Malingreau, J.P Satellite monitoring of the world s forests: A review. Unasylva, Vol. 44, pp Markham, B.L., Storey, J.C., Williams, D.L., and Irons, J.R Landsat sensor performance: history and current status. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Vol. 42, pp Masek, J White paper on use of gap-filled products for the Mid-Decadal Global Land Survey (GLS). Available from documents.html [cited 29 January 2008]. Maxwell, S.K., Schmidt, G.L., and Storey, J.C A multi-scale approach to filling gaps in Landsat ETM+ SLC-off images. International Journal of Remote Sensing, Vol. 28, pp McMichael, C.E., Hope, A.S., Roberts, D.A., and Anaya, M.R Post-fire recovery of leaf area index in California chaparral: a remote sensingchronosequence approach. International Journal of Remote Sensing, Vol. 25, pp Muchoney, D.M., and Haack, B.N Change detection for monitoring forest defoliation. Photogrammetric Engineering & Remote Sensing, Vol. 60, pp Wilson, E.H., and Sader, S.A Detection of forest harvest type using multiple dates of Landsat TM imagery. Remote Sensing of Environment, Vol. 80, pp Woodcock, C.E., Macomber, S.A., Pax-Lenney, M., and Cohen, W.B Monitoring large areas for forest change using Landsat: Generalization across space, time and Landsat sensors. Remote Sensing of Environment, Vol. 78, pp Wulder, M., and Franklin, S.E Polygon decomposition with remotely sensed data: Rationale, methods, and applications. Geomatica, Vol. 55, No. 1, pp Wulder, M.A., Kurz, W.A., and Gillis, M National level forest monitoring and modeling in Canada. Progress in Planning, Vol. 61, pp Wulder, M.A., Dymond, C.C., White, J.C., Leckie, D.G., and Carroll, A.L. 2006a. Surveying mountain pine beetle damage of forests: A review of remote sensing opportunities. Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 221, pp Wulder, M.A., White, J.C., Bentz, B., Alvarez, M.F., and Coops, N.C. 2006b. Estimating the probability of mountain pine beetle red-attack damage. Remote Sensing of Environment, Vol. 101, pp Wulder, M.A., White, J.C., Goward, S.N., Masek, J.G., Irons, J.R., Herold, M., Cohen, W.B., Loveland, T.R., and Woodcock, C.E Landsat continuity: Issues and opportunities for land cover monitoring. Remote Sensing of Environment, Vol. 112, No. 3, pp Zhang, C., Li, W., and Travis, D Gaps-fill of SLC-off Landsat ETM+ satellite image using a geostatistical approach. International Journal of Remote Sensing, Vol. 28, pp Nemmour, H., and Chibani, Y Fuzzy neural network architecture for change detection in remotely sensed imagery. International Journal of Remote Sensing, Vol. 27, pp Prenzel, B.G., and Treitz, P Spectral and spatial filtering for enhanced thematic change analysis of remotely sensed data. International Journal of Remote Sensing, Vol. 27, pp Price, K.P., and Jakubauskas, M.E Spectral retrogression and insect damage in lodgepole pine successional forests. International Journal of Remote Sensing, Vol. 19, pp Rogan, J., Franklin, J., and Roberts, D A comparison of methods for monitoring multitemporal vegetation change using Thematic Mapper imagery. Remote Sensing of Environment, Vol. 80, pp Scaramuzza, P., Micijevic, E., and Chander, G SLC gap-filled products: Phase one methodology. Available from products/slc_off_data_products/documents/slc_gap_fill_methodology.pdf [cited 22 February 2008]. Skakun, R.S., Wulder, A.M., and Franklin, S.E Sensitivity of the thematic mapper enhanced wetness difference index to detect mountain pine beetle red-attack damage. Remote Sensing of Environment, Vol. 86, pp Treitz, P., and Rogan, J Remote sensing for mapping and monitoring land-cover and land-use change: An introduction. Progress in Planning, Vol. 61, pp USGS Phase 2 gap-fill algorithm: SLC-off gap-filled products gap-fill algorithm methodology. Available from GA4861.pdf [cited 22 February 2008] Government of Canada 99

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