1 Journal of Human Resources Management and Labor Studies March 2014, Vol. 2, No. 1, pp ISSN: (Print), (Online) Copyright The Author(s) All Rights Reserved. American Research Institute for Policy Development 42 Monticello Street, New York, NY 12701, USA. Phone: Website: Demographic and Environment Factors Influence on Training and Development Effectiveness in Hotel Industry: A Case Study of Selected Hotels in Chennai S. M. Denis Amritharaj 1 and Dr. Vanathi Vembar 2 Abstract Effectiveness of training and development depends on various factors in any industry. It is so specific and peculiar in hotel industry because of its nature. Hotel industry sells combined products and service in both tangible and intangible formats. The service quality of any hotel depends on the level of awareness, experience and customer orientation of the service executives working at different levels of management. The primary aims of the study are to study the training and development practices in hotel industry and to assess the Demographic and Environment Factors Influence on Training and Development Effectiveness in Hotel Industry. For the purpose of data collection, a structured questionnaire is framed by reviewing the existing literature and by consulting the industry experts. Existing literature gives lot of scope on both external and internal factors affecting training and development practices adopted in hotel industry. The demographical factors influencing the effectiveness of training in hotel industry includes the nature of hotel, working department, training attendance status, experience and type of training undergone. Similarly the primary environmental factors influencing the training and development practices in hotel industry in the order of priority are Industry Associations and unions with the mean rank of 8.38, HR Supply- Availability of skilled employees with the mean rank of 8.36, Competition and service trends with the mean rank of Hence, it is necessary to focus both on demographic and environmental factors to improve the effectiveness of training and development in hotel industry. Keywords: Training & Development, Training effectiveness, Demographic, Environment Skilled employees- peer pressure- skill gaps- competition- value chain 1 Research Scholar and corresponding author, Department of Business Administration, Annamalai university, Annamalai nagar, Tamilnadu, india , : 2 Professor cum Liaison Officer Annamalai university study centre, No 547/1,RV, Road, Bangalore
2 84 Journal of Human Resources Management and Labor Studies, Vol. 2(1), March Introduction Effectiveness of training and development depends on various factors in any industry. It is so specific and peculiar in hotel industry because of its nature. Hotel industry sells combined products and service in both tangible and intangible formats. It is very difficult to assess the expectations of heterogeneous customers visiting a hotel on various aspects of service and quality of delivery. The service quality of any hotel depends on the level of awareness, experience and customer orientation of the service executives working at different levels of management. The effective delivery of services depends on the training and the effectiveness of training and development depends on the environmental factors associated with the industry. Based on this presumption, the present work is focused on assessing the impact of demographical and environmental factors influence on training and development effectiveness in hotel industry. 1.2 Scope of the Study The study covers all types of hotels in the Chennai city. For the purpose of survey, employees will be selected on the basis of training attended and self assessment of the performance could have been carried out. It is due to assess the impact of training on the performance of the employees. Self assessment is the best assessment to identify the long run impact on him/her in terms of developing new skills, new techniques learned, new potentials identified. These are much more effective variables than the delivery of day to day operations effectively and reaching the targets. 1.3 Conceptual Frame Work
3 Amritharaj & Vembar 85 6 Objectives of the study 1. To indentify the training need assessment techniques used in the industry. 2. To analyze methods of training and development practices adopted in hotel industry. 3. To find out the impact of training on the performance of employees in hotel industry. 1.4 Hypothesis Based on the objectives of the study, it is felt that the administering the null hypothesis is necessary to find out the degree of relationship and association held between the internal, external variables in the sample area. In this view the following null hypothesis were framed.
4 86 Journal of Human Resources Management and Labor Studies, Vol. 2(1), March There is no significant difference between the mean ranks with regard to training and development need assessment techniques in hotel industry among the sample. 2. There is no significant difference between the mean ranks with regard to training and development methods in hotel industry among the sample. 3. there is no relationship between mean ranks of the perceptions with regard to training and development practices and the performance of the employees in hotel industry. 1.5 Sources of Data The data required for the study is collected from both primary and secondary sources. The primary sources include a structured questionnaire and field visits and observation. The secondary sources include both print and electronic media. The print media includes both published and unpublished records from various sources. Electronic media includes the official and private circulated notes from the various governmental and non governmental institutions. 1.6 Data Collection Instrument and Reliability For the purpose of data collection, a structured questionnaire is framed by reviewing the existing literature and by consulting the industry experts. Existing literature gives lot of scope on both external and internal factors affecting training and development practices adopted in hotel industry. In addition the role of government, regulatory authorities is immense in nature. Above all in the recent past financial innovation and technology and open market has brought lot of changes in hotel industry and its functional mechanism in the developing countries. The overall corn bach s alpha is recorded at 0.913, indicates 91.3 percent reliability for the various items loaded in the questionnaire. 1.7 Research Methodology For the purpose of open study like this, we choose a hybrid methodology by combining descriptive and exploratory research methods. The various factors affecting the training and development practices, performance of the employees is explored from the existing literature and by personal consulting with the industry experts.
5 Amritharaj & Vembar 87 Later a combined questionnaire is prepared and circulated to another set of industry stake holders, mainly employees, players and the individuals with market knowledge. 1.8 Sample Method- Size-Unit and Profile For the purpose of study a simple random sample method is adopted. The random is drawn from the list of hotels chosen for the study. While meeting the respondents, convenient method is adopted, because the respondents are not easily available to debate and discuss on the questionnaire and to respond. In some cases the questionnaire is collected through online form the distance places. The respondent s time and approach becomes key limiting factor to meet as per plan. However, it is planned in a meticulous way and collected 600 samples as per target. Since population size is not known, the sample size is determined by using the Standard deviation of the pilot study. The sample size is determined by using the scientific method. The Standard deviation of the 85 samples used for pilot study and by allowing 5% standard error. 2.0 Descriptive Statistics 2.1: Data analysis using Percentage Analysis Table 2.1: Distribution of sample on the basis of Gender Gender Frequenc Percentage Valid Percentage Cumulative Percentage Male Female Total Source: Primary data/questionnaire/hotels in Chennai/ june-dec2013. It is observed in the sample survey represented in the table 2.1, that, the sample consists of 72.2 percent male and the remaining 27.8 percent female working in the hotels covered in the sample.
6 88 Journal of Human Resources Management and Labor Studies, Vol. 2(1), March 2014 It indicates that the hotel industry requires more number of male employees when compared to female employees. It is due to the nature of work involved and the socio cultural aspects of society. In the recent past the trend has changed and started to recruit female employees in family hotels. With the advent of changed economic scenario of the country and organized sector expansion, the nature of business models also started changing in the business hotel industry. This has a direct and definite impact on the recruitment policies of hotel industry. A survey is noted that the industry is growing at an average of 10 percent per year. The salient feature of hotel industry is to creating equal number of indirect jobs will be created and sustained for a longer period than any other industry. Hence, hotel industry requires trained people with ability to develop business and sustain the same through customer orientation. Table 2.2: Distribution of sample on the basis of Age Group Age group Frequency Percentage Valid Percentage Cumulative Percentage Below Above Total Source: Primary data/questionnaire/hotels in Chennai/ june-dec2013. It is noted from the above table 2.2 that the sample consists of 74 percent of the employees within the age band of years indicates that, the hotel industry required more productive age group of employees to engage its functions effectively and with customer orientation. It is a sensitive business in terms of quality, taste and time of service. Majority of these are intangible and difficult to estimate and understand the expectations of the customers in the said parameters. Hence, it is important to identify the skilled employees and develop them through proper training can help the industry to grow in a sustainable way. Hence, age group plays a role in the employee selection in the hotel industry.
7 Amritharaj & Vembar 89 Table 2.3: Distribution of sample on the basis of Educational Stream Educational qualification Frequency Percentage Valid Percentage Cumulative Percentage SSLC HSc UG PG Professional Total Source: Primary data/questionnaire/hotels in Chennai/ june-dec2013. It is noted from the table 2.3 that the 31.3 percent of the employees working in the middle and lower level jobs in hotel industry are from higher secondary level of education back ground. One reason for the same may be these are the young and dynamic age group to train them and retain them for engaging the functions of a hotel in a better manner. Higher the age/ educational back ground the learning skills start deteriorates, this may force the industry to focus on this group. Another factor could be cost to the company. However the industry requires trained professionals, and there by it is followed by 28.7 percent of the sample is from professional back ground from the hotel industry. This gives lot of support in training and developing the employees from other streams of education. Table 2.4: Distribution of sample on the basis of Training Department Existence of training Department Frequency Percentage Valid Percentage Cumulative Percentage Yes No Total Source: Primary data/questionnaire/hotels in Chennai/ june-dec2013.
8 90 Journal of Human Resources Management and Labor Studies, Vol. 2(1), March 2014 It is noted from the table 2.4, that 53.8 percent of the hotels in Chennai city and in the sample area does not have a separate training department in the hotel. However some hotels practice on the job training under the supervision of senior staff and train the employees in the hotel industry. Yet another reason for not having a training department is due to lack of sufficient trained and experienced employees in the industry. The numbers of training institutions are less and the awareness on training among the industry is limited to star category hotels. Table 2.5: Distribution of sample on the basis of Type of Hotel Type of hotel Frequency Percentage Valid Percentag Cumulative Percentage Business Hotel Transient Hotel Commercial Hotel Down town Hotel Resort Hotels Residential Hotel Total Source: Primary data/questionnaire/hotels in Chennai/ june-dec2013. It is noted from the table 2.5, that 24.3 percent of the hotels in the sample are down town hotels, it is followed by commercial hotels with 19.7 percent, transient hotels with 16.3 percent, resort hotels with 13.7 percent, business hotels with 22.2 percent and finally residential hotels with 3.8 percent in the sample. Based on the segments it is noted that the potential is high for all the types of hotels in the sample area. There are ample number of opportunities are there to grow and develop in the sample area. The two prime things affecting the market are price and quality. As long as quality is maintained, customer attraction and retaining many not difficult. 3.0 : Data Analysis using Friedman Test Hypothesis-I: Ho: There is no significant difference between the mean ranks of Training need assessment techniques used among the hotels in the sample.
9 Amritharaj & Vembar 91 Table 3.1: showing the mean ranks of Training need assessment techniques used along with Friedman test result Training need assessment techniques adopted in hotel industry Mean Rank Chi square value P value Organizational analysis 8.19 Personal analysis 7.78 Work/Task analysis 8.46 Performance analysis 7.33 Content analysis 8.19 Training suitability analysis ** Cost benefit analysis 8.03 Direct observation 7.72 Employee questionnaires 8.16 Consultation with persons in key positions 7.99 Employee interviews 8.31 Focus groups 7.92 Records and report studies 8.02 Customer suggestions 7.91 Review of relevant literature 8.19 **- Indicates highly significant at 1% level of significance. Based on the p value(less than 0.001), it if inferred that, the null hypothesis, There is no significant difference between the mean ranks of Training need assessment techniques used among the hotels in the sample is rejected at 1% level of significance. Hence, it is concluded that, there is a highly significant difference between the mean ranks of Training need assessment techniques used among the hotels in the sample. Based on the mean scores it is found that the primary methods used for assessing the training needs in hotel industry are organizational analysis, work task analysis, content analysis, cost benefit analysis, employee s surveys, employee interviews, records and review reports, literature analysis. All these methods are used on need basis and found that the usage levels are very nominal in down town hotels.
10 92 Journal of Human Resources Management and Labor Studies, Vol. 2(1), March 2014 It is required to use a standardized method of analysis job analysis and manpower planning and identifying the needs of the hotel can produce better employee performance in the industry. One barrier in this is the level of awareness of the hotel management on the various techniques and its applications in the training need analysis. Industry associations, industry confederations should create awareness on the need for usage of scientific methods in need analysis and training methods and related aspects of it can help to bring a change in the scenario. Hypothesis-II Ho: There is no significant difference between the mean ranks of Training methods adopted among the hotels in the sample. Table 3.2: showing the mean ranks of Training methods adopted along with Friedman test result Training methods adopted in hotel industry Mean Rank Chi square value P value Lecture or seminar method 4.99 Small group discussions ( Audio-visuals) 5.12 Role playing-communication (Programmed instruction) 4.93 Game and divergent thinking (Computer assisted) NS Simulation exercise- Analytical thinking 4.83 Case study- Problem solving 5.10 Project- Coordinating-team building 4.96 Coaching- work methods 5.12 Analytical and Problem solving exercises 4.92 NS- Not significant at 5% level of significance. Since p value is greater than 0.05, the null hypothesis, There is no significant difference between the mean ranks of Training methods adopted among the hotels in the sample is accepted at 5% level of significance. Hence, it is inferred that, There is no significant difference between the mean ranks of Training methods adopted among the hotels in the sample. Based on the mean scores recorded, it is identified that, small group discussions, game and divergent thinking method, case study method, coaching and work method are the familiar training techniques used in the hotel industry. However, it is advisable to go for innovative on job training methods to improve the skill levels and efficiency of the employees in hotel industry to gain customer delight through quality of services.
11 Amritharaj & Vembar 93 Hypothesis-III: Ho: There is no significant difference between the mean ranks of impact of Training on the performance of employees among the hotels in the sample. Table 3.3: showing the mean ranks of impact of T&D on the performance of employees along with Friedman test result Impact /benefits of training to the employees Mean Rank Chi-square value P value Improved management skills 8.11 Technical skills 7.97 Social skills 8.36 Decision making and Problem solving Skills 6.60 Education and Development 8.07 Language and cultural skills 8.36 Career advancement ** Higher wages 8.15 Job mobility 7.81 Competitiveness 8.47 Increased Innovation 7.98 Ethics and Attitudinal Changes 8.51 Increased Productivity 7.77 Trainer expertise 8.22 Education level 7.87 **- Indicates highly significant at 1% level of significance. Since, p value is less than 0.001, the null hypothesis; there is no significant difference between the mean ranks of impact of Training on the performance of employees among the hotels in the sample is rejected at 1% level of significance. Hence, it is inferred that, there is a highly significant difference between the mean ranks of impact of Training on the performance of employees among the hotels in the sample.
12 94 Journal of Human Resources Management and Labor Studies, Vol. 2(1), March 2014 Based on the mean ranks it is indentified that, The dimensions of impact of the training and development observed in the employee performance are improved management skills, social skills, language and cultural skills, competitiveness, ethics and attitudinal changes, expertise in the subject knowledge. This indicates that the over development of an employee can be achieved through effective training and development practices in hotel industry. In turn it can help in improving the customer service quality and threw by sustainable development of the industry in the long run for the benefit of the closed stake holders and to the economy and society at large. 4.0 Summary and Conclusion Based on the sample survey and analysis, it is found that the hotel industry is engaging more male employees in both direct and indirect services with the 74 percent of the employees within the age band of years indicates that, the hotel industry required more productive age group of employees to engage its functions effectively and with customer orientation. The employees working in the middle and lower level jobs in hotel industry are from higher secondary level of education back ground. One reason for the same may be these are the young and dynamic age group to train them and retain them for engaging the functions of a hotel in a better manner. The hotel industry is not equipped with the training and development resources is observed in survey stating majority of the hotels does not have a separate training and development department percent of the hotels in the sample are down town hotels, it is followed by commercial hotels with 19.7 percent, transient hotels with 16.3 percent, resort hotels with 13.7 percent, business hotels with 22.2 percent and finally residential hotels with 3.8 percent in the sample. Based on the segments it is noted that the potential is high for all the types of hotels in the sample area. There are ample number of opportunities are there to grow and develop in the sample area. The two prime things affecting the market are price and quality. As long as quality is maintained, customer attraction and retaining many not difficult. The inferential statistics show that, there is a highly significant difference between the mean ranks of Training needs assessment techniques used among the hotels in the sample. On the other hand there is no significant difference between the mean ranks of Training methods adopted among the hotels in the sample is accepted at 5% level of significance. Hence, it is inferred that, there is no significant difference between the mean ranks of Training methods adopted among the hotels in the sample.
13 Amritharaj & Vembar 95 When it comes to find the relationship between the training and development and the employees performance, it is found that, there is a highly significant difference between the mean ranks of impact of Training on the performance of employees among the hotels in the sample. Based on the mean ranks it is indentified that, the dimensions of impact of the training and development observed in the employee performance are improved management skills, social skills, language and cultural skills, competitiveness, ethics and attitudinal changes, expertise in the subject knowledge. This indicates that the over development of an employee can be achieved through effective training and development practices in hotel industry. 5.0 References Chung, L. M., & Wirtz, J., (1998). Book reviews: Satisfaction- a behavioral perspective on consumer. Asia Pacific Journal of Management, 15, Gardial, S. F., Clemons, S. D., & Robert, B., (1994). Comparing Consumers' Recall of Prepurchase and Po st purchase Product Evaluation Experiences. Journal of Consumer Research, 20, Bowsher, J., (1990). Making the Call on the COE. Training and Development Journal, May, Brinkerhoff, R. O., (1988). An Integrated Evaluation Model for Human resources development. Training and Development Journal, February, Bumpass, S., & Wade, D., (1990). Measuring Participant Performance - An Alternative. Australian Journal of Educational Technology, 6(2), Bushnell, D. S., (1990). Input, process, output: A Model for Evaluating Training. Training and Development Journal, March, Erkut, S., & Fields, J. P. (1987). Focus Groups to the Rescue. Training and Development Journal, October, Foxon, M., (1989). Evaluation of Training and Development Programs: A Review of the Literature. Australian Journal of Educational Technology. 5(1), Hewitt, B., (1989). Evaluation a Personal Perspective. Training and Development in Australia, 16(3), Lombardo, C. A., (1989). Do the Benefits of Training Justify the Costs? Training and Development Journal, December, Newstrom, J. W., (1987). Confronting Anomalies in Evaluation. Training and Development Journal, July,
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