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1 Rjopes Research Journal in Organizational Psychology & Educational Studies 3(3) Rjopes Emerging Academy Resources (2014) (ISSN: ) MANAGING EDUCATION RESOURCES FOR OPTIMAL PRODUCTIVITY IN NIGERIAN SCHOOLS Olaleye, Florence, Oluremi Department of Educational Foundations and Management Faculty of Education, Ekiti State University. Ado-Ekiti Nigeria. ABSTRACT The paper examined managing education resources for optimal productivity in Nigerian schools. It is a descriptive research design of the survey type. The study population comprised all the 175 secondary schools in Ekiti State Nigeria out of this a sample of 120 secondary schools was selected through the simple random sampling technique. 120 school principal were selected for the study. The method of selection was by simple random sampling technique. The instrument used was questionnaire. The questionnaire tagged resource management questionnaire (RMG) was used to elicit information from 120 respondents. The data collected were analysed using frequency count, percentages and the mean. Findings showed that in managing school resources such as human and material resources, principals of schools need specialized skills such as technical skill, human skill, and professional skills. Principals need to monitor and supervise the material resources provided for optimal productivity of teachers. The study showed that poor maintenance culture of facilities as one of the constraints to management of material resources in schools. It was also revealed that political instability and frequent changes in educational polices do not give room for proper management of resources. It was then recommended that there should be proper monitoring of resources in schools. Professionally qualified and experienced school principals should be employed to manage the resource in school for optimal productivity. The study is significant to all education stakeholders and for the enhancement of academic performance of students. If resources are properly managed, a healthy education environment will be created for the learners and teachers. The study has implications for the Government, community, leaders, principals of schools, ministry of education and parents. All resources made available in the schools should be properly managed and monitored, maintenance culture should be imbibed by all education stakeholders. This in turn will enhance performance of teachers; improve the quality of teaching and learning in schools. Emerging Academy Resources KEYWORDS: Resources, Optimal Productivity, Management Secondary School, /Principals/Administrators INTRODUCTION good educational managers must carefully and Resource management in any organization is the effectively handled educational resources effective and efficient deployment of an (particularly money materials and machines including organisation s resources when they are needed. Such computers, teaching technology and internet resources may include human, financial, material, facilities) put under their custody. inventory production or information technology. (Adetoro 2009). Resources also include material, human and financial made available in the realization of organizational goals, the degree of provision and utilization may affect the performance of such an organization. Education could be described as the universal means by which knowledge, skills and relevant attitudes are imported by those who possess them and acquired by those who need it through interaction between the two parties at some particular place on by some other means (Onuka 2009). Education involves the teacher and the learner as well as the use of certain resources. Management of these resources is germane to the sustainable development of educational system. Babalola (2006) noted that Adeogun (2002) identified education resources as financial, material, human, physical resource centres. They are the sum total of the input that goes into the education system. The management of these resources involves proper planning, coordinating the activities of the concerns so that all works towards the achievement of set goals. The success of any educational system depends on the availability of resources and on how these resources are judiciously and prudently managed. The human resources in education are the school personnel s teachers and the non-teaching staff. The qualities of these teachers affect their performances, productivities in turns qualities of teachers affect the academic performance of the students. 159

2 Akindutire (2001) noted that the quality of input in an educational system determines to a very reasonable extent the quality of output suffice it to say that resources well managed would definitely produce quality output. Adedeji, Olaniyan and Owoeye (2001) remarked that the quality of school management of human and material resources has a very strong relationship to the student academic performance. Human resources (teachers) in education should be seen as assets in an educational institution. Hence human resource management can help to tap their potentials and increase their loyalty by ensuring a very healthy education environment. The strategic approach to human resource in education is to pay adequate attention to the development and satisfaction of teachers. Education like other modern organisation should employed modern technique of management such as management by Objective (MBO) Programme Planning Budgeting (PPRS) Programme Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) and so on for the implementation of various educational programmes. Managing humans and material resources in education needs competent, professionally trained administrators and planners equipped with modern techniques of educational management so as to achieve the goal and objectives of education. Teachers are indispensable personnel in the education sector, they must be well equipped in the art of teaching so as to produce quality graduates from the system. In many developing countries like Nigeria, teachers form the target group of workers in the public service. Hence they need to be well catered for optimal productivity. Table 1: Human Resource in School The Strategic approach to human resource in Education is to pay attention to the development and satisfaction of teachers. To view the school personnel as assets to the school, the quality of education depends on the ability to manage its personnel. Education Attract effective workforce (Teachers ) Maintain an effective workforce (Qualified Teachers) Wages and salary Benefit Labor relations Termination Planning Recruits Solutions The table shows how human beings in the organization (Education) can be helped to bring out the best maximum efficiency. Table 1 shows how human beings in the organization (Education) can be helped to bring out the best maximum efficiency. The Federal Government of Nigeria spent a huge proportion of the budget on The needs of the society Changes Technology The use of computer Develop an effective Workforce Training and Re-trainings Development Appraisal education as the management and delivery of education come under increasing public scrutiny. It is important therefore to manage these resources efficiently for sustainability. Peretomode (1995) noted that human resource is perceived as the most vital of the resource that are at the disposal of the educational enterprise. Therefore, the proper management of the human resources in it, would 160

3 apart from being an added advantage in attaining educational goals, also attract efficient and quality staff. Material Resources: These are the usable and consumable things needed to achieve educational goals. These include different forms of laboratory equipment, books libraries, Geography rooms, Home Economics Laboratory, Arts room and others Different machinery and different materials require different type of storage, maintenance and repairs. Specialists in the field are required in order to ensure optimal productivity and longetivity. Educational gadgets like computers, instructional materials and packages should be well managed. Computer Technological Resources: These resources require specialized skills in their management. In these education sectors, these resources are scarce, internet connectivity are limited to potential students and other users yet the pivotal roles of computer to educational growth in the country cannot be overemphasized. For optimal productivity and academic achievement these resources need proper management. Ibukun (2004) noted that there should be improvement in Nigeria s telecommunication system so that education can take advantage of internet teaching and information technology. Other resource that needs proper management is finance. Finance is the basis of every other financial activity. The cost of education, both current and capital cost is very huge. The government both Federal and state cannot sufficiently fund education sector. Hence a prudent management of funds allocated to education is necessary. Management calls for prioritization of activities, qualified experienced persons should be controlling and managing the affairs of educational sectors so as to utilize the scarce educational resources efficiently and effectively. It has been observed that most of the resources aforementioned are not properly managed by school administrators. Emenike (2004) noted that funds allocated to the education sector have not been judiciously utilized. Ojedele (2002) remarked that facilities in most schools located across the country are in dysfunctional states. This is due to a poor culture of maintenance machine/material resources which are the tangibles that can be used to achieve educational goals are not available, and are not maintained or repaired. Cases of collapsed classroom buildings were constantly reported. It is as a result of poor management of these resources especially the material resources (the computer, the laboratory, equipment, classroom, desks that this paper aimed at examining and discuss, the importance of proper management of these resources for optimal productivity of teachers in Nigerian schools. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM The problem of this study is to examine and analyze the importance of proper management of material resources for optimal productivity of teachers in Nigerian schools. PURPOSE OF THE STUDY In view of the foregoing, the purpose of the study was to examine whether material resources available in selected secondary schools in Ekiti State were properly maintained and managed for effective performance of teachers in schools. The following research questions were raised 1. What are the material resources available in the school? 2. In which ways are these resources being managed? 3. What are the necessary skills needed in the proper management of these resources (computer, classroom, laboratory etc)? 4. What are the advantages of resource management in schools? 5. What strategies are suggested for proper management of the resources in schools? These questions raised would be examined and answered in the study. METHODS This study is a descriptive research design of the survey type. The research design is descriptive because it involves collection of data to describe phenomenon as they exist in the field without manipulation of the variables. The survey research type will be used because it expected to cover the large population of schools in Ekiti State, Nigeria. POPULATION The study population of this study comprised all the 175 secondary schools in Ekiti State, Nigeria. Out of this, population a sample of 120 secondary schools was taken and selected through simple random sampling technique. 120 principals of the school selected were used for the study. INSTRUMENT Questionnaire was used to collect data for the study. The instrument tagged resource management questionnaire (RMQ) was used to elicit information from the selected principals on how the material resources were managed for effective performance of teachers in teaching. Section A of the questionnaire was based on bio-data of the respondents while Section B was 30- items questions on the management of material resources in schools such as computers, laboratory equipments, chairs and tables, Library equipment, sport equipment and so on. 161

4 The face and content validity of the instrument was done by experts in Test and Measurement. In testing the content validity of the instrument, the items of the questionnaire were merged with the research questions in order to determine whether or not the instrument actually measured what they were supposed to measure. DATA ANALYSIS The questionnaires were administered by the researcher. All respondent (120) completed the questionnaires. Data were collected and subjected to frequency counts and percentages Responses were based on agree A and Disagree RELIABILITY The questionnaire was pretested on one hundred and twenty respondent (120) at an interval of two weeks and this yielded a reliability co-efficient of 0.72 which was deemed fit for the study. RESULTS Research Question 1: What are the material resources available in the school? Table 1: Material Resources S/N Items No of respondent Agree % Disagree % 1 Computers Instructional materials and packages Science laboratories and equipment Textbooks Libraries Home economics laboratory Stationeries Furniture Geography rooms History corners Table 1 shows that a total of 93.4% of the respondents agreed that computers as material resources were available in their schools. 95.8% agreed that instructional materials and packages were available while 91.6% and 96.6% agreed that laboratories equipment were provided for schools. 63.3% agreed that Home economics laboratory were available in the selected schools. 79.6% agreed that furniture were provided in the school. 73.3% and 65.8% of the respondents agreed that Geography room and history corners were also available in the schools. Research Question 2: In which ways are these materials resources being managed in schools Table 2: Ways of maintaining the resources S/N Items Respondent Agree % Disagreed % 1 Monitoring % 2 Prompt maintenance Repair or Refurbishing existing infrastructures Storage Provision for replacement Table 2 shows that all the respondent 100% agreed that proper monitoring of the material resources were necessary 91.6% agreed to prompt maintenance of the material resources. 81.6% agreed that repair and refurbishing of infrastructure were needed in the management of material resources. 70.8% and 75% of the respondents agreed that storage of material resource and provision of replacement are ways of maintaining the resources. Research Question 3: What skills are needed in the proper management of these material resources? Table 3: Skills needed in Maintenance of material resources S/N Items Respondent Agree % disagree % 1 Competency skill Conceptual skill (creative) Technological skills or supervising skills Professional skills Human Relation skills Table 3 shows that 91.6% of the respondents agreed that technical skills are needed of material resources in schools. 81.6% also agreed on competency skills. While 85% agreed on human relation skills in the maintenance of resources in schools. 28.4% disagreed on professional skills in the management of material resource in schools. Research Question 4: What are the constraints to proper management of material resources 162

5 Table 4: Constraints to effective management of Material Resources in schools S/N Items Respondent Agree % disagree % 1 Political instability Frequent changes in educational policies Personnel constraints Poor maintenance culture Poor funding of schools Table 4 shows that 95.8% of the respondents agreed on poor maintenance culture as one of the constraints to effective management of material resource in schools. 98.3% also agreed on poor funding of schools 31.7% disagreed on personnel constraints while 80% and 83.3% respectively on frequent changes in educational policies and political instability as constraints for effective management of material resources in schools. Research Questions 5:- What are the advantage of material resources in schools? Table 5: Advantages of Material Resource Management S/N Items Respondent Agree % disagree % 1 Enhances quality education and optimal productivity Facilitate the smooth administration Ensures effectiveness and efficiency of the school system Allows for effective and efficient teaching and learning Create learning appropriate learning environment to enable learners to learn Table 5 shows that all the respondents 100% agreed that proper management of material resources in school enhances quality education and optimal productivity in schools. 98.3% agreed that it facilitates the smooth running of schools. All the respondents 100% agreed that it ensures effectiveness and efficiency of the school system. 95.8% agreed that it allows for optimal productivity and effective teaching and learning in the schools. 85% agreed that enabling environment is created for learning if material resources in schools are well maintained. DISCUSSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS The study revealed that educational resource management is germane to the success of education sector. The principal as the school manager has to possess professional skills, technical skill and human relations skill so as to be able to manage the resource available in school effectively and efficiently. According to Olagboye (2004) the skills needed for resource management in education are technical skill and human skill teachers and school administrators require these skills to be able to accomplish the mechanics of his/her jobs. The study also revealed that the principal needs to monitor and supervise the resource available in school. Onuko (2006) noted that educational manager is involved in initiating, planning, budgeting, organizing, implementing, monitoring and evaluation improvement of facilities in school. The study showed that poor funding of schools affected proper management of resource Emeneke (2004) noted that funds allocated to the education sector have not been judiciously utilized. Poor maintenance culture of facilities was revealed as one of the constraints to management of material resource in school. The findings was in support of what Ojedele (2002) asserted that facilities across the country are in dysfunctional state. This is due to poor maintenance. It was also revealed in the study that political instability and frequent changes in educational policies do not give room for proper management of resources. Viable projects in schools are abandoned due to change in government (Ekundayo 2008) some of the advantages of proper management of resource revealed in the study include enhancement of quality education and optimal productivity of teachers. These findings were supported by the findings of Adedeji, and Owoeye (2001) that the quality of school management of human and material resources has a very strong relationship to the student s academic performance. It was also revealed that a healthy education environment enables learners to learn through effective resources management in school. RECOMMENDATIONS Based on the findings the following recommendations are made: School principal or administrator must learn to delegate duties and co-ordinate the activities of his/her subordinates for effective monitoring of resources in schools. Qualified and experienced school administrator should be employed to manage the resources. A master degree in educational management is needed for would be school principal of secondary school in the state. This is done in developed country. Sufficient fund should be allocated to secondary schools for effective and efficient management of material resource. 163

6 The government should monitor the activities of the school administrator to make sure that funds allocated are properly and judiciously utilized. Students, teachers and the non-teaching staff must work together with the school administrator to achieve optimal productivity in teaching and learning. All the material resource in school such as computers books, laboratory equipment furniture, school building must be well maintained. Maintenance culture should be imbibed by the school managers/administrator. The parents, Community, Opinion leaders in the society, Philanthropist should assist education sector in maintaining the resource available in schools. REFERENCES Adedeji S.O. Olaniyan O and Owoeye J.S. (2001). Managing school resources for better learning outcome in Osun State Secondary Schools African Journal of educational Management 9(1) Adeogun A.A. (2002). Economics of Education. Lagos: Olatunji Press and Publisher. Adetoro J.A. (2009). Resource management in education in J.O Babalola, A.O Ayeni (Ed.) Educational management, theories and tasks. Lagos, Macmillan Nigeria publisher limited pp Akindutire. I.O. (2001). The teaching procession. Ado-Ekiti. Greenlink Publication Lagos. Babalola J.P. (2006). Overview of educational management in J.B. Babalola, A.O. Ajayi; S.O. Adedeji, A.A. Suleiman and M.O. Arikewuyo (Eds) Education management. Theory and practice, Ibadan; Codata Publications Ekundayo H.T. (2008). Resource management in education in J.B. Babalola A.O Ayeni (Eds) Educational Management. Theories and tasks. Ibadan Macmillan, publishers limited. Emenike O. (2004). Issues in Educational Administration. Enugu Empathy Publication. Ibukun W.O. (2004). Qualified teachers for quality education in Nigeria issues in educational Foundations and management Ojedele P.K. (2002). Facilities provision and management for the successful implementation of the Universal Basic Education (UBE) programme in Nigeria in T.Ajayi, J.O. Fadipe. P.K. Ojedele and E.A. Oluchukwu (Eds.). Planning and Administration of Universal Basic Education in Nigeria NAEAP Publications. Olagboye, A.A. (2004). Introduction to educational management in Nigeria, Lagos: Daily Graphics Nigeria limited. Onuka A.O. U. (2006). Total Quality management and students attitude as predictors of students choice of a distance learning programme in Nigeria. A preconference seminar paper presented at the institute of education, University of Ibadan, Nigeria. Onuka A.O. U. (2009). Resource management in education in J.O Babalola, A.O Ayeni (Ed.) Educational management, theories and tasks. Lagos, Macmillan Nigeria publisher limited pp Peretomode, F.V. (1995). Introduction to educational administration, planning and supervision. Lagos. Joja education Research and Publishers limited. 164

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