MECMUASI ÜÇ AYLIK. . ~0-u EMM\JZ Islam na\y-\n\\\}ı\\'ö. '"'""\ Olıv li.., -t"""l!.- \~i{ f -~~. Ku ~iısl -=---ll---:--. :ı.

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1 , & t >&~ce,.emv...,y..~ ef?b O...._.!..~~-"""--.- '"'""\ Olıv li.., -t"""l!.- \~i{ f -~~.. ~0-u Ku ~iısl -=---ll---:--. :ı. Islam na\y-\n\\\}ı\\'ö. EMM\JZ ~ İÇİNDEKİL~R MECMUASI ÜÇ AYLIK DİNİ, İLMİ, EDEBI ARAŞTIRMALAR MECMUASI Cilt: IV, Sayı: 1 Temmuz 1979 Ramazan 1399 SAHİBİ İSLAM MEDENİYETİ V AKFI Adına Selçuk ERAYDIN Yazı İşleri Müdürü: Dr. Cahid BALTACI İdari ve Teknik işler: Seyyid Ali Kahraman Hattat-Ressam: Turan SEVGili Bozdoğa:n İdare Yeri: Başkan: Kemeri Cemal Yener Cad. No: 132. VEFA/İST. Telf: Ha:bcrleşme ve Havaleler PK Sirkeci - İST. Fiyatı: TUR~ 50 T.L..A!bone Şartları Yurt içi: 150 T.L. Yurt Dışı: 300 T.L.. Tekrar Çıkarken islam Medeniyeti 3 ' Sünnetin İslam Hukukundaki Yeri ve Önemi Abidin Sönmez 7 Kadi-asker Rftz-namçeleri'nin Tarihi ve Kültürel Ehemmiyeti Dr. Cahid Baltacı 55 The Ottoman Archives as a source for the Ecoİıomic His- tory. of the Muslim Countries. Dr. Mustafa Bilge 101 Neşredilmeyen yazılar, istenildiğinde iade edilir. Mecmuanın ismi zikredilmeden iktihas edilemez.

2 '. The Ottoman Archives As A Source For The Economic 'History Of. The Muslim Countries ARCHİVE: Dr. Mustafa BİLGE 'rerrn orlginally used to designate a ıbulid.ing or part of a buildllig in which collections of records and. docum.ents were housed. I ts second and. rnore frequ~nt current use is as a terrp. deseribmg the collections of records and docum.ents stored in such a place. Both definitions are now commonly encountered 1 With the estaiblislıment of the Archives Nationales in 1789 and of the Archives Departmantales in 1796, there was for the first time a.unified administration of archives which. enrbraced all extant repositories and record-:-producing puıblic agencies. The second result was the? implicit acknowledgement that the ~tate was responsible for the care of its decumentary herita;ge. The third result was the principle of accessibility of archives to the public 2 j The English Public Record act of 1838 brought all separate collections together and placed them und er the master of the. rolls. England, therefore, is the outstanding example of centralization, whereas the more usual practice is decentralization of archives to the domestic area in which they originated 3 ARCHİVE AS A SOURCE FOR THE STUDİES H!STORY: OF ECONOMİC The economic historian, even more than his colleagues in other fields of historical inquiry, has a liking for doclınıentary evidence - a marked See, Encyclopedia. 'International, 1967 edi tion, Vol. 1, p See, Encylopedia ıbritann ica, 1973 edition, ivol. 2,.p. 326 B. 3 - :See, ıencyclopedia of Britannioa, p

3 tendeney to prefer arehives to annals and _other literature. The historians will of course Ibe aware of the irisights, and even information that books can give them, and they will appriciate the relevance to their researches of the image of a society as reflected ni. the works of its authors and compilers. But whenever possible they will direct their main attention. to. the contamporary and immediate evidence or trace of histarical events,. in their original form, not as transmitted-and therefore transmuted - iby a literary intermediary 1 The modern economic histopans rely very largely on published and unpublished documentary and statistical materials. In the west, even ~he medievalists have at their" disposal a mass of records, pu!blic. and prlvate, lay and ecclesiastical, central and local, on w hi ch_ to base tlı,eir study of economic structures and economic change 2 Archival matarial on the other hand is very much important for those who study on the history of social instututions, administration or fiscal matters, for they contain a lot of information on land-tt;;nure, taxa~tion and other related matters 8 IMFORTANCE of THE OTTOM::AN.. A.RCHİVES: No similar wealth of documents has co~e down to us from any other State of the Muslim Near East arid Middle East, says Prof. Uriel Heyd for the Ottoman Archives 4 Ottoman Archives ıbegin in the fifteenth century, and become really full in the sixteenth. For earlier periods of Middle Eastern History, and for areas outside the Ottoman Empire, there are, with certain limited exception, no archives at all. This do es not. m ean alt all that there a,re no docum mts. Consideraıble numbers of dcicuments have in fact survived, and may ibe found in public and private collections. This point should anyhow be remembered that the states of the medieval Middle East, with the exception of Ottoman Empire, were destroyed, and their archives, ceasing to serve any practical purpose, were neglected, scattered and 1 - See, <Bernard Lewis, 'Sources for the Economic History of of _the ımiddle East', Studies In the economlc history of- rt!he Ml d die!east, edited by M.A. Cook, London 1970, p See, Bernard lewis, Sources for t'he Economic History of the Middle East, p See; Omer Lutfu 1 Barlkan, 'Tahrir defterlerinin istatistik verimleri hakk;inda bir arastirma', IV. Jur.k Tar.lh Kongresi, ı~as1m 1948, P See, Uriel 'Heyd, Ottoman ıdocuments on Palestlne, 1r p. XV. 102

4 lost 1 The _ottoman Empire was by no means the first Middle Fastern State to maintain detailed administrative records 2 Prof. M.A. Cook of London University says: «No compamble arehive su._rvives for any other pre-modern Middle Eastern State 3.» There is no doubt that the Ottoman Archives are very rich sources of information on econo;rnic matters. Anather important documents is the pre-ottoman- material pres~rved in -the Ottoman Archives; most of it, unfortunately, in Ottoman copies of adaptations. Ottoman policy in a newly conquered province was usually very conservative and normally İnaintained, at least for a while, the existing fiscal and administrative practice 4 Large numbers of individ:ıal documents survive in isolation - some in the fori? of inscriptions, others quoted in the texts of the chronicles; but _ only for one period after the rise of Islam is any important body:_ of origi _nal documents availruble - ançl the light they have sh es on the period from. which they derive has deepened the surrouding darlqıess 5 Although the documents in the Ottoman Archives- contain very interesting and im portant information for the practice of the ecönomic principles of Islam, the systematic use of the documents by Muslim economic historians is unfortunately at a very rudimentary sta;ge.. Valuable documents in the Ottoman Archives have attracted the attentions of the European and American scholars 6 so much so that they write several articles and books 7 depending entirely on the materials in the archives and they have been continuously sending their Ph. D. students to do research there. They say in every occasion that the Ottoman Archives offer material of wealth and diversity which is not easily found elsewhere. 1 - lbid., :p See, Bemard tewis, 'Studies 'in the Ottoman Archives-1, :SSCAS, ıvol. xvi., part 3, p _ See, M.A. Cook, 'lntroductpry :Pemarks', studies!in the IEconomic _History_ of the Middle :East, p _ 4 - See, IBernard Levvis, "Sources for the!ecqnomlc History of the Mlddle East', p See, Idam, 'The Ottoman Archives as a source for the history of the Arab lands', p. 139, 6 - L. Fekete, IBernar.d Lewis, Ur-i el 'Heyd, Stanford J. Shaw, V.J. :Parry m ay be mentioned among them. _ 7 - Uriel Heyd, The Ottoman Documents en Palestine. 103

5 . THE OTTOMAN ARCHİVES: There are two main Archives in Istanıbul. The first one is the Basvekalet Arsivi (the Archives of the Prime Minister's Office) which is the central state arvhives of Turkey today, and Topkapi Sarayi Arsivi (the archives preseryed in the Topkapi Sarayi Museuin). Apart from these two main collections in Istanbul there are some regional archives in Ankara and other eities. The most important are the Vakiflar Genel Mudurluğu Arsivi (the records of the General Directorate) in Ankara and the archives of the religious courts colled Sijillat-i Sher'iyyeı. Archives are compiled not for histarical but admjnitrative purposes. Ottomans there fore kept their archives very good. Every single document and bound register ( daftar) was given im portance and care. Documents were classified, kept and cl_eaned regularly. and even. the keepers were selected, very carefully, among the most trust\vorthy persons. It is narrated that on a gravestone of a keeper was written "you may give your head but may not betray a secret" 2 We give here a document from the Basvekalet Arsivi showing the care and attention given to preserve the materials in the Archives in Ottoman times. "To the honourruble Minister of forigen affairs", Among the duties should be given prioity is to preserve letters, agreements, files and bound registers which have very important records on.the state riıatters. To keep all these documeiıts very well it is necessary to store them in a stone building. There is a good house, as you know which belong to the Prime Minister's wife. This huilding is now vacant and _might be used for that purpose. Old letters of the Iate Sriltans to the Sha reefs of Mecca and other.leaders of foreign states, valua:ble registers should easily ibe fetched and consulted if needed. Th~refore you kindly have them stored in the said building and entrust head of the Malıtar (leader of a band of music) with this duty. He should do his work with more care. It should be his duty to place the documents in the building every evelling and take theni out every morning. He should keep them under a very 1. - See, Si dj il in Encylopedia of Islam. 2 - See, Om er Lutfu Ha~kan, Tur-kiyede Imparatorluk dev~irlerinin <huyu k nufus ve arasi.tahrirleri

6 strrict control and should nqt!et anyone enter the building except the officers in charge. You should observe that tihs system will work properly 1 The ottomans used to keep their documents in treasures (hazine) to. gether with their most valua;ble things 2 The war and post-war periods and the change of reglıne and the alpha;b~t brought a change for the worse, and a period of neglect culminated in t:q,e sele of 200 ıbales of finance recorde to a Bulgarian paper mill as waste pa per. As a result of ensuing seandal some the meterial was recovered and, perhaps more important, the Turkish Government began to take the problem of the archives seriously in hand 3 Başvekalet ArsivP The archives of the Prime Minister's office, the name now givt:m to the central state archives of Turkey and of the Ottoman Empire. The formation of the Otton;ıan Archives begin with tge rise of the Ottoman sta-. te, but the preserit collection, though containing a number of individual documents and registers from earlier times, da tes suıbstantially from atter the Ottoman conquest of Istanbul in 1453: The record office, in Ottoman times known as. the khazine-i Evrak (treasure of registers), orginally consisted Qf two main groups of documents; the records of the Imperial Council (Divan-ı Humayun) and of the Grand Vizier's Office (Brub-ı Ali). To this core other collectiongs were added from time to time, notalbly the records of the finance departments and the registers of the cadastral survey office. A new pase in the organisation. and study of the Basvealet Arsivi had egun in 1911, after the formation of the Ottoman Historical Soc- 1 -See,.Plate ı, (p. 11), 1 l'hls document is talven from ıihe :Basve'kalet Arsfvi, Muhlmme ıoefteri INr. 183, f See, Cevdet Turkay, Osmanlı Devlet Teskilatinda Arsivler, /Belgelerle Tur-k Tarfhi Dergisi, Nr. 45. p See, ıbernard Lewis, lihe Ottoman Archives 'as a Souroe for :the History of the History 'of ofhe Ara'b Larrds, JRA:S, 1951, p For ımore ıinformation on ıbasvekalet Arsi vi see, Mithat Sertoğlu, Muhteva Baklmln dan Basv.ekafet ıarsivi, An'kaııa, 1955; 'Bernard Lewis,. Hasvakafet Arsiıvi, Encyfopedia of Islam {New Edition). See, L.fekete, Uber Arehivalien und Archivwesen 'in der 'Tur.kei, AO,!Budapest, m. 1953, pp. '

7 iety (Tarih-i Osmani Enjumeni). In 1936 Professor L; Fekete 1 was in vi~. ted to advise on the methods 2 to ıbe followed in thes~ tasks. The conterits of the Basvekalet Arsivi may,be div:ided ibroadly, according to the form in vrhicli. they are preserved, in to two groups: a. Ewrak: Papers, 'b. Defters: Bound registers. The defter s may be considered in three main ~roups: a. The imperial council and grand vizirate;.. b. The cadaster.(ta:pu), comprising the great land and population survey of the state. c. Finance (Maliye). When the Ottoman Histarical Society was formed the main object was to study and classify the documents. Among the millions of documents classification by surbject has ıbegun and e.ven some interesting doclıments have been published in the periodical of the society'l ~.. Several people worked for the classification of the documents. Fekete, Ali Emiri, Kamil Kepeci are a~ong the people who worked for the classification and the classifications by their name are used ıby the classifications ıby their name are used by the re~ders in the reading room taday. Classification is going on taday and a:bout documeıits are classified in a year and are put in separate envelopes 4. (2) TOPKAPİ SARAY! MUZESi ARSİVİ 5 Topkapi Saray Museum Archives has some sections as Basvekalet Arsivi. For instance one of them called Yemen Fatihi Sinan Pasa Ar- sivi 6 (Archive of Sinan Pasha), which has very valua:ble wacf deeds and 1 - See, L. ıfekete, Uber Arehivalien und Archivwesen in der Turkei, AO, Budapest,.nı, 1953, pp Taday there ar.e several class'ifications ıfn Basvekalet arsivi and the ıone made. by Fakete cal! ed 1Fekete lasnifi ls stili rin use :ın. the IArcl:ıive. 3 - 'f.he name of the periodlcal ls."tarih"i Osman i Enjumenl :Mecmuasi" and later was changed as "Turk Tarihi Enjumeni Mecmuası". Mr..Aibdurrahman, Seref was the offlclal historlographer and the presi'dent of the society. See his valua'ble article In the lblbliography.. 4 -:- See, Cavdet Turkay, Osmanli ~Devlet Teskıi latinda Arsivler, p For mo re.information. and an alpha!betical index of the materials rsee, Topkap i, Sarayi Muzesi Arsi:vl Kilavuzu edited by Tahsin Oz, l-ll, fıstan'bul, For more ıinformation and a Hst of the sect:ion, see, Tahsin Oz, "Topkapi Sa ri:ıyı Muzesinde Yemen Fatini 'Sinan Pasa 'Arsiv,i, Helleten,.1946, pp. '

8 other' documents: Besides emil-t documents (such as Edirne Siclllat-i Seri'iye defterleri, a calleetion of the defters of tb:e religious court in th~ city Of Edirne which was once the capital of the Ottomans), the calleetion includes correspondence with the provinces on matters 'concerning 1 imperial household an the foundations. There are nume:rous account re-. ports suibmitted by the mutevellis (administrators) of a foundation. (,.3) OTHER ARCHİVES: ' a. Vaki:flar Genel ~iudnrlugu Arsivi in Ankara. Arehive ot the waqf (foundation) directorate. There are copies of the foundation deeds in bound registers and also some o~ginal waqfiyes (foundation deeds) most of them written in Arabic and some of them Turkish and Persian. b. SER'İYE SiCİLLERİ -Archives of the Religious Courts in the Provinces. These are regional archives and stored in differe places taday. For example Bursa Sijils1 are in Bursa city Museum, Edirne Sijils are in Topkapİ Saray archives, Istanıbul sijis are. in IstaD!bul Religious ıbuilding. IMFORTANT DOCUJ\.IENTS FOR THE ECONOMİC HİSTRY: (1) DEFTER-İ ImAKANİ OR TAPU DEFTERLERİ 1 The calleetion of registers in which were entered, during the Ottoman period, the results of the surveys_ made every 30 or 40 years until the beginning of the llth/17 th century, in accordanca with and old admin-istrative and fiscal practice. Defter-i Khakani's are fairl well classifioo and a greater part of them is to be fourid in the archives (Basvekalet Arsivi) in Istanbul where there are 1072 volumes, covering most of the provinces of the Ottoinan State. Most of the surviving defters seem to. have -been transferred to Ankara where they are kept in the Tapu ve Kadastro Mudurlugu. Defters begin with a Qanl.ınaam~ 2. a codification of the fiscal lawand cusotm of the province.. For :Bursa isijlls 'see, ıhalil 'inalcik, Bursa, tbelleten, 1947, pp See Bibliog. raphy. Fcir Adana Sijils :see, inaci ıf<um, Adana Ser' i. 'mahkeme ısicille~i uzarinde arastirmalar, lf.t.k., Ankara Kasim, '1948,!pp. ; See, Omer 'Lutfu 'Ba~kan, IEI [New ifdition). 2 --Mor-e.information on Oı;ınunname wlll come -further. 107

9 These registers contain in the main first instance a listing of the state's adult mal e population; the entry for each person states his fat-. her' s name, his legal status 1, the duties and :(lriv'ila;ges of his economic.. o rsoeial position, and the extent of his land 2 The registers also give much information regarding land use (amble, orchard, vineyard, rice paddy), the merrıibers of mills, beehives ete. And the estimated fiscal value of these sources of revenue. Moreover, the information contained in the registers is not confined to an a;grarian invertory. There is information on the revenue from customs duties, markets, official weighing scales (with thefr locations, regulations and the volume of transactions. affected), fisheries and mines. The registers make it possi'ble to esta:blish a precise distributio~ of revenue as between (imperial domain), military fiefs (timar), pious. foundations and private property. In effect the registers were a cadastre of fiefs and other land in which was entered the status of each fief with a summary statement of its tenurial history 8 : Anather cla:ssification maiıitained throughout the d~fters in that of religion. There were Muslims, Christians and J ews, of :which the last two paid certain additional taxes. Their separate registration was therefare necessary for fiscal purposes, and the registers enable us to determine the numbers and location of Muslim, Jews and Christians throughout the country 4 (2) MUH1:M:ME DEFTERİ (DEFTER OF PUBLİC AFFAİRS) 5. Among the most ~mportant materials in the archives, from the Economic History point of view, is a large number of decrees which have survived in a kinds of official «letter-ıboo~» called Muhimme Defteri or, in full, umur-i Muhimme!Defteri. It contains copies of 1 - Each househalder ls.shown as marrled or single, and his reli'gion ıs also ifn dlcated. 'Dis abled men, who are.exempt from ıtaxa:ktion, are a'lso ıdeslgnated as such. In accordanca with rthe Hanafi. Law, di sa'bled dhimrriis were also exeiııpt. 2 - More ıınformation on this might be found :in: Omer Lutfu Barkan, "Les grands recesements de la population. ~t de terr:itoire de.l' empire Ottoman et les reglstres ~mpriaux d stanstique", Revue de la ıfaculte ue ISciences Economique de I'Universite ls tanbul, 'il, ıaiso see other ıarticles of thi s author ;Jn the hiblioggraphy. 3 - See, Omer tutfu ıbarkan, "Research on t!he Ottoman f.iscai surveys', p See,.Sernard Lewis; Studies in. the Ottoman Archives-1, p See, ıbemard Lewis, 'Jihe Ottoman Archil\fes as a source for 1 history of the Arab loands, ıp

10 . (Firmans and berats, ete.) of the Ottoman Sultans addressed to off~ciı:ils in all parts of the state. ap.d until the,seventeenth century, aıso of the Sultan's letters (name) to foreign rulers. The existing volumes of the register cöver a period of over 300 years, from the middle of the sixteenth to the second half of the nineteenth century, and contain copies of more than or perhaps decrees 1 The Muhimme Defteri first attracted the attention of scholars a few years ıbefore the outbreak of the first World W ar. It is not krown when. the Mflhimme Defteri was first esta:blished. The Turldsh archives (Bas- vekalet Arsivi) in Istanbul possesses a series of over 250 volumes of the register and its supplements which cover the period from 961/1554 to 1300/18'82-3; a day-by-day record of correspondence, containing the text of. ougoing communications of all kinds. Thexs are in siple chronological order, without any classification whatever. This lack of any classification of the entries in the Muhimme Defteri, makes the search for material on a certain region or a certain matter or rather time-consuming underta Iqngı. As far as fiscal matters are concerned, these defters are very important sources. Almost all decrees in the Muhimme Defteri volumes are written in Turkish. There are also relatively few Ara:bic documents 2 3 RUUS DEFTERLERİ: The collection of registers whlch contain herats for office holders and tawarded.by the Ruus Office. They are altogether 337 volumes and registered in different classifications 8 The oldest of thesedefters is dated 953/1547 and the newest is dated 1326/1908. It means that they cover a period.of over 350 years 4 For the Economic History and history of Ottoman Law they are very valuahle sources. 1 - See, Uriel Heyd, Ottomı:ın nocuments on Palesl!ine, p. xv. 1 - See, Urlel Heyd, Ottoman IDocuments on Palestine, p lhid,.p volumeş of ;them ar-e in Hasvekalet Arsivi Kamil Kepeci classlfiı::ation bet. ween the.numbers 208 and 279. Vo'lume :numbers are.in the same classiflcation. 261 volumes of ıruus 'Defter:i are shown In the catalogue ll. of.mahzen Defteri. for more information se~. Mithat Sertoglu, Ba svekalet ArsliiJi, p For more information on Ruus registers and the ir importance as a source for flscal matters. See, Nejat Goyunç, 'XVI. Yuzyllda Huus ve Oneml', IUEI, Ta~ih Dergisi, 1967, xxll,.pp For this polnt see, p

11 ( 4) Other importan~ documents: a. Qanunname. A co~ification of the fiscallaw and oustom of a province. Defter-i Khakani's often 'begin with a Qanunname. They were prac: tical documents issued as griides to administrative us~ge 1 There were. diffe'ernt _Qalıunname's for every province and they divided into chapters and articles which clearly shows that they are prepared according. to Islamic Law 2 b. Wakfiye. (A deed oi trust in mortmain) There are numerous wakfiye's in the archives, libraries and museums. Many of them are written in Arabic. Some of the waqfs recorded in the registers date back to' the Mamluk period, while some of the oldest were founded iby Saladin and other Ayyubids. Waqfs could consist of villages, with their land and revenues, shops and houses in towns, or of certain taxes, the proceeds of. which had lb'een consecrated ıby a ruler to 'a particular purpose. There are aıbout 21 of them in Basvekalet Arsivi 3, 16 of them in Sinan Pasa Arsivi 4 A lot of them are in the main Arehive in Topkapİ Sarayi Museum and Turk ve Islam Eserleri Mlızesi (Turkish and Islamic Art Museum) in ~stanbul, Vakiflar Genel Mudurlugu Arsivi (The Arehive of the General Directorate of.waqfs) in Ankara, in Ankara, and in several libraries all over Turkey. They are very. valuruble sources for the studies in many fields includin!g Economic History of the Muslim Count- ries. 1 - Some of the Oanunname texts are printed; See, ümer L:utfu ibaıikan, 'XV. ve XVI. Asirlarda Turkiye'de Zira'i Ekonominin Hukuki -ve Mali Esasları', 50 Oanunname texts are giveıi ı.ı the end of this boo:k.. The re are al so same.'of them in the librarles, for exampi"e see, MSS. Veliyuddin Nr. 1970; Topkapi Saray :Mus_eum Revan 'Kosku 1.-ihrary, Nr See, Hal-il lnalcik, 'O'smanHiarda Ralyyet 'Rusumu,' Belleten, 1959, ;p;!576 (foot note). 3 - For the list of,waqfilye's ~in Basvekalet ArsM See, Mithat Sertoğlu, Muhteva Bakimindan Basvekalet Arslvl, p For the list of Waflye's. 'in Sinan Pas ha 'Archive {A f!ection in Topkapi Sara yi Archive) See, Tahsin Oz, 'Topkapi Sarayi Muzesinde Yemen Fatih! Sinan Pasa Arslvi', BeHeten, ı194!j; ıpp

12 BIBLIOG-RAPHY ~bdurrahm'an eref and Musa Kazım, "E:vrak i ıatik ve Vesaik-i Tarihiyemiz", Tarih! Osman! Encumeni Mecmuası, Jssue 1, pp and {Our ıhistorical Documents)~. Bar.kaıi, Ömer- Lütfü, "Research on the. Ottomaiı Surveys", Studies ln the Economic Hlı;troy of the Middle East, edited by. M. A. Cook, London, 1970, pp Barkan, Ömer Lütfü, "T<ahrir Defterlerinin Istatistik verımleri hakkında bir araştırma", IVth Turkish Hlsto~ical Confer.el!ce, Ankara, 1948, pp Barkan, Ömer Lütfü, XV. ve XVI. asırlarda Türkiye'de Zir ai EkonomininHukuki ve Mali esasla'f'ı, lstarı:bul (There -are a'bout 50 Oanunname texts In the end). Barlıkan, Ömer Lütfü, "Les ıgrands recesemnets de la population et du terrioira de -l' empire Ottoman et Ies registres lmperlaux de statisti gues", Revue de 'la Faculte des Sciences Economique de l'universite lstan'bul, H, Barkan, Ömer Lütfü, "Essai sur fes donnees statistique de registres de recensements. dans I'Empire Ottoman aux XV erne et XVI e me siecles", J.ournal of the Economic and social History of the Or-ient,. i, Barkan, Ömer Lütfü, "Defter-i Khakanl", Encyclopedia of Islam, (f\jew Editlon).. Cahen, C., "L'ıhistoire economique et sociale de L'-or.ient Musulman", Studia lslamica, iii, 1965, pp Deny, Jean, Sommaire des arcbives Turque du Caire, Le Caf.re Dykmans, G., HistoJre economlque et soclale de l'ancienne Egypte, Paris, Elker, Selahhaddin, "Mustafa Reşid Paşa ve Türk Arşi.vciliği", IVth Turkish Historlcal Conference, 1948; pp (Turkish Archives and Mustafa.Rashid Pashalı Fekete, L., "Die Siyagat Schrift :ın der Turkischen Finanz Verwaltung", IBibllotheca. O~ientalis Hungarica VII),,f,.Sudapest, Goyunc, Nejat, "XV. Asirda Huus ve Onemi", lstıanfbul Unlversitesi Edebf.yat Fakultesi Dergisi, Mart, 1967, lssue 22, pp (Ruus registers and its importance In the XVthe century.) Grohmann, A., Elnfuhrung und Chrestomithie zur Aralıisehen Papyruskunde, _Prague, Heyd, Uriel, Ottoman Documents on Palestine, 1 552, -1615, (A study of the flrman according to the Muhimme Defteri), London, lnan, Afet, Apercu General sur t'histor.ie economique de I'Empire Turc Ottoman, ls- tanbul, { lnalcik, Ha'lil, " Bursa Ser'iye sicillerinde Fatih Sultan Mehmed',in fermanları", Bellaten, 1947, pp (,Pirmans of Sultan Mehmed ll. the Conquerer in Bursa Seriye re gistei's). i ;; '. i lnalcik, Halil, "Osmanlı! anda Raiyyet Rusumu,", BeMaten 1959, pp Onforma. tıion on Bennak and lspençe). lnalcik, Halil, "The.Ottoman Economic Mind and Aspects of the Ottoman Economy", Studies_ In the Economic Hiııtory of the M!ddle East, edited ıby MA. Cook, London, Pp 20. 7'218., 1 ı' ı j;: :iii;!. - ~ ı. ~ 1i ~ı a.. ~ lnalcik, Halll, Suret-I Defter i Sancak i Arvanid, Ankara Lewis, -Bernard, "The Ottoman Archiıves as a Source for the History of the Arab Lands, JRAS, , Ostober ıpp lll

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