(GS-VER-PDD) THE GOLD STANDARD: Project Design Document for Gold Standard Voluntary Offset projects

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1 THE GOLD STANDARD: Project Design Document for Gold Standard Voluntary Offset projects (GS-VER-PDD) For more information, please contact The Gold Standard: Telephone Fax Grid-connected electricity generation from renewable sources: MAZI-3 30 MW Wind Power Plant Project, Turkey

2 VOLUNTARY OFFSET PROJECTS (Version 01 - in effect as of: January 2006) page 2 CONTENTS A. General description of project activity B. Application of a baseline methodology C. Duration of the project activity / Crediting period D. Application of a monitoring methodology and plan E. Estimation of GHG emissions by sources F. Environmental impacts G. Stakeholders comments Annexes Annex 1: Contact information on participants in the project activity Annex 2: Baseline information Annex 3: Monitoring plan Annex 4: Initial Stakeholder Meeting Invitation List Annex 5: EIA exemption letter

3 page 3 SECTION A. General description of project activity A.1 Title of the project activity Title: MAZI-3 30 MW Wind Power Plant Project, Turkey Version: 02 Date: June 09 th, 2008 A.2. Description of the project activity The objective of the project activity is to supply electricity from renewable sources to the highly growing Turkish electricity market. The project is expected to generate about 118,500 MWh electricity and result in about tons of CO2 emission reductions per year. The MAZI-3 Wind Power Plant (WPP) project involves the establishment of a 30 MW wind farm at Zeytineli Village - Urla District of Izmir which is located at the Aegean Coast of Turkey. The owner of the WPP will be MAZI-3 Rüzgar Enerjisi Santrali Elektrik Üretim A.Ş. The Wind farm is planned to consist of 12 wind turbines each having a capacity of 2.5 MW. Connection to the grid will be made via an 8 kilometre transmission line. Since the project results in green house gas (GHG) emission reduction by increasing the renewable electricity in the Turkish grid, in order to improve the project financial viability, it is proposed to register and implement the project as a Gold Standard Voluntary Emission Reduction (GS-VER) project. Since the financial incentives for the provision of renewable electricity are not satisfying, the financial inflows provided by the sales of emission reduction credits will increase the internal rate of return of the project to an attractive level for investors. The project will definitely have positive influences on sustainable development in the region and in Turkey. The MAZI-3 WPP will enable the use of local resources for energy production and thus decrease dependency on imported fossil fuels as an energy source. In addition, the project will have a significant effect on air quality in the region; directly and indirectly, create new jobs for local inhabitants during the construction and operation phases. Scores for the sustainable development matrix are given in the table below. Details and explanations are determined according to the section 3.4 of the Gold standard VER Project Developer s Manual. Table 1 - Sustainable Development Matrix

4 Component Indicators Score (-2 to Rationale 2)/(-, 0, +) Local/regional/global environment Water quality and quantity 0 Access to water by the community will not be affected by the project activity Air quality (emissions other than GHGs) +1 The project has positive impacts on air quality associated with using clean energy Replacing fossil fuel, project will contribute air quality by decreasing SOx, NOx etc. country level. Other pollutants (including, where relevant, toxicity, radioactivity, POPs, stratospheric ozone layer depleting gases) Soil condition (quality and quantity) page 4 +1 Project will replace use of fossil fuels therefore it will inhibit formation of pollutants(like ash etc) which form as a result of combustion. 0 The project will not have an impact on soil nutrients since it will not interfere with soil regimes. Area around the turbines can be used for grazing or agricultural activities. 0 The project has no impact on biodiversity. No trees Biodiversity (species and habitat conservation) will be cut or replaced for project. Existing roads will be renovated for transport of turbines. Sub total +2 Social sustainability and development +1 Significant amount of people work in fish farms in the *Employment (including job quality, fulfilment of labour region. Project will create new opportunities for both standards) skilled and unskilled people. Livelihood of the poor (including poverty alleviation, distributional equity, and access to essential services) Access to energy services +1 Project will contribute to poverty alleviation by creating direct and indirect employment opportunities and improve infrastructure of the village (renovation of roads, schools etc) +1 Electricity delivered to the grid will contribute to the use of local/renewable resources and strengthen security in electricity supply side. +1 Employees will be trained during construction and *Human and institutional capacity (including empowerment, operational phases. Technicians will be trained education involvement, gender) by the turbine manufacturers and by TEIAS as stated by the regulations. Sub total +4 Economic and technological development +1 During operation phase, project is expected to create about 15 new job opportunities. This *Employment (numbers) number will increase up to 60 during construction phase. +1 Turkey is heavily dependent on imported oil and natural gas for electricity generation. Use of local Balance of payments (sustainability) sources like wind and hydro helps in decreasing the external deficit. +1 Project will contribute to dissemination of wind Technological self reliance energy technology and development of (including project reliability, hard currency liability, skills supporting sectors in Turkey. This will promote development, institutional capacity, technology transfer) the technological capacity and skills of the local industry. Sub total +3 TOTAL +9 A.3. Project participants:

5 page 5 Name of Party involved (*) ((host) indicates a host Party) Turkey (Host) Private and/or public entity(ies) project participants (*) (as applicable) MAZI-3 Rüzgar Enerjisi Santrali Elektrik Üretim A.Ş. JP Morgan Ventures Energy Corporation Kindly indicate if the Party involved wishes to be considered as project participant (Yes/No) No Pioneer Carbon is a business unit of JP Morgan Chase. A.4. Technical description of the project activity: A.4.1. Location of the project activity: The Project will be implemented near Zeytineli Village Urla District of Izmir A Host Party (ies): Host country is Republic of TURKEY and she does not have a quantitative reduction target under the Kyoto Protocol. Therefore; the project is eligible for the VER application. A Region / State / Province etc.: Aegean Region, Province of Izmir, District of Urla A City / Town / Community etc: Project is located at Zeytineli Village Urla District of Izmir. A Detail of physical location, including information allowing the unique identification of this project activity (maximum one page): Project will be implemented at about 80km of west of Izmir and in south of Çesme peninsula. Location of the project activity is shown in maps below (Figure.1&Figure2). N The geographical coordinates have been given in Table.2. Table 2 - Coordinates Figure 1. Project of the Turbines Location

6 Turbine East North ' " 38 14' " ' " 38 14' " ' " 38 14' " ' " 38 14' " ' " 38 14' " ' " 38 14' " ' " 38 13' " ' " 38 13' " ' " 38 13' " ' " 38 13' " ' " 38 13' " ' " 38 13' " page 6 Figure 2. Location of Turbines A.4.2. Size of the project: Proposed project activity is considered as large scale according to both CDM and Gold Standard rules since the installed capacity is above 15 MW and annual emission reduction by the project activity is far above 15,000 tco2 per year. A.4.3. Category(ies) of project activity:

7 page 7 Project category is included in the sectoral scope 1 Energy Industry Renewable Sources according to the UNFCCC definition whereas it is included in category A.1 Renewable Energy (Electricity/Heat) according to the GS VER manual. A.4.4. Brief explanation of how the anthropogenic emissions of anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHGs) by sources are to be reduced by the proposed project activity, including why the emission reductions would not occur in the absence of the proposed project activity, taking into account national and/or sectoral policies and circumstances: In the absence of the project activity, corresponding amount of electricity would have been supplied by the grid. As the Turkish grid is mainly fed by fossil fuel sources, which is expected to continue in the coming years, emissions per unit of electricity generation will continue to increase. According to the applied methodology (ACM0002, version 7), the baseline scenario for the proposed project has been defined as: Electricity delivered to the grid by the project would have otherwise been generated by the operation of gridconnected power plants and by the addition of new generation sources, as reflected in the combined margin (CM) calculations described in the Tool to calculate the emission factor for an electricity system Based on this baseline scenario, the baseline emission factor has been calculated using the combined margin (CM) approach as defined in the Tool to calculate the emission factor for an electricity system. The baseline emissions factor for the Turkish electricity grid has been determined conservatively. As indicated in the First National Communication (FNC) of Turkey over the period of , Turkey s energy / electricity demand has increased at an annual rate of 7.2% and this demand has been supplied (mainly) by thermal and hydro power plants. In 2004, electricity generation resulted in the emission of about 167, 800 ktco2 of green house gases which was equivalent to about 76.7% of total net GHG emission of Turkey. With the GDP projected to grow at over at 6% per year for the next 15 years, gross electricity demand is expected to increase from 166 TWh in 2005 to 499 TWh in 2020 against an expected total generation capacity of 520TWh in As it can be seen from Figure.3 below, fossil fuels dominate as primary sources for the actual and expected generation capacity. 1 Chapter.5.Projections and Mitigations Scenarios, First National Communication of Turkey on Climate Change, January 2007, (pg ) (http://www.undp.org.tr/gozlem2.aspx?websayfano=531)

8 page 8 Figure 3. Breakdown of actual and expected generating capacity by primary sources1 A Estimated amount of emission reductions over the crediting period: The estimated annual electricity generation of 118,500 MWh, will result in tco2e per year of emission reductions over a 7 year crediting period. The total emission reduction by project activity will be 537,138 tco2e over the full 7 year crediting period. Table 3 - Expected emission reduction by the project activity Years September 2009-August 2010 September August 2011 September August 2012 September August 2013 September August 2014 September August 2015 September August 2016 Total emission reductions (tonnes of CO2 e) Total number of crediting years Annual average over the crediting period of estimated reductions (tonnes of CO2e) Annual estimation of emission reductions In tonnes of CO2 e 537,138 7 Years

9 page 9 SECTION B. Application of a baseline methodology The baseline methodology has been applied in a conservative manner, particularly in calculation of the fuel emission factors as stated by the methodology. B.1. Title and reference of the approved baseline methodology applied to the project activity: The approved consolidated baseline and monitoring methodology ACM0002, version 7 has been applied for this project. The baseline methodology is applicable for grid connected electricity generation from renewable sources. The methodology applied also draws upon: Tool for assessment and demonstration of additionality, ver. 5 Tool to calculate the emission factor for an electricity system, ver. 01 B.1.1. Justification of the choice of the methodology and why it is applicable to the project activity: The choice of methodology ACM0002, Version 7, is justified as the project activity meets its applicability criteria: The MAZI-3 WPP Project activity is the installation of a 30 MW wind power plant. The geographic and system boundaries for the relevant electricity grid can be clearly identified and information on the characteristics of the grid is available. B.2. Description of how the methodology is applied in the context of the project activity: ACM0002, version 7 requires the application of the following tools which have been applied for this project as explained below: Tool to calculate the emission factor for an electricity system, ver. 01 Tool for assessment and demonstration of additionality, ver. 5 The baseline scenario has been identified as Electricity delivered to the grid by the project would have otherwise been generated by the operation of grid-connected power plants and by the addition of new generation sources, as reflected in the combined margin (CM) calculations described in the Tool to calculate the emission factor for an electricity system The baseline methodology has been applied in a conservative manner even though it is expected that the use of fossil fuels for electricity generation for the Turkish grid will increase overtime due to utilization of new domestic coal reserves. Basic assumptions made are; Weight of thermal power plants (and thus the emission factor) will remain same over the crediting period. When there is no data about the emission factor of fuels sources, it has been accepted as 0 or the lowest value has been used The additionality of the project activity has been demonstrated using the latest version (version 5) of the Tool for assessment and demonstration of additionality obtained from the UNFCCC website. The main gases included in the project boundary are summarised in Table 4 below while the other key data and parameters used in the calculations are given in Annex 2. Table 4 - Main gases included in the project boundary

10 page 10 Source Electricity generation in baseline (Turkey Grid) Baselin e Project Activity Emission from the reservoir of the proposed project (inside project boundary) Gas CO2 CH4 Included? Yes No N 2O No CO2 Yes CH4 N 2O No No Justification/Explanation Main Emission Source Minor emission source. Excluded for simplification Minor emission source. Excluded for simplification Although it is negligible, emission from use of auxiliary power unit is considered No emission Zero-emission electricity generation According to ACM0002, version 7 requires the emission factor for the grid system is calculated in accordance with the Tool to calculate the emission factor for an electricity system, ver. 01. According to the tool, the following four methods may be used to calculate the operating margin: a) Simple OM, b) Simple adjusted OM, c) Dispatch Data Analysis OM and d) Average OM. In the Turkish electricity grid system, the share of low-cost / must-run sources is below 50%, method (d) is therefore eliminated. Also due to insufficient data methods (b) and (c) are not considered and thus (a) Simple OM method is used in calculations. The following table is used for demonstrating the share of low cost/must run resources. Only hydro and other renewable are accepted as low cost/must run sources. Table 5 - Share of primary sources in electricity generation, YEAR THERMAL MW ,569 22,974 24,145 25,902 27,420 HYDRO % MW 12,241 12,579 12,645 12,906 13,063 GEOTHERM.WIND % MW TOTAL % MW ,846 35,587 36,824 38,844 40,565 The following steps explain show the Simple Operating Margin approach provided in the Tool to calculate the emission factor for an electricity system ; Version 01 has been used to calculate the combined margin emission factor for Turkey. Step 1. Identify the relevant electric power system 2

11 page 11 The spatial extent of the project boundary includes the project power plants (wind mills) and all power plants that are connected physically to the Turkish national electricity grid system. The total installed capacity of the Turkish electricity grid system has reached to 40,565 MW in 2006 whereas the total annual generation has become 176,299.8 GWh 3,4 Step 2. Select an operating margin method The Simple Operating Margin (OM) emission factor (EFGRI, OMsimple, y) is calculated as the generation-weighted average CO2 emissions per unit net electricity generation (tco2/mwh) of all the generating plants serving the system, excluding low-cost/must-run power plants. As electricity generation from solar and low cost biomass facilities is insignificant and there is no nuclear plant in Turkey, the only low cost /must run plants are hydro, wind and geothermal facilities. Step 3. Calculate the operating margin emission factor according to the selected method Since only available data for the Turkish grid system is total amount of fuels used together with According to the Tool to calculate the emission factor for an electricity system, Version 01, the following equation in option C is applied: EFgrid, OMsimple, y = FCi,,y. NCVi,y. EFco2,i,y / EG,y (1) i Where: EFgrid,OMsimple,y FCi,y NCVi,y EFCO2,i,y EGm,y i y = Simple operating margin CO2 emission factor in year y (tco2/mwh) = Amount of fossil fuel type i consumed in the project electricity in year y (mass or volume unit) = Net calorific value (energy content) of fossil fuel type i in year y (GJ / mass or volume unit) = CO2 emission factor of fossil fuel type i in year y (tco2/gj) = Net electricity generated and delivered to the grid by power plant / unit m in year y (MWh) = All fossil fuel types combusted in power sources in the project electricity system m in year y = Either the three most recent years for which data is available at the time of submission of the CDM-PDD to the DOE for validation (ex ante option) or the applicable year during monitoring (ex post option), following the guidance on data vintage in step 2 Data about the fuel consumption for electricity generation, electricity generation by fuel type, import and export were obtained from the Turkish Electricity Distribution Company (TEİAŞ) web site5. Operating and Build Margin calculation have been based on data for Other data required for calculation of CO2 emission coefficient has been obtained through IPCC 2006 guidelines for GHG inventories. Details of the data used for the calculations are given in Annex 2. Using the available data and ACM0002 methodology, overall CO2 production by electricity generation is calculated using IPCC values as given in Table 6 and Table 7 below

12 page 12 Table 6 - Calculation of Emission factors for fuels COEF (NCV*EF) (tco2/kt6) Hard Coal Imported Coal Lignite Fuel Oil Diesel Oil LPG Naphtha Natural Gas Total Emissions 2,069 2, ,029 3,095 2,833 3,056 2,013 Consumption ( ) (tons or 1000m3) 8,647,694 6,793, ,679,613 6,155, ,084 25, ,683 46,117,033 Total Emission ( ) (tco2) 17,888,860 14,054,133 82,201,282 18,643, ,600 72, ,273 92,829, ,996,333 Net electricity generated and supplied to the grid by thermal plants has been calculated using data obtained from the TEİAŞ web page7,8. The ratio between gross and net generation has been calculated first, and assuming that the same ratio is valid for thermal plants, gross generation by thermal power plants has been multiplied by this ratio in order to find net generation by thermal plants. Summing up this with the imported electricity, total supply excluding low cost / must run sources are determined as given in table below. Table 7 - Net Electricity Generation from thermal power plants (units in GWh) Year Gross generation ,698 Net generatio n 145, , , , , Net/Gross Gross Gen. Thermal ,464 Import Total Supply to the grid 100, , , , , , , , ,688 1, ,360 Total Net Thermal Gen. Net Gen Thermal Finally, using the data tabulated in the previous two tables, OM emission factor considering years has been calculated dividing the total CO2 emission by total electricity supply to the grid which is (from equation (1) above; EFgrid, OMsimple, y = = 226,996,333 tco2 / 346,360.2 GWh tco2/mwh. 6 Vol.2. Energy, 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, (http://www.ipcc -nggip.iges.or.jp/public/2006gl/pdf/ 2_Volume2/V2_2_Ch2_Stationary_Combustion.pdf) 7 8

13 page 13 This Operating Margin emission factor will stay constant throughout the first 7-year crediting period. Step 4. Identify the cohort of power units to be included in the build margin (BM) BM has been calculated ex-ante using the most recent data available (Option 1). The build margin emissions factor is the generation-weighted average emission factor (tco2/mwh) of all power units m during the most recent year y for which power generation data is available. According to the Tool to calculate the emission factor for an electricity system, Version 01, the sample group of power units m used to calculate the built margin consists of either: The five power plants that have been built most recently, or The set of power capacity additions in the electricity system that comprise 20% of the system generation (in MWh) and that have been built most recently. If 20% falls on part capacity of a unit, that unit is fully included in the calculations. From these two options the sample group that comprises of the larger annual generation has been used. List of most recent capacity additions to the grid and their average and firm generation capacities are available at the TEİAŞ web page9,10,11. For determination of plants that comprise 20% of the system generation, generation in year 2006 which is ,8 GWh has been taken as reference and its 20% has been determined as about GWh. Summing up all the plants built in 2006, 2005 and 2004 together we add up to 35,289,8 GWh for the selected plants. Step 5. Calculate the build margin emission factor The Build Margin emission factor EFgrid, BMs, y is calculated as the generation-weighted average emission factor of a sample of power plants m for a specific year y as follows: EFgrid, BM, y Where: EFgrid,BM,y EGm,y EFEL,m,y m y = = = = = = EG,m,y. EFEL,m,y / EG,m,y (12) Build margin CO2 emission factor in year y (tco2/mwh) Net quantity of electricity generated and delivered to the grid by power unit m in year y (MWh) CO2 emission factor of power unit m in year y (tco2/mwh) Power units included in the build margin Most recent historical year for which power generation data is available Data for generation efficiency has been calculated using average values obtained from environmental map of Turkey12 (p197). For LPG and naphtha whose weights are not very significant, best available techniques (EFBAT) TabloX.3.1. Türkiyedeki termik santrallerin adları, bulunduğu yer ve diğer bilgiler, Türkiye Çevre Atlası, MoEF, Ankara 2004, pg.197, (http://www.cedgm.gov.tr/dosya/cevreatlasi/atlasin_metni.pdf) 10

14 page 14 data from European Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control Bureau has been used (p405)13. For EF values of fuels consumed, IPCC default values at lower limit of 95% confidence interval have been used. Table 8 - Calculation of emission factor from most recent plants. B D EF CO2 (tco2/tj) Generation Efficiency % 32.8% 35.1% 27.5% 45.0% 45.0% 46.0% Coal Lignite Fuel Oil Diesel LPG Naphtha Natural Gas E (=3.6/D/1000*B*C) EF (tco2/mwh) Build margin emission factor has been determined for most recent capacity additions as shown in table below. For electricity generation from renewable and solid wastes, the emission factors have been taken as zero since data is not available and contribution of these plants are insignificant. The Build margin emission factor in the last column has been determined by multiplying each EF value with the corresponding electricity generation for that fuel and dividing by the total generation by most recent capacity additions. Table 9 - Distribution of most recent capacity additions by fuel source. G Fuel Source H (=G/35,289.8) Percent Generation E EFW (=G*H) Weighted EF Generation EF (MWh) Coal 1, % Lignite 11, % Fuel Oil % Diesel oil 6 0.0% LPG % Naphtha % Natural Gas 19, % Renewable and wastes % Solid 5 0.0% Total Renewable 1, % TOTAL Capacity additions 35,289.8 Finally, by summing up the weighted EFBAT values, overall build margin emission factor have been calculated as: EFgrid, BM, y 13 = EIPPCB, Reference Document on Best Available Techniques for Large Combustion Plants, (http://eippcb.jrc.es/pages/factivities.htm).

15 page 15 STEP 6 - Calculate the combined margin emission factor Based on ACM0002, weighted average baseline emission factor is calculated as follows; EFgrid, CM, y Where: EFgrid,BM,y EFgrid,OM,y wom wbm = = = = = wom* EFgrid, OMsimple, y + wbm* EFgrid, BM, y (13) Build margin CO2 emission factor in year y (tco2/mwh) as calculated from equation (12) above. Operating margin CO2 emission factor in year y (tco2/mwh) as calculated from equation (1) above. Weighting of operating margin emissions factor (%) Weighting of build margin emissions factor (%) The default values of the weights, wom and wbm, as recommended by the selected methodology are 0.75 and 0.25, respectively. These default values have been used in calculating CM emission factor together without rounding the values of EFOM and EFBM. Based on the formula above, baseline emission factor is calculated as; EFgrid, CM, y = 0.75 * * = The combined margin emission factor is therefore tco2/mwh, which will be used as therefore as the baseline emission factor as recommended by the methodology ACM0002, version 7. B.3. Description of how the anthropogenic emissions of GHG by sources are reduced below those that would have occurred in the absence of the registered VER project activity: In the absence of the project activity, a corresponding amount of electricity will be supplied by the grid through the current power plants. For each unit of electricity supplied from the proposed project, corresponding amount of fossil fuel based component will be displaced from the grid. That component when replaced by the renewable electricity will result in equivalent emission reductions. Step 1 - Identification of Alternatives to the project activity consistent with current laws and regulations Sub-step 1a - Define alternatives to the project activity: Within this framework, most realistic and reliable alternatives to the project activity are: 1. Proposed project not undertaken as a VER project activity 2. Supply of equal amount of electricity in the grid but generated by fossil fuels. 3. No project activity First alternative, which is the implementation of the project without VER income is not financially attractive as discussed in investment analysis section below. The Second alternative (Scenario 2) is the baseline scenario and implementation of the proposed project as a VER activity would be additional to this scenario. Since the solid fuel reliance of Turkish grid is expected to continue, the emission factor per MWh of electricity generated is expected to increase over time. However, for the calculation of emission reductions, the emission factor is taken as constant at the current level during the activity period. Third alternative, no project activity; is not a realistic alternative as the demand for energy is increasing.

16 page 16 Sub-step 1b - Enforcement of applicable laws and regulations: The above discussed scenarios are in compliance with the applicable legal and regulatory requirements. Step 2 - Investment analysis The investment analysis has been done in order to make an economic and financial evaluation of the project. No public funding or ODA are available in Turkey for project finance. MAZI-3 WPP has been financed through loans from commercial banks and their own resources. Sub-step 2a - Determine appropriate analysis method There are three options for the determination of analysis method which are: Simple Cost Analysis Investment Comparison Analysis and Benchmark Analysis Since Project generates economic benefits from sales of electricity, the simple cost analysis is not applicable. Also, since the baseline of the project is generation of electricity by the grid, no alternative investment is considered at issue. So, it has been decided to use benchmark analysis for evaluation of the project investment Sub-step 2b - Option III-Apply benchmark analysis Since there is no pre-determined value for IRR or any other financial indicator for wind power plants in Turkey, Benchmark value has been selected as the Eurobond rates. Eurobond Rates in Turkish market for ten and twenty year periods have been determined as14: Table 10 - Eurobond Rates in Turkey for various due dates. Code-Due date Currency EUR EUR USD Interest Rate % Sub-step 2c - Calculation and comparison of financial indicators Main parameters used for evaluation of the investment are as follows; Table 11 - Financial parameters used in investment analysis Installed Capacity Expected annual Electricity Generation Emission current Reduction(ER) Total Investment Loan Loan Period Income Tax MW GWh tco2e 40,753,565 Euro 34,640,530 Euro 10 20%

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