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1 Rjopes Research Journal in Organizational Psychology & Educational Studies 1(2) Rjopes Emerging Academy Resources (2012) (ISSN: ) PRINCIPALS READINESS FOR THE USE ICT IN SCHOOL ADMINISTRATION IN ANAMBRA STATE OF NIGERIA Unachukwu G. O 1 and Nwankwo C. A 2 1 Department of Educational Management and Policy, Faculty of Education, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka. Anambra State, Nigeria 2 Department of Guidance and Counselling, Faculty of Education, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka. Anambra State, Nigeria Corresponding Author: Nwankwo C. A ABSTRACT The study was on principals readiness for the use of ICT in school administration in Anambra state. It has been observed that most of the people made principals of secondary schools in the state shy away from the use of computer. Some of them claim that innovation is for the new age. Again, there were reports of administrative problems in the schools. Some of these problems would have not been there if ICT was employed in school management by the principals. Three research questions and six hypotheses guided the study. The study adopted survey design. The population of the study consists of 260 principals made up of 67 male and 193 females. The sample of the study stood at 234 principals made up of 60 males and 174 females representing 90 percent of the population. Proportionately stratified random sampling technique was use in selecting the sample of the study. The stratification was based on gender of the principals. The instrument used for data collection is a questionnaire titled: Principals ICT Usage Readiness questionnaire (PIURQ). PIURQ is a structured type. PIURQ was validated by two experts in guidance and counselling, two experts in educational management and policy and one expert in measurement and evaluation. To determine the reliability of the questionnaire, 30 copies were administered to 30 principals in Delta state which shares the same characteristics with Anambra state. Cromback alpha was adopted in calculating the coefficient alphas. At the end, sections A, B and C have alpha values of 0.88, 0.92 and 0.76 respectively. The data for the study was collected through direct administration and collection method. The researchers along with four research assistants administered the instrument directly to the principals. At the end, a total of 231 copies of the questionnaire were returned showing high return rate. The data were analysed using frequency and percentages, mean, aggregate scores and t test and Chi square.( ² لا) The findings revealed among others that, majority of the secondary school principals are not ready for the use ICT in school administration. There is no significant difference in the levels of readiness of the principals due to gender in the areas of knowledge and skills of ICT. However, they differ significantly in their levels of knowledge and physical readiness due to location of their schools. Based on the findings and their implications recommendations were made. Emerging Academy Resources KEYWORDS: ICT, Cromback Alpha, Principal, School Administration, Anambra State. INTRODUCTION Change has been happening at an uneven pace in any growth-oriented industry, and the education sector is Scholars like Adebayo and Adesope (2007) describe ICT as scientific, technological and engineering disciplines and the management technologies used in no exception. Rapid growth in the field of education the handling of information, processing and has made governance in academic sector a very complex task. But this could be made simple through applications related to computers. ICT as an extension tool could enhance the flow of information the use of latest technology for communication which in the application of school administration. is known as information communication technology Information administration consists of three main (ICT). According to Technical Centre for components namely Student administration, Staff Agricultural and Rural Cooperation (CTA) (2003), ICT are technologies which facilitate communication and thus the processing and transmission of Administration and General administration with Communication as an integral part of these three components. According to Purnomo and Lee (2010) information electronically. This ICT includes ICT has tremendous potential to revolutionise the technologies and methods for storing, managing and processing as well as communicating information. way information, knowledge and new technology is managed, developed and delivered. 114

2 The Federal Republic of Nigeria has no specific policy for ICT in education. The Ministry of Education created its ICT department in February 2007, notwithstanding several government agencies and other stakeholders in the private sector having initiated ICT-driven projects and programmes to impact all levels of the educational sector. Nigeria s education ministry is yet to design its ICT policy for education. The Ministry s ICT department was created in February However several different initiatives by government agencies and the private sector to introduce and promote ICTs in education are underway. The drawback to these programmes is the generally sporadic and insufficient supply of electric power in the urban and rural areas. The use of information and communication technology (ICT) is becoming progressively more widespread throughout various sectors including education, business as well as agriculture. Among the most popular ICT applications are e-learning and information management. Organizations of all types and sizes, including schools, have recognized that the usage of ICT in the work environment is important as it presents with unprecedented challenges that helps individuals to acquire an inquiring, critical and creative mind to capitalize on the opportunities driven by the explosive growth of information, knowledge and technology (kumar, Rose & D Silva, 2008). Geisert and Futrell (2001) exclaimed that if teachers were to revolutionize their classrooms with computers, ordinary students would make massive gains, wherever illiteracy is a problem, it would be dissolved, and students would have immense new vistas opened to them. Moreover, policy makers hoping to improve the quality and quantity of student learning have become increasingly willing to make major investments of fiscal and human resources into hardware, software, and training. In Anambra state the government of Mr. Peter Obi sent sets of computers to schools without thinking of capable users and internet facility. ICT and school management is an important issue, since it is well recognised that senior managers in schools have a major impact upon classroom and curriculum practices, and that the use of ICT within schools is permeating aspects of school practice to the extent that it will impact upon the practice of all staff (both teaching and non-teaching). There are two key assertions which imply that the field of ICT and school management is a vital field to explore, to support appropriately both current and future practice: - Senior managers in schools have a major impact upon classroom and curriculum practices, and the ways in which changes are introduced. - Use of ICT within schools is permeating aspects of school practice increasingly, and will impact upon the practice of all staff (both teaching and non-teaching, and if not at this present time, then in the near future). School principals can embed ICT within teaching, learning, management and planning: develop a vision for the development and integration of ICT across the curriculum and promote this vision within and beyond the school provide appropriate, sustained ICT professional development for all levels of staff become an ICT learner along with staff and students use management information for school improvement and provide staff with personal access to ICT (Ong & Lay,2006). For Agyeman (2007) while this guide focuses on ICT infrastructure, including computer hardware and software, infrastructure is only one element of the effective integration of ICT in schools. Schools also need to focus on the way that they use and manage ICT, including: enabling teaching and learning supporting professional learning for teachers and school staff improving administrative processes supporting effective information management. Many researches like that of kumar, Rose and D Silva (2008) reveal that the integration of ICT helps to reduce the complexity and enhance the overall administration of higher education. Computers can be used extensively for educational administration. The following are some of the areas where computers can be used for effective educational administration: General Administration Pay Roll and Financial Accounting Administration of Student Data Inventory Management Personnel Records Maintenance Library System Information and Communication Technology (ICT) plays a vital role in supporting powerful, efficient management and administration in education sector. It is specified that technology can be used right from student administration to various resource administration in an education institution (Maki, 2008). The various ways of introducing technology in education institution administration are the following (Salerno, 2009): Sending notices and agendas to staff, rather than printing and distributing them Submission of lesson plans through Foster technology growth by asking parents to write addresses on medical forms. Insist that all teachers create a class Web page 115

3 Attend technology conferences to see what other schools are doing, what other teachers are doing to integrate technology, and what principals are doing to encourage the use of technology in their schools and classrooms. Admissions through web-enabled services. All day-to-day activities of the institution (General Administration) Staff administration Maki (2008) specified that ICT has played a major role in reducing operational inefficiency and improving decision-making in many areas of governance in schools and school administrative subsystems. Administrative subsystems include: Personnel administration, student administration, resources administration, financial administration and general administration. If well applied in Anambra state by the principals there is no doubt it will do the same. According to Krishnaveni and Meenakumari (2010) ICT provides several facilities and possibilities for educational administrators to do their tasks and communication and information systems could change the very nature of higher education, allowing information to be transferred, stored, retrieved, and processed by almost all who work, study or interact with a given institution. There is an increase in managerial effectiveness and efficiency through usage of Information and Communication technologies. They also have it that enhancing the usage of ICT on these functional areas and especially for general administration will enable enhancement of overall information administration in higher education institutions in the realm of global competitive environment. One will benefit from ICT if the individual is ready for the use of ICT. The individual is ready if he/she has the knowledge, skills, and the facilities for ICT. According to So and Swatman (2006) readiness is defined as being prepared mentally or physically for some experience or action. In terms of e-learning, Borotis and Poulymenakou (2004:1622) defined e- Learning readiness as the mental or physical readiness of an organization for some e-learning experience or action". Trinidad (2002) proposes an initial assessment of the Philippines preparedness for e-learning which consisted of several technological factors such as computer, internet, and telephone line readiness; educational factors such as network learning, network society, network economy and network policy; English proficiency and computer/internet literacy. Some prior studies have demonstrated that demographic and characteristic background such as age, gender, ethnicity, marital status, level of education, prior experiences with computers and the Internet influence the ICT and or e-learning adoption (Muilenberg & Berge 2005; Ong & Lay 2006). Therefore, this study which examines some key demographic variables which could influence the readiness towards ICT programme implementation in school administration for principals. ICT programme implementation in a developing country relies on various facets such as infrastructure, government policy, cultural factors, organisational and human resources. Human resources are one of crucial factors to help diffuse the ICT programme. Hence, this study focuses on the human resources factor to investigate the readiness of school principals for the use of ICT in school administration. The study is guided by the following research questions: 1. How far are secondary school principals knowledgably ready for the use of ICT in school administration? 2. How far are secondary school principals skilfully ready for the use of ICT in school administration? 3. How far are secondary school principals physically ready for the use of ICT in school administration? The study also tested the following null hypotheses: 1. There is no significant difference in mean scores of male and female principals on their knowledge readiness for the use of ICT in school administration. 2. There is no significant difference in mean scores of male and female principals on their skill readiness for the use of ICT in school administration. 3. The mean scores of male and female principals on their physical readiness for the use of ICT in school administration do not differ significantly. 4. The mean scores of urban and rural school principals on their knowledge readiness for the use of ICT in school administration do not differ significantly. 5. The mean scores of urban and rural school principals on their skill readiness for the use of ICT in school administration do not differ significantly. 6. There is no significant difference in mean scores of urban and rural school principals physical readiness for the use of ICT in school administration. METHOD The study adopted survey design by using questionnaire for data collection and a representative sample of the population. It was carried out in Anambra state of Nigeria. There are 260 government owned secondary schools in the state under six education zones. The state has 21 local government areas. Most of the schools are located in the rural settings. The population of the study consists of 260 principals made up of 67 male and 193 females. The sample of the study stood at 234 principals made up of 60 males and 174 females representing 90 percent 116

4 of the population. Proportionately stratified random sampling technique was use in selecting the sample of the study. The stratification was based on gender of the principals. The instrument used for data collection is a questionnaire titled: Principals ICT Usage Readiness questionnaire (PIURQ). PIURQ is a structured type and has two parts: Part 1 was on demographic data while part 2 was on principals ICT usage readiness. Part 2 was structured on four point response options strongly agree (4), agree (3), disagree (2) and strongly disagree(1) and has three sections A, B and C. Section A is on Principals knowledge base ICT readiness and has 15 items, Section B is on Principals skill base ICT readiness with 15 items, while Section C is on Principals facility base ICT readiness and has 15 items. PIURQ was validated by two experts in educational technology, two experts in educational management and policy and one expert in measurement and evaluation. The comments of these experts ware considered in the final draft of the questionnaire. To determine the reliability of the questionnaire, 30 copies were administered to 30 principals in Delta state which shares the same characteristics with Anambra state. Cromback alpha was adopted in calculating the coefficient alphas. At the end, sections A, B and C have alpha values of 0.88, 0.92 and 0.76 respectively. They were high enough showing that the instrument is internally consistent and reliable. The data for the study was collected through direct administration and collection method. The researchers along with four research assistants administered the instrument directly to the principals. At the end, a total of 231 copies of the questionnaire were returned showing high return rate. The data were analysed using frequency and percentages, mean, aggregate scores and t test and Chi square In the scoring the mean of 2.50 was used as.( ² لا) acceptance point for item base questions while any principal who scored 37.5 and above was said to have the knowledge or skill base readiness. That is 2.50 X 15 = The any item less than 50% was considered not to be available in the schools for principals use. RESULTS The summary of the analysis of the data collected for the study were presented in tables to highlight the major findings. Table 1: Range of scores of the principals on their knowledge base readiness for ICT usage Range Scores N Remark Poor Knowledge Good Knowledge Total 231 Table 1 indicates that 79 out of 231 principals used in the study have good knowledge of ICT and are ICT ready knowledge wise, while 152 other have poor knowledge of ICT and are not ICT ready in Anambra State. Table 2: Range of scores of the principals on their skill base readiness for ICT usage Range Scores N Remark Poor ICT skill acquisition Good ICT skill acquisition Total 231 Table 2 shows that 46 out of 231 principals used in the study have good ICT skill acquisition and are ICT ready skill wise, while 185 other have poor ICT skill acquisition and are not ICT ready in Anambra State. Table 3: Frequencies and percentages of principals who have various ICT facilities for school Management S/N ICT Facilities Freq. % Remark 31. Computer for student registration / enrolment and for maintenance of attendance of students Not Available 32. Internet facility Not Available 33. Electronic media for Communication of academic details of students to their parents / guardians Not Available 34. Generating Set Not Available 35 Availability of timetable / class schedule in electronic form Not Available 36. Backup equipments Not Available 37. Computer for Staff Administration Not Available 38. Electronic equipment for Automation of attendance and leave management of staff Not Available 39. Electronic media for performance appraisal Not Available 40. E-media for Communicating with staff Not Available 41. E-circulars for the institution regarding official matters Not Available 42. E-kiosks are available in the institution Not Available 43. E-media for scheduling / allocation of halls for examinations Not Available 44. E-kiosks for dissemination of information in the institution Not Available 45. E-media for the processing and display of results of students Not Available Table 3 reveals that none 15 school base ICT facilities are available in the schools studied. Only 103 (44.60%) principals indicated that they have generating set in their schools. 117

5 Table 4: t-test on mean scores of male and female principals on their knowledge readiness for the use of ICT in school administration Male NS Female NS = Not Significant Table 4 shows that at 0.05 level of significance and 229df the calculated t 1.07 is less than the critical t Therefore, the first null hypothesis is accepted. So, male and female principals do not differ significantly in their knowledge readiness for the use of ICT in school administration. Table 5: t-test on mean scores of male and female principals on their skill readiness for the use of ICT in school administration Male NS Female Table 5 reveals that at 0.05 level of significance and 229df the calculated t 0.36 is less than the critical t Therefore, the first null hypothesis is accepted. So, male and female principals do not differ significantly in their skill readiness for the use of ICT in school administration. Table 6: Chi square on the male and female principals physical readiness on the use ICT in school administration Source of variation Male Female Cal. ² لا df Crit. ² لا P 0.05 Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Total ² لا ² لا is greater than the critical Table 6 reveals that at 0.05 significant level and 14df the calculated Therefore, the third null hypothesis is rejected. Then there is significant difference in the physical readiness of male and female principals on the use of ICT in school administration in Anambra state. Table 7: t-test on mean scores of urban and rural principals on their knowledge readiness for the use of ICT in school administration Urban Rural = Significant Table 7 shows that at 0.05 level of significance and 229df the calculated t 2.17 is greater than the critical t Therefore, the fourth null hypothesis is rejected. So, urban and rural principals do not differ significantly in their knowledge readiness for the use of ICT in school administration. 118

6 Table 8: t-test on mean scores of urban and rural principals on their skill readiness for the use of ICT in school administration Urban NS Rural Table 8 indicates that at 0.05 level of significance and 229df the calculated t 1.09 is less than the critical t Therefore, the fifth null hypothesis is accepted. So, urban and rural principals do not differ significantly in their skill readiness for the use of ICT in school administration. Table 9: Chi square on the urban and rural principals physical readiness on the use ICT in school administration Source of variation Male Female Cal. ² لا df Crit. ² لا P 0.05 Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Total Table 9 indicates that at 0.05 significant level and 14df the calculated ² لا is greater than the critical ² لا Therefore, the sixth null hypothesis is rejected. Then there is significant difference in the physical readiness of urban and rural principals on the use of ICT in school administration in Anambra state. DISCUSSION The findings of this study have shown that majority of the principals in secondary schools in Anambra state are not in any way ready for the use of ICT in school administration. It has been revealed that only very few of them are have the knowledge, the skills and the facilities for ICT usage in there schools. The principals are found not ready because the individual is ready if he/she has the knowledge, skills, and the facilities for ICT. According to So and Swatman (2006) readiness is defined as being prepared mentally or physically for some experience or action. In terms of e-learning, Borotis and Poulymenakou (2004:1622) defined ICT readiness as the mental or physical readiness of an organization for some e- Learning experience or action". Trinidad (2002) proposes an initial assessment of the Philippines preparedness for e-learning which consisted of several technological factors such as computer, internet, and telephone line readiness; educational factors such as network learning, network society, network economy and network policy; English proficiency and computer/internet literacy. The implications of the findings in this study are that the school principals who are not ready for the use of ICT in the job will be having problems in methods for storing, managing and processing as well as communicating information in this present era when ICT makes things easy for people in management. According to Purnomo and Lee (2010) ICT has tremendous potential to revolutionise the way information, knowledge and new technology is managed, developed and delivered. Lack of or poor use ICT in schools in recent time has could lead administrative problems, poor staff and students management and poor performances among the students. Maki (2008) stated that ICT could play major roles in reducing operational inefficiency and improving decision-making in many areas of governance in schools and school administrative subsystems. Administrative subsystems include: Personnel administration, student administration, resources administration, financial administration and general administration. There is therefore, need for principals in Anambra state secondary schools to be made to be not only ready for ICT but to apply it in their managerial functions. 119

7 CONCLUSION The study has shown that most of the principals in Anambra state secondary schools do not have the required knowledge, skills and the facilities needed for ICT usage. This situation made it possible for them to loose the benefits of ICT. This could be the reason for the number of administrative problems seen in most secondary schools in the state. They therefore need urgent attention. RECOMMENDATIONS Based on the findings of this study and their implications the following recommendations were made: 1. State government should either make funds available to the school heads or supply schools with all the necessary facilities need for ICT usage in the schools. 2. State education commission should as a matter of urgency organise conferences and workshops for the principal and teachers on ICT and ICT usage. 3. Federal ministry of education should provide internet providers in various schools for effective use ICT. 4. Principals and teachers should be encouraged to learn and master the use of computer. They should go and acquire that necessary knowledge for that is the first and basic thing in ICT usage. REFERENCES Adebayo, E.L. & Adesope, O.M. (2007). Awareness, access and usage of information and communication technologies between female researchers and extensions, International Journal of Education and Development Using Information and Communication Technology (IJEDICT), 3, (1): Kumar, N., Rose, R. C. & D Silva, J. L. (2008). Teachers readiness to use technology in the classroom: an empirical study European Journal of Scientific Research. 21 (4): Maki, C. (2008), Information and Communication Technology for Administration and Management for secondary schools in Cyprus, Journal of Online Learning and Teaching. 4 (3). Muilenburg, L.Y. & Berge Z.L. (2005). Student barriers to online learning: A factor analytic study, Distance Education, 26 (1): Ong, C.S. & Lay J.Y. (2006) Gender differences in perceptions and relationships among dominants of e- learning acceptance, Computers in Human Behavior, 22 (5): Purnomo, S. H. & Lee, Y. (2010). An assessment of readiness and barriers towards ict programme implementation: perceptions of agricultural extension officers in indonesia International Journal of Education and Development using Information and Communication Technology (IJEDICT), 6, (3): Salerno, C.(2009), Administrator s Role in Technology Integration, Education World SO, T. & SWATMAN, P. M. C. (2006). e-learning Readines of Hong Kong Teachers. University of South Australia. Trinidad, A.C. (2002). An initial assessment of the Philippines preparedness for e-learning, Philippine Journal of Third World Studies. 17, (2). Agyeman O. T.(2007) ICT for education in Nigeria. Survey of ICT and Education in Africa: Nigeria Country Report Borotis, S. & Poulymenakou, A. (2004). E-learning Readiness Components: Key Issues to Consider before Adopting e-learning Interventions, Proceeding of e-learning 2004 Conference, Washington, D.C., USA, pp Centre for Technical Agricultural and Rural Cooperation (CTA) (2003). Annual Report 2003, Netherland. Krishnaveni, R. & Meenakumari, J. (2010). Usage of ICT for information administration in higher education institutions a study. International Journal of Environmental Science and Development. 1 (3):

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