The Reasons for this Symposium on Past, Present and Future of Subnuclear Physics

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "The Reasons for this Symposium on Past, Present and Future of Subnuclear Physics"

Transcription

1 Subnuclear Physics: Past, Present and Future Pontifical Academy Sciences, Scripta Varia 119, Vatican City The Reasons for this Symposium on Past, Present and Future Subnuclear Physics ANTONINO ZICHICHI Pontifical Academy Sciences, Vatican City INFN and University Bologna, Italy CERN, Geneva, Switzerland World Federation Scientists, Beijing, Geneva, Moscow, New York This is first time that Pontifical Academy Sciences places field Subnuclear Physics at centre its attention. On behalf all my colleagues engaged in this frontier Modern Science I would like to express to our President, H.E. Pressor Werner Arber and to our Chancellor H.E. Monsignor Marcelo Sánchez Sorondo, our deep gratitude. This Seminar has two purposes: one is Pure Physics, or is Scientific Culture. Our field activity competes in terms number people and financial support with gigantic projects such as one aimed at having man going to satellite Sun called Mars. This is why we cannot ignore tax payers, i.e. Culture our Time, called Modern Culture. As you know H.H. Benedict XVI has focused attention Modern Culture to complex property our form living matter called Reason. The greatest achievement Reason in Immanentistic Sphere our existence is Rigorous Experimental Logic, called Science. Science is latest achievement Reason; it came 3 thousands years after discovery Rigorous Theoretical Logic, called Mamatics; Subnuclear Physics: Past, Present and Future 21

2 ANTONINO ZICHICHI and 10 thousands years (probably even ) after discovery Permanent Collective Memory (better known as Written Language). The future Subnuclear Physics needs our engagement in order to have Culture our Time supporting Subnuclear Physics. For this to happen depends on our engagement for Scientific Culture. Let me give you an example. When people see my friend David Scott, Commander Apollo XV, performing famous Galilei experiment at Moon and saying Galilei was Right we need to explain that if this could be done it is because in our Labs we have been able to continue Galileian search in trying to understand Logic Nature: i.e. first level Science. Tonight you will see NASA film at Michelangelo s Italian State Basilica Santa Maria degli Angeli e dei Martiri. It is first level Science that has given all instruments we use in every daylife and life-expectations over 80 years to our form living matter. We need to let tax payers know that effective motor for progress in immanent part our world is scientific discovery, which is a direct consequence Reason. Thanks to H.H. Benedict XVI, Reason is finally going to be a strong part Modern Culture. Our field is most recent achievement Reason in search to understand Logic Nature. It was borned slightly more that a (1/2) century ago, in 1947 with three discoveries: 1) Lamb-shift; 2) so much wanted but never found before nuclear glue, i.e. meson and 3) Strange particles. Let me show few pictures years 1929, 1947, 1947 and Subnuclear Physics: Past, Present and Future

3 THE REASONS FOR THIS SYMPOSIUM ON PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE OF SUBNUCLEAR PHYSICS 1963 This is first example what is now "standard" in experimental subnuclear physics: very large acceptance detectors. On rails neutron missing mass spectrometer. PAPLEP Proton AntiProton into Lepton Pairs first search for 3 rd lepton and PS V. Figure 4 The pre-shower technology o implemented in CERN experimental set- up for study rare decay modes pseudoscalar and vector mesons. 6 Subnuclear Physics: Past, Present and Future 25

4 ANTONINO ZICHICHI SUBNUCLEAR PHYSICS: PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE Why Past? Enrico Fermi: Neir Science Nor Civilization Could Exist Without Memory. On occasion twenty-fifth anniversary Ettore Majorana Foundation and Centre for Scientific Culture (EMFCSC), in order to promote values scientific culture worldwide and following a proposal by World Federation Scientists (WFS), a special law was voted unanimously by Sicilian Parliament to establish Ettore Majorana Prize Erice Science for Peace. The Prize is to be awarded to men Culture and Science, who played a leading role in promoting and implementing goals outlined in Erice Statement. P.A.M. Dirac, P.L. Kapitza, A.D. Sakharov, E. Teller, V.F. Weisskopf, J.B.G. Dausset, S.D. Drell, M. Gell-Mann, H.W. Kendall, L.C. Pauling, A. Salam, C. Villi, R. Doll, J.C. Eccles, T.D. Lee, L. Montagnier, Qian Jaidong, J.S. Schwinger, U. Veronesi, G.M.C. Duby, R.L. Garwin, S.L. Glashow, D.C. Hodgkin, R.Z. Sagdeev, K.M.B. Siegbahn, Y.P. Velikhov, J. Karle, J.M.P. Lehn, A. Magnéli, N.F. Ramsey, H. Rieben, J.J. van Rood, C.S. Wu, R.L. Mössbauer, A. Müller, H. Kohl, M.S. Gorbachev, H.H. John Paul II, R. Clark, M. Cosandey, A. Peterman, R. Wilson, J. Alderdice, J.J. Friedman, M. Koshiba, S. Coleman, A.N. Chilingarov, P.C.W. Chu, L. Esaki, W.N. Lipscomb Jr., J. Szysko, M.-K. Wu, H.A. Hauptman, D.H. Hubel, R. Huber, B.I. Samuelsson, H. Sun, A.E. Yonath, G. 't Hot, Y.T. Lee, W. Arber, S.C.C. Ting. 26 Subnuclear Physics: Past, Present and Future

5 THE REASONS FOR THIS SYMPOSIUM ON PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE OF SUBNUCLEAR PHYSICS You are invited to propose one name with Motivation for 2012 Prize. Figure 5 Subnuclear Physics: Past, Present and Future 27

6 ANTONINO ZICHICHI Present and Future need no explanation n 1947 SUBNUCLEAR PHYSICS is born Lamb shift meson Strange particles These three great discoveries are now understood as being: 1) first example virtual physics; 2) first example a bound system made a quark-antiquarkk pair; 3) first example a new flavour beyond first family. Without Virtual Physics we could never have reached dream Gauge Unification icatio and great competition with Historian who have invented Virtual History. Figure 6 28 Subnuclear Physics: Past, Present and Future

7 THE REASONS FOR THIS SYMPOSIUM ON PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE OF SUBNUCLEAR PHYSICS GUT (Grand Unified ied Theory): Mamatics a tic THE UNIFICATION OF ALL FUNDAMENTAL FORCES The lines in Figure 8 result from calculations executed with a supercomputer using following system equations: µ d i dµ = b i 2 2 b ij i i j This is a system coupled non-linear differential equations where existence Superworld is taken for granted. This system describes how gauge couplings ( 1, 2, 3 ) vary with µ, basic parameter which depends on energy elementary process, from maximum level Energy (Planck Scale) to energy level our world. j Figure 7 During more than ten years (from 1979 to 1991), 1 no one had realized that t energy threshold for existence Superworld rld was strongly dependent endent on running masses. This is now called: EGM effect fect (from initials Evolution on Gaugino Masses). 1 Subnuclear Physics: Past, Present and Future 29

8 ANTONINO ZICHICHI Figure 8 30 Subnuclear Physics: Past, Present and Future

9 THE REASONS FOR THIS SYMPOSIUM ON PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE OF SUBNUCLEAR PHYSICS To compute energy threshold using only running gauge couplings (,, ) corresponds to neglecting n g nearly three orders rs magnitude in energy threshold for discovery first particle ( lightest) Superworld [1], as illustrated in Figure 9. Figure 9 Figure 9 illustrates EGM effect fect which lowers by a factor threshold for production lightest superparticle. The mamatical formalism used to obtain results shown in Figures 8 and 9 is a system three differential fe non-linear equations (shown in Figure 7) describing how gauge couplings i, j (with i = 1, 2, 3; and J = 1, 2, 3 but i j), vary with µ, basic parameter am which depends on energy a given elementary process. 1 Subnuclear Physics: Past, Present and Future 31

10 ANTONINO ZICHICHI DETAILS Figure Subnuclear Physics: Past, Present and Future

11 THE REASONS FOR THIS SYMPOSIUM ON PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE OF SUBNUCLEAR PHYSICS The GAP between E GUT and E Planck Figure 11 Subnuclear Physics: Past, Present and Future 33

12 ANTONINO ZICHICHI A different fe way to describe e how gauge couplings 1, 2, 3 vary with energy ergy is reported in Figure 12. The simplest way to get GUT ( point where all fundamental forces are toger: Grand Unification Theory) would be straight line. But real world does not follow this platonic straight line. The sequence points ( big red points), in steps 100 GeV, is very different fe from Platonic line (dotted blue points). The way nature goes is reported rt by sequence big red points which h are result mamatics tics reported in Figure 12. PLATONIC VERSUS REAL GUT The big red points represents real GUT. They have a sequence 100 GeV in energy. The last point where ideal platonic straight line intercepts oretical prediction is at energy Grand Unification. This corresponds to E GU = GeV. Or detailed information on oretical inputs: number fermionic families, N F, is 3; number Higgs particles, N H, is 2. The input values gauge couplings at Z 0 -mass is 3 (M Z ) = ± 0.008; or input is ratio weak and electromagnetic couplings also measured at Z 0 -mass value: sin 2 W (M Z ) = ± The Platonic GUT is straight line dotted blue points. Figure Subnuclear Physics: Past, Present and Future

13 THE REASONS FOR THIS SYMPOSIUM ON PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE OF SUBNUCLEAR PHYSICS All l problems mentioned so far are based on computations using existence Virtual Phenomena na which h have to obey Fundamental nt Logic Nature, i.e. Virtual Physics which is most exact limit we are able to compute towards perfect knowledge Logic Nature started by Galileo Galilei. Virtual Physics has given rise to existence Virtual History. From Virtual Physics to Virtual History What is Virtual History? If we compare Virtual History and Virtual Physics, conclusion is that only if destiny was re Virtual History could obey same Logic as Virtual Physics does. VIRTUAL HISTORY Table 1 Subnuclear Physics: Past, Present and Future 35

14 ANTONINO ZICHICHI 1947 SUBNUCLEAR PHYSICS is born Lamb shift OK meson NOW Strange particles Figure Subnuclear Physics: Past, Present and Future

15 THE REASONS FOR THIS SYMPOSIUM ON PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE OF SUBNUCLEAR PHYSICS From meson to Third Family Leptons Figure 14 (g2) µ (±) 0,5% This experiment required construction largest and highest precision "flat" magnet world, whose schematic drawing is reported in Figure Subnuclear Physics: Past, Present and Future 37

16 ANTONINO ZICHICHI Figure 15: (Figure from [20]). General plan 6-metre magnet. M: bending magnet; Q: pair quadrupoles; 1, Be, 2, 3: injection assembly consisting ng Be-moderator and counters 1, 2, 3; T: : methylene-iodide target; counters 66', 77': "backward" and "forward" electron telescopes. A stored and ejected muon is registered as a coincidence idence 4, 5, 66',, gated by a 1, 2, 3 and by eir a forward or backward ard electron signal. Figure Subnuclear Physics: Past, Present and Future

17 THE REASONS FOR THIS SYMPOSIUM ON PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE OF SUBNUCLEAR PHYSICS Figure 17 The first high precision measurement QED radiative effects fects outside (electron and photon) world [21] are in Figures 16 and 17. Conclusion: µ is a heavy electron to within ± 0,5%. 4 µ GF ± Figure 18: (Figure from [22]) The diagram above shows thatt experimental results on µ obtained in Chicago and Carnegie were affected fe by a rate dependent systematic effect fect which h invalidates data. The CERN result is first without this trouble. Subnuclear Physics: Past, Present and Future 39

18 ANTONINO ZICHICHI Figure 19 Figure 20: (Figure from [23]) The expected number (e ± µ ) pairs vs. m HL, i.e. heavy lepton mass, s for two types universal weak couplings heavy lepton. 40 Subnuclear Physics: Past, Present and Future

19 THE REASONS FOR THIS SYMPOSIUM ON PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE OF SUBNUCLEAR PHYSICS Figure 21 From meson to Instantons we need experimental en discovery PS V Figure 22 Subnuclear Physics: Past, Present and Future 41

20 ANTONINO ZICHICHI 1947 SUBNUCLEAR UCLEAR PHYSICS S is born Lamb shift OK meson OK Strange particles NOW Figure Subnuclear Physics: Past, Present and Future

21 THE REASONS FOR THIS SYMPOSIUM ON PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE OF SUBNUCLEAR PHYSICS THE EFFECTIVE ENERGY ER Figure 24: The first paper per where effective fective energy was introduced in study high energy (pp) interactions at ISR. The proliferation in "dynamic" sector was multitude final states produced by pairs interacting ng particles, in strong, electromagnetic tic and weak processes: s: Strong EM Weak p K Kpp p ppp p pnn p ppp p e epp µ p e + e p It is introduction effective fective energy which allowed one to put all l different fe e final states on same basis. Subnuclear Physics: Past, Present and Future 43

22 ANTONINO ZICHICHI This basis is quantities measured in multihadronic final states: i) average charged multiplicity; li it < n ch > ; ii) fractional energy distribution; d / dx i ; iii) transverse momentum distribution d / dpti ; etc..... Figure 25: Reproduction on conclusions a review paper [24]. 44 Subnuclear Physics: Past, Present and Future

23 THE REASONS FOR THIS SYMPOSIUM ON PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE OF SUBNUCLEAR PHYSICS Recall Myth Only High p hadronic processes s could be compared with DIS p ep µp Figure 26: A synsis s high transverse momentum myth. Figure 27 SM&B THE STANDARD MODEL AND BEYOND RGEs ( 3); i (i 1, 2, m (j j q, l, G, H)) : ( 1/24) j ƒ (kk 2 ). GUT ( GUT & GAP (10 10 ) GeV. SUSY SY (to stabilize mf/mp F/m ). RQST (to quantize Gravity). Gauge Principle (hidden and expanded dimensions).. Ho How a Fundamental Force is generated: SU(3); SU(2); U(1) and Gravity. The Physics Imaginary Masses: SSB.. Th The Imaginary Mass in SU(2)U(1) produces masses (mm W ± ; m Z 0; m q ; m l), including m = 0. The Imaginary Mass in SU(5)SU(3)SU(2)U(1) ( or in any higher (not containing U(1)) ) Symmetry metry Group SU(3) SU(2)U(1) produces Monopoles. Th The Imaginary Mass in SU(3) c generates Confinement. Flavour Mixings & CP, T (direct, not via SSB). No need for it but it is re. Anomalies & Instantons. s. Basic Features es all Non-Abelian Forces. Figure 28 Subnuclear Physics: Past, Present and Future 45

24 ANTONINO ZICHICHI NOTE q quark and squark; m F Fermi mass scale; l lepton and slepton; m P Planck mass scale; G Gauge boson and Gaugino; k quadrimomentum; H Higgs and Shiggs; C Charge Conjugation; RGEs Renormalization Group Equations; P Parity; GUT Grand Unified ied Theory; T Time Reversal; SUSY SY Supersymmetry; y; Breakdown Symmetry y Operators. rs RQST Relativistic Quantum String Theory; SSB Spontaneous Symmetry y Breaking. Figure 29 The five basic steps in our understanding Logic Nature The renormalization group equations (RGEs) imply thatt gauge couplings ( i ) and masses (m j ) all run with k 2. It is this running which allows GUT, suggests SUSY and produces need for a non point-like description (RQST) physics processes, thus opening way to quantize gravity. All forces originate in same way: gauge principle. Imaginary masses play a central role in describing nature: SSB S & Confinement. The mass-eigenstates are mixed when Fermi forces come in: matrix describing mixing is product two fundamental matrices. Why mixing ing is re? The Abelian force QED has lost its role being guide for all fundamental forces. The non-abelian gauge forces dominate and have features which are not present in QED. 46 Subnuclear Physics: Past, Present and Future

25 THE REASONS FOR THIS SYMPOSIUM ON PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE OF SUBNUCLEAR PHYSICS Figure 22 Instantons The Instanton [25, 26] is a solution classical field equations in Euclidean space-time. It is originated by properties vacuum which is strongly coupled to field quanta a given gauge force. In a quantized world Instanton nt corresponds to tunnelling effects fects in Minkowski space-time. These tunnelling effects fects are recognized ed in practice by fact that y violate a global symmetry-law. y- There are two kinds Instantons, ntons, one for QCD and one for QFD, electro-weak forces. In both cases, SU(3) c and SU(2) L, i.e. QCD and QFD, effects fects produced by Instantons can be understood in terms properties Dirac sea. In fact, vacuum, made fermions, has fermionic properties. In QCD, se properties determine "non-spontaneous", n-s neous", i.e. direct, breakdown "chirality" invariance. nce. This has allowed to understand behaviour and ' ' mesons [27, 28, 29, 30]. 2 Subnuclear Physics: Past, Present and Future 47

26 ANTONINO ZICHICHI In SU(2) L effect Instantons is linked to fact that non-abelian gauge force, QFD, acts only on left-handed states and Instantons generate baryon number non-conservation, which is anor U(1) breaking. Instantons typically have effect explicity breaking U(1) symmetries. Why we need Instantons? In order to explain PS V. SU(3) States Note that SU(3) states are (in terms quark composition): (8 th multiplet SU(3) octet) (SU(3) singlet). In real world we have physical states with PS 10 and V 45 uu + dd 2ss (m 500Mev) J PC + = 0 4 uu + dd + '(m 950Mev) 2ss 4 J PC = 1 uu + dd (m 750Mev) 2 (m 1020Mev) ss = 8 cos ' = 8 sin PS PS 1 sin + cos 1 PS PS = 8 cosv 1 sinv = 8 sinv + 1 cosv. 48 Subnuclear Physics: Past, Present and Future

27 THE REASONS FOR THIS SYMPOSIUM ON PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE OF SUBNUCLEAR PHYSICS Figure 30 Subnuclear Physics: Past, Present and Future 49

28 ANTONINO ZICHICHI 1963 This is first example what is now "standard" in experimental subnuclear physics: very large acceptance detectors. On rails neutron missing mass spectrometer. PAPLEP Proton AntiProton into Lepton Pairs first search for 3 rd lepton and PS V. Figure 4 50 Subnuclear Physics: Past, Present and Future

29 THE REASONS FOR THIS SYMPOSIUM ON PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE OF SUBNUCLEAR PHYSICS Figure 22 Anomalies The anomalies correspond to quantum effects fects [31, 32]. The term "anomaly" is not so well-chosen since it refers to several different fe features in elementary particle ory. The term originated in QED where radiative effects fects were first discovered. It was introduced in order to describe quantum effects fects in Abelian QFT such as "anomalous" magnetic moment ment muon. Non-Abelian QFT have chiral anomalies which must be cancelled, thus imposing severe conditions on basic structures matter fields (example: top quark needed in third family). Anomalies exist also in Abelian ories, such as those needed to describe 0 [33, 3, 34, 35]. They can thus be used to predict physical processes. Subnuclear Physics: Past, Present and Future 51

30 ANTONINO ZICHICHI Relativistic i Quantum String Theory (RQST) The Standard Model deals with only two three known forces. However quantum mechanics is contagious and gravity cannot avoid quantization. ion. Much our hope has become focused on string ory. Unfortunately RQST has not yet descended to low energy, and goes on making predictions at inaccessible i energies. Figure 31 ANTIPARTICLES and ANTIMATTER ATTER Figure Subnuclear Physics: Past, Present and Future 3

31 THE REASONS FOR THIS SYMPOSIUM ON PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE OF SUBNUCLEAR PHYSICS The problem understanding n ding difference ference between mass and matter ter is illustrated in Figure 33. The incredible series events which originated with problem understanding stability matter is shown in Figure 34, toger with unexpected violation Symmetry Operators (C, P, T, CP) and discovery Matter-Antimatter r Symmetry. When (1905) Einstein discovered that mc 2 = E he could not sleep at night. (Peter G. Bergmann testimony) Figure 33 Figure 34 shows s seven en decades developments, ents, started from antielectron n and C-invariance and brought us to discovery nuclear antimatter and to unification n all gauge forces. 3 Subnuclear Physics: Past, Present and Future 53

32 ANTONINO ZICHICHI THE INCREDIBLE STORY TO UNDERSTAND D THE ORIGIN OF THE STABILITY OF MATTER SEVEN DECADES FROM THE ANTIELECTRON N TO ANTIMATTER ATTER AND THE UNIFICATION ION OF ALL L GAUGE FORCES The validity C invariance from 1927 to After discovery by Thomson in 1897 first example an elementary particle, Electron, it took genius Dirac to oretically discover Antielectron thirty years after Thomson Dirac equation [36]; existence antielectron is, soon after, oretically predicted. Only a few years were needed, after Dirac s oretical discovery, to experimentally confirm (Anderson, Blackettt and Occhialini [37]) existence Dirac antielectron Discovery C operator [(charge conjugation) H. Weyl and P.A.M..M. Dirac [38]]; discovery P Symmetry Operator [E.P. Wigner, G.C. Wick and A.S. Wightman [39, 40]]; discovery T operator (time reversal) [E.P.. Wigner, J. Schwinger and J.S.. Bell [41, 42, 43, 44]]; discovery CPT Symmetry Operator from RQFT ( ) invariance: [45] Validity C nc e + [37]; [46]; [47]; 3 [48] but see LOY [49]. The new era starts: C ; P ; CP (*) Lee & Yang P ; C [50] Before experimental discovery P & C, Lee, Oehme, Yang (LOY) [49] point out that existence second neutral K-meson, 3, is pro neir C invariance nor CP invariance. Flavour antiflavour mixing does not imply CP invariance C.S.. Wu et al. P ; C [51]; CP ok [52] KK L : CP [53] QED divergences & Landau poles The crisis RQFT & triumph S-matrix ory (i.e. negation RQFT) Nuclear antimatter is (experimentally) discovered d [54]. See also [55] The discovery [56] at SLAC Scaling (free quarks inside a nucleon at very high q 2 ) but in violent (pp) collisions no free quarks at ISR are experimentally found [57]. Theorists s consider Scaling as being evidence for RQFT not to be able to describe Physics Strong Interactions. The only exception is G. 't Hot who discovered ed in 1971 that t -function has negative sign for non-abelian n ories [58] = ; 't Hot; Politzer; Gross & Wilczek. The discovery non-abelian gauge ories. Asymptotic freedom in interaction between quarks and gluons [58] All gauge couplings with run q 2 but y do not converge towards a unique point A.P. & A.Z. point out that new degree freedom due to SUSY allows three couplings to towards, converge hidden side: final interacting particles: a unique point [59] QCD has a 2 3 multitude ude states for each pair i (e+ e ; p ; p; Kp; p; pp; etc. ) The introduction Effective fe Energy allows l to discover Universality properties rties [60] in multihadronic final states All gauge couplings converge towards a unique point at gauge unification energy: E 16 GU 1016 GeV with GU 1/24 [61, 1] The Gap [62] between E GU & String Unification Energy: E SU Planck 1995 CPT loses its foundations scale (T.D. E. at Planck. Lee) [63] No CPT orem from M-ory (B. Greene) [64] A.Z. points out need for new experiments to establish if matter-antimatter antimatter symmetry or asymmetry are at work. (*) The symbol stands for Symmetry metry Breakdown. Figure Subnuclear Physics: Past, Present and Future 3

33 THE REASONS FOR THIS SYMPOSIUM ON PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE OF SUBNUCLEAR PHYSICS 50 th ANNIVERSARY A OF THE KARLSRUHE K NUCLIDE N CHART C ANTIPARTICLES ICLES AND ANTIMATTER: THE BASIC DIFFERENCE Antonino Zichichi CERN, Geneva, Switzerland Enrico Fermi Centre, Rome, Italy INFN N and University Bologna, Italy «Those e who say that antihydrogen n is antimatter should realize that we are not made hydrogen and we drink water, not liquid hydrogen». These are Dirac s own words to a group physicists ists (Figure 35) gared around him, who, with a single equation [36, 65], opened ed new horizons to human knowledge. Figure 35: Dirac surrounded by young physicists in Erice, after a lecture when he explained difference between antiparticles and antimatter. a tter. It is on this occasion on that he made statement previously quoted. Subnuclear Physics: Past, Present and Future 55

34 ANTONINO ZICHICHI Figure 36: Letter by Mrs Mancy Dirac. 56 Subnuclear Physics: Past, Present and Future

35 3 THE REASONS FOR THIS SYMPOSIUM ON PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE OF SUBNUCLEAR PHYSICS TOF ± 75 psec D / No Signal signal Figure 37: Schematic layout experimental set-up that allowed discovery antimatter. The combined system bending magnets (BM) coupled with magnetic quadrupoles (Q) and Separator allowed to have most intensive negative beam ever built (authors beam-project: M. Morpurgo, G. Petrucci and A. Zichichi). The scintillation counters, #1, #2, #3, are for time flight (TOF) measurements. The precision achieved was 75 psec. 1 and 2 are Cerenkov detectors for particles identification. Subnuclear Physics: Past, Present and Future 57

36 ANTONINO ZICHICHI Figure 38: Front cover book celebrating ebrating 30th anniversary ary antideuteron discovery. 58 Subnuclear Physics: Past, Present and Future 3

37 THE REASONS FOR THIS SYMPOSIUM ON PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE OF SUBNUCLEAR PHYSICS Note 1 To obtain water, hydrogen is not sufficient by itself. You also need oxygen whose nucleus is made 8 protons and 8 neutrons. Hydrogen is only element in Mendeleev s Table to be constituted two charged particles, electron and proton, without any role being played by Nuclear Forces. The first element on which Nuclear Forces come into play is heavy hydrogen, whose nucleus, called deuteron, is made with one proton and one neutron. For se two particles to remain toger nuclear glue is needed. Starting from heavy hydrogen, all elements Table, to exist, must have ir nuclei made with protons, neutrons and nuclear glue. If se last two ingredients, neutron and nuclear glue, were not available, nothing but light hydrogen could exist. Farewell water and farewell all material which we are familiar with. Note 2 In Dirac s famous statement, 70 years oretical and experimental discoveries are taken into consideration, with conclusion that existence antimatter is supported exclusively on an experimental basis. In fact as evidenced by T.D. Lee [63], CPT orem is invalidated at Planck Scale ( GeV) where all Nature s Fundamental Forces converge. Since Grand Unification is source everything, if CPT collapses at energy level Grand Unification we can n bid farewell to all that derives from CPT. Subnuclear Physics: Past, Present and Future 59

38 ANTONINO ZICHICHI Figure 39 : Eugene P. Wigner, A. Zichichi and Paul Dirac (Erice, 1982). Conclusions This Seminar is devotedd to review main steps as seen from reference frame, each one us has choosen and cannot not refore be unbiased. Let me cite Rabi: «Physics y c s is Intellectual Freedom. Our interest is to understand nature. It is to our liking to choose best way. Every physicist has his own interests and his own likes and dislikes». s This Seminar should review development e Subnuclear Physics associated with a concrete concern cer n about future our field. 60 Subnuclear Physics: Past, Present and Future 4

39 THE REASONS FOR THIS SYMPOSIUM ON PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE OF SUBNUCLEAR PHYSICS It is this concern at origin our activity devoted towards implementation new projects. The experimental results acquired so far in Subnuclear Physics tell us that Standard Model cannot be definitive ory, in spite fact that it is most powerful synsis all known n and rigorously measured phenomena. Looking back at last 64 years, amount new knowledge acquired is really overwhelming. Richard P. Feynman 1964, Erice Global & Local Consevation Laws from Discussions at International School Subnuclear Physics. «If a cat were to disappear in Pasadena and at same time appear in Erice, that would be an example global conservation cats. This is not way cats are conserved. Cats or charge or baryons are conserved in a much more continuous way. If any se quantities begin to disappear in a region, n y begin to appear in a neighbouring region. Consequently, we can identify a flow charge out a region with disappearance charge inside region. This identification divergence a flux with time rate change a charge density is called a local conservation law. A local conservation law implies that total charge is conserved globally, but reverse does not hold. However, relativistically it is clear that non-local global conservation laws cannot exist, since to a moving observer cat will appear in Erice before it disappears in Pasadena.» We could relax and enjoy Standard Model, but we already know that this superb synsis is just starting point a new horizon. For this new horizon to be investigated, a project for a new collider able to work at extreme energy and luminosity is needed. 4 Subnuclear Physics: Past, Present and Future 61

40 ANTONINO ZICHICHI This is ELN (Euroasiatic LOng Intersecting Storage Accelerator), a (pp) collider with highest energy and luminosity which could be built with simple extrapolation presently known technologies. The ELN project is very ambitious but we should be encouraged by our previous experiences. In fact, path leading to ELN has already gone through Gran Sasso project (now largest and most powerful underground laboratory in world), LEP-white-book which allowed this great European venture to overcome many difficulties that had blocked its implementation during many years, HERA collider (now successfully completed), and roots LHC, as for example 5-metres diameter (not 3 metres) for 27 Km (not 13 Km) LEP tunnel, and LAA-R&D project, implemented to find detector technologies needed for LHC. These past achievements in project realization are mentioned in order to corroborate my optimism and enthusiasm in encouraging new actions and new ideas for future Subnuclear Physics in Europe and in world, all having as focus CERN, greatest Subnuclear Physics Lab in world. 62 Subnuclear Physics: Past, Present and Future

41 THE REASONS FOR THIS SYMPOSIUM ON PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE OF SUBNUCLEAR PHYSICS REFERENCES [1] The Simultaneous Evolution Masses and Couplings: Consequences on Supersymmetry Spectra and Thresholds F. Anselmo, L. Cifarelli, A. Petermann and A. Zichichi, Nuovo Cimento 105A, 1179 (1992). [2] Search for Supersymmetric Particles using Acoplanar Charged Particle Pairs from Z 0 decays ALEPH Collab., D. Decamp et al., Phys. Lett. B236, 86 (1990). [3] Search for Neutral Higgs Bosons from Supersymmetry in Z decays ALEPH Collab., D. Decamp et al., Phys. Lett. B237, 291 (1990). [4] Search for Neutralino Production in Z decays ALEPH Collab., D. Decamp et al., Phys. Lett. B244, 541 (1990). [5] Search for Neutral Higgs Bosons MSSM and or two Doublet Models ALEPH Collab., D. Decamp et al., Phys. Lett. B265, 475 (1991). [6] Search for Heavy Charged Scalars in Z 0 decays DELPHI Collab., P. Abreu et al., Phys. Lett. B241, 449 (1990). [7] Search for Pair Production Neutral Higgs Bosons in Z 0 decays DELPHI Collab., P. Abreu et al., Phys. Lett. B245, 276 (1990). [8] Search for Scalar Quarks in Z 0 decays DELPHI Collab., P. Abreu et al., Phys. Lett. B247, 148 (1990). [9] A Search for Sleptons and Gauginos in Z 0 Decays DELPHI Collab., P. Abreu et al., Phys. Lett. B247, 157 (1990). [10] Mass Limits for Scalar Muons, Scalar Electrons and Winos from e + e Collisions near S**(1/2) = 91GeV L3 Collab., B. Adeva et al., Phys. Lett. B233, 530 (1989). [11] Search for Neutral Higgs Bosons Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model from Z 0 Decays L3 Collab., B. Adeva et al., Phys. Lett. B251, 311 (1990). [12] Search for Charged Higgs Boson in Z 0 decay L3 Collab., B. Adeva et al., Phys. Lett. B252, 511 (1990). [13] A Search for Acoplanar Pairs Leptons or Jets in Z 0 decays: Mass Limits on Supersymmetric Particles OPAL Collab., M.Z. Akrawy et al., Phys. Lett. B240, 261 (1990). [14] A Search for Technipions and Charged Higgs Bosons at LEP OPAL Collab., M.Z. Akrawy et al., Phys. Lett. B242, 299 (1990). [15] A Direct Search for Neutralino Production at LEP OPAL Collab., M.Z. Akrawy et al., Phys. Lett. B248, 211 (1990); P.D. Acton et al., preprint CERN-PPE/91-115, 22 July [16] Searches for Supersymmetric Particles Produced in Z Boson decay MARK II Collab., T. Barklow et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 2984 (1990). Subnuclear Physics: Past, Present and Future 63

Theoretical Particle Physics FYTN04: Oral Exam Questions, version ht15

Theoretical Particle Physics FYTN04: Oral Exam Questions, version ht15 Theoretical Particle Physics FYTN04: Oral Exam Questions, version ht15 Examples of The questions are roughly ordered by chapter but are often connected across the different chapters. Ordering is as in

More information

High Energy Physics. Lecture 4 More kinematics and a picture show of particle collisions

High Energy Physics. Lecture 4 More kinematics and a picture show of particle collisions High Energy Physics Lecture 4 More kinematics and a picture show of particle collisions 1 Recall from the previous lecture: the momentum of the scattered Particle in an elastic collision is given by p

More information

Gauge theories and the standard model of elementary particle physics

Gauge theories and the standard model of elementary particle physics Gauge theories and the standard model of elementary particle physics Mark Hamilton 21st July 2014 1 / 35 Table of contents 1 The standard model 2 3 2 / 35 The standard model The standard model is the most

More information

Antonino Zichichi List of Publications - Elenco dei Lavori

Antonino Zichichi List of Publications - Elenco dei Lavori Antonino Zichichi List of Publications - Elenco dei Lavori 1. A PROBABLE EXAMPLE OF THE PRODUCTION AND DECAY OF A NEUTRAL TAU-MESON W.A. Cooper, H. Filthuth, J.A. Newth, G. Petrucci, R.A. Salmeron and

More information

STRING THEORY: Past, Present, and Future

STRING THEORY: Past, Present, and Future STRING THEORY: Past, Present, and Future John H. Schwarz Simons Center March 25, 2014 1 OUTLINE I) Early History and Basic Concepts II) String Theory for Unification III) Superstring Revolutions IV) Remaining

More information

REALIZING EINSTEIN S DREAM Exploring Our Mysterious Universe

REALIZING EINSTEIN S DREAM Exploring Our Mysterious Universe REALIZING EINSTEIN S DREAM Exploring Our Mysterious Universe The End of Physics Albert A. Michelson, at the dedication of Ryerson Physics Lab, U. of Chicago, 1894 The Miracle Year - 1905 Relativity Quantum

More information

Search for Higgs bosons

Search for Higgs bosons Dezső Horváth: Search for Higgs bosons Balaton Summer School, Balatongyörök, 07.07.2009 p. 1/25 Search for Higgs bosons Balaton Summer School, Balatongyörök, 07.07.2009 Dezső Horváth MTA KFKI Research

More information

Concepts in Theoretical Physics

Concepts in Theoretical Physics Concepts in Theoretical Physics Lecture 6: Particle Physics David Tong e 2 The Structure of Things 4πc 1 137 e d ν u Four fundamental particles Repeated twice! va, 9608085, 9902033 Four fundamental forces

More information

Cross section, Flux, Luminosity, Scattering Rates

Cross section, Flux, Luminosity, Scattering Rates Cross section, Flux, Luminosity, Scattering Rates Table of Contents Paul Avery (Andrey Korytov) Sep. 9, 013 1 Introduction... 1 Cross section, flux and scattering... 1 3 Scattering length λ and λ ρ...

More information

Supersymmetry Supergravity Superstring Supercolliders

Supersymmetry Supergravity Superstring Supercolliders The Super Era of Sub-Atomic Particle Physics Jay Hauser Abstract: Particle physics has now moved into the "Super" era, in which Supersymmetry, Supergravity, and Superstring theories will be investigated

More information

Weak Interactions: towards the Standard Model of Physics

Weak Interactions: towards the Standard Model of Physics Weak Interactions: towards the Standard Model of Physics Weak interactions From β-decay to Neutral currents Weak interactions: are very different world CP-violation: power of logics and audacity Some experimental

More information

Introduction: Measurements in Particle Physics

Introduction: Measurements in Particle Physics Subatomic Physics: Particle Physics Lecture 2 Introduction to Measurements in Particle Physics Measuring properties of particles and interactions Particle quantum numbers and conservation laws Review of

More information

Selected Topics in Elementary Particle Physics ( Haupt-Seminar )

Selected Topics in Elementary Particle Physics ( Haupt-Seminar ) Selected Topics in Elementary Particle Physics ( Haupt-Seminar ) Paola Avella, Veronika Chobanova, Luigi Li Gioi, Christian Kiesling, Hans-Günther Moser, Martin Ritter, Pit Vanhoefer Time: Do, 12 ct -14

More information

Matter, Energy, Space and Time:

Matter, Energy, Space and Time: Matter, Energy, Space and Time: Particle Physics in the 21st Century Jonathan Bagger May 8, 2003 A Century of Physics The 20th century witnessed the triumph physics From the discovery of the electron and

More information

Introduction to Elementary Particle Physics. Note 01 Page 1 of 8. Natural Units

Introduction to Elementary Particle Physics. Note 01 Page 1 of 8. Natural Units Introduction to Elementary Particle Physics. Note 01 Page 1 of 8 Natural Units There are 4 primary SI units: three kinematical (meter, second, kilogram) and one electrical (Ampere 1 ) It is common in the

More information

Particle Physics. The Standard Model. A New Periodic Table

Particle Physics. The Standard Model. A New Periodic Table 5 Particle Physics This lecture is about particle physics, the study of the fundamental building blocks of Nature and the forces between them. We call our best theory of particle physics the Standard Model

More information

Lecture 2 - The current state of fundamental physics

Lecture 2 - The current state of fundamental physics Lecture 2 - The current state of fundamental physics 1) Einstein & General Relativity Gravity as Spacetime Curvature Gravitational Radiation, LIGO & LISA Cosmology & the Expanding Universe Dark Energy

More information

A SUSY SO(10) GUT with 2 Intermediate Scales

A SUSY SO(10) GUT with 2 Intermediate Scales A SUSY SO(10) GUT with 2 Intermediate Scales Manuel Drees Bonn University & Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics SUSY SO(10) p. 1/25 Contents 1 Motivation: SO(10), intermediate scales SUSY SO(10) p. 2/25

More information

The Standard Model or Particle Physics 101. Nick Hadley Quarknet, July 7, 2003

The Standard Model or Particle Physics 101. Nick Hadley Quarknet, July 7, 2003 The Standard Model or Particle Physics 101 Nick Hadley Quarknet, July 7, 2003 Thanks Thanks to Don Lincoln of Fermilab who provided some of the pictures and slides used in this talk. Any errors are mine

More information

Fundamental Particles, Fundamental Questions. Elizabeth H. Simmons Dean and Professor, Lyman Briggs College

Fundamental Particles, Fundamental Questions. Elizabeth H. Simmons Dean and Professor, Lyman Briggs College Fundamental Particles, Fundamental Questions Elizabeth H. Simmons Dean and Professor, Lyman Briggs College The smallest pieces of matter Nuclear physics and particle physics study the smallest known building

More information

Particle Physics. Michaelmas Term 2011 Prof Mark Thomson. Handout 7 : Symmetries and the Quark Model. Introduction/Aims

Particle Physics. Michaelmas Term 2011 Prof Mark Thomson. Handout 7 : Symmetries and the Quark Model. Introduction/Aims Particle Physics Michaelmas Term 2011 Prof Mark Thomson Handout 7 : Symmetries and the Quark Model Prof. M.A. Thomson Michaelmas 2011 206 Introduction/Aims Symmetries play a central role in particle physics;

More information

Chapter 27: The Early Universe

Chapter 27: The Early Universe Chapter 27: The Early Universe The plan: 1. A brief survey of the entire history of the big bang universe. 2. A more detailed discussion of each phase, or epoch, from the Planck era through particle production,

More information

Periodic Table of Particles/Forces in the Standard Model. Three Generations of Fermions: Pattern of Masses

Periodic Table of Particles/Forces in the Standard Model. Three Generations of Fermions: Pattern of Masses Introduction to Elementary Particle Physics. Note 01 Page 1 of 8 Periodic Table of Particles/Forces in the Standard Model Three Generations of Fermions: Pattern of Masses 1.0E+06 1.0E+05 1.0E+04 1.0E+03

More information

LHC discoveries and Particle Physics Concepts for Education

LHC discoveries and Particle Physics Concepts for Education LHC discoveries and Particle Physics Concepts for Education Farid Ould- Saada, University of Oslo On behalf of IPPOG EPS- HEP, Vienna, 25.07.2015 A successful program LHC data are successfully deployed

More information

Generally Covariant Quantum Mechanics

Generally Covariant Quantum Mechanics Chapter 15 Generally Covariant Quantum Mechanics by Myron W. Evans, Alpha Foundation s Institutute for Advance Study (AIAS). (emyrone@oal.com, www.aias.us, www.atomicprecision.com) Dedicated to the Late

More information

TIME, SYMMETRY OF. Although everyday experience leads us to believe that time "flows" in one direction, the

TIME, SYMMETRY OF. Although everyday experience leads us to believe that time flows in one direction, the TIME, SYMMETRY OF Although everyday experience leads us to believe that time "flows" in one direction, the equations of both classical and modern physics work equally well in either time direction. Since

More information

The Early Universe. Lecture 27-1

The Early Universe. Lecture 27-1 The Early Universe Lecture 27-1 Back to the Big Bang The total energy of the universe consists of both radiation and matter. As the Universe cooled, it went from being radiation dominated to being matter

More information

Flavour Physics. Tim Gershon University of Warwick. 31 March 2014

Flavour Physics. Tim Gershon University of Warwick. 31 March 2014 Flavour Physics Tim Gershon University of Warwick 31 March 2014 Outline Lecture 1 what is flavour physics? some history, some concepts, some theory charged lepton physics What is flavour physics? Parameters

More information

The Standard Model of Particle Physics - II

The Standard Model of Particle Physics - II The Standard Model of Particle Physics II Lecture 4 Gauge Theory and Symmetries Quantum Chromodynamics Neutrinos Eram Rizvi Royal Institution London 6 th March 2012 Outline A Century of Particle Scattering

More information

Lecture Outlines. Chapter 27. Astronomy Today 7th Edition Chaisson/McMillan. 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Lecture Outlines. Chapter 27. Astronomy Today 7th Edition Chaisson/McMillan. 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Lecture Outlines Chapter 27 Astronomy Today 7th Edition Chaisson/McMillan Chapter 27 The Early Universe Units of Chapter 27 27.1 Back to the Big Bang 27.2 The Evolution of the Universe More on Fundamental

More information

Pearson Physics Level 30 Unit VIII Atomic Physics: Chapter 17 Solutions

Pearson Physics Level 30 Unit VIII Atomic Physics: Chapter 17 Solutions Pearson Physics Level 30 Unit VIII Atomic Physics: Chapter 17 Solutions Student Book page 831 Concept Check Since neutrons have no charge, they do not create ions when passing through the liquid in a bubble

More information

Feynman diagrams. 1 Aim of the game 2

Feynman diagrams. 1 Aim of the game 2 Feynman diagrams Contents 1 Aim of the game 2 2 Rules 2 2.1 Vertices................................ 3 2.2 Anti-particles............................. 3 2.3 Distinct diagrams...........................

More information

Extraction of Polarised Quark Distributions of the Nucleon from Deep Inelastic Scattering at the HERMES Experiment

Extraction of Polarised Quark Distributions of the Nucleon from Deep Inelastic Scattering at the HERMES Experiment Extraction of Polarised Quark Distributions of the Nucleon from Deep Inelastic Scattering at the HERMES Experiment Marc Beckmann FAKULTÄT FÜR PHYSIK ALBERT-LUDWIGS-UNIVERSITÄT FREIBURG Extraction of Polarised

More information

Spontaneous symmetry breaking in particle physics: a case of cross fertilization

Spontaneous symmetry breaking in particle physics: a case of cross fertilization Spontaneous symmetry breaking in particle physics: a case of cross fertilization Yoichiro Nambu lecture presented by Giovanni Jona-Lasinio Nobel Lecture December 8, 2008 1 / 25 History repeats itself 1960

More information

Contents. Goldstone Bosons in 3He-A Soft Modes Dynamics and Lie Algebra of Group G:

Contents. Goldstone Bosons in 3He-A Soft Modes Dynamics and Lie Algebra of Group G: ... Vlll Contents 3. Textures and Supercurrents in Superfluid Phases of 3He 3.1. Textures, Gradient Energy and Rigidity 3.2. Why Superfuids are Superfluid 3.3. Superfluidity and Response to a Transverse

More information

hij Teacher Resource Bank GCE Physics A Other Guidance: Particle Physics By J Breithaupt

hij Teacher Resource Bank GCE Physics A Other Guidance: Particle Physics By J Breithaupt hij Teacher Resource Bank GCE Physics A Other Guidance: Particle Physics By J Breithaupt Copyright 2008 AQA and its licensors. All rights reserved. The Assessment and Qualifications Alliance (AQA) is a

More information

Standard Model of Particle Physics

Standard Model of Particle Physics Standard Model of Particle Physics Chris Sachrajda School of Physics and Astronomy University of Southampton Southampton SO17 1BJ UK SUSSP61, St Andrews August 8th 3rd 006 Contents 1. Spontaneous Symmetry

More information

Search for supersymmetric Dark Matter with GLAST!!

Search for supersymmetric Dark Matter with GLAST!! Search for supersymmetric Dark Matter with GLAST!! Aldo Morselli INFN, Sezione di Roma 2 & Università di Roma Tor Vergata ICCRC2003 The 28th International Cosmic Ray Conference Tsukuba, Japan, July 31-

More information

Why the high lying glueball does not mix with the neighbouring f 0. Abstract

Why the high lying glueball does not mix with the neighbouring f 0. Abstract Why the high lying glueball does not mix with the neighbouring f 0. L. Ya. Glozman Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Graz, Universitätsplatz 5, A-800 Graz, Austria Abstract Chiral symmetry

More information

Masses in Atomic Units

Masses in Atomic Units Nuclear Composition - the forces binding protons and neutrons in the nucleus are much stronger (binding energy of MeV) than the forces binding electrons to the atom (binding energy of ev) - the constituents

More information

Extensions of the Standard Model (part 2)

Extensions of the Standard Model (part 2) Extensions of the Standard Model (part 2) Prof. Jorgen D Hondt Vrije Universiteit Brussel Inter-university Institute for High Energies Content: The Higgs sector of the Standard Model and extensions Theoretical

More information

One of the primary goals of physics is to understand the wonderful variety of nature in a

One of the primary goals of physics is to understand the wonderful variety of nature in a A Unified Physics by by Steven Weinberg 2050? Experiments at CERN and elsewhere should let us complete the Standard Model of particle physics, but a unified theory of all forces will probably require radically

More information

0.33 d down 1 1. 0.33 c charm + 2 3. 0 0 1.5 s strange 1 3. 0 0 0.5 t top + 2 3. 0 0 172 b bottom 1 3

0.33 d down 1 1. 0.33 c charm + 2 3. 0 0 1.5 s strange 1 3. 0 0 0.5 t top + 2 3. 0 0 172 b bottom 1 3 Chapter 16 Constituent Quark Model Quarks are fundamental spin- 1 particles from which all hadrons are made up. Baryons consist of three quarks, whereas mesons consist of a quark and an anti-quark. There

More information

1) G. Goggi et al. A DIFFUSION CLOUD CHAMBER FOR AN INVESTIGATION OF PHOTOREACTIONS ON 3 He - Nucl. Instr. Meth. 57 (1967) 137

1) G. Goggi et al. A DIFFUSION CLOUD CHAMBER FOR AN INVESTIGATION OF PHOTOREACTIONS ON 3 He - Nucl. Instr. Meth. 57 (1967) 137 1 1) G. Goggi et al. A DIFFUSION CLOUD CHAMBER FOR AN INVESTIGATION OF PHOTOREACTIONS ON 3 He - Nucl. Instr. Meth. 57 (1967) 137 2) G. Goggi et al. HIGH ENERGY PHOTODISINTEGRATION OF 3 He - Nuovo Cimento

More information

A CONFRONTATION WITH INFINITY

A CONFRONTATION WITH INFINITY A CONFRONTATION WITH INFINITY Nobel lecture 1999. Gerard t Hooft Institute for Theoretical Physics University of Utrecht, Princetonplein 5 3584 CC Utrecht, the Netherlands e-mail: g.thooft@fys.ruu.nl 1.

More information

Top rediscovery at ATLAS and CMS

Top rediscovery at ATLAS and CMS Top rediscovery at ATLAS and CMS on behalf of ATLAS and CMS collaborations CNRS/IN2P3 & UJF/ENSPG, LPSC, Grenoble, France E-mail: julien.donini@lpsc.in2p3.fr We describe the plans and strategies of the

More information

Calorimetry in particle physics experiments

Calorimetry in particle physics experiments Calorimetry in particle physics experiments Unit n. 8 Calibration techniques Roberta Arcidiacono Lecture overview Introduction Hardware Calibration Test Beam Calibration In-situ Calibration (EM calorimeters)

More information

THREE QUARKS: u, d, s. Precursor 2: Eightfold Way, Discovery of Ω - Quark Model: first three quarks and three colors

THREE QUARKS: u, d, s. Precursor 2: Eightfold Way, Discovery of Ω - Quark Model: first three quarks and three colors Introduction to Elementary Particle Physics. Note 20 Page 1 of 17 THREE QUARKS: u, d, s Precursor 1: Sakata Model Precursor 2: Eightfold Way, Discovery of Ω - Quark Model: first three quarks and three

More information

FCC 1309180800 JGU WBS_v0034.xlsm

FCC 1309180800 JGU WBS_v0034.xlsm 1 Accelerators 1.1 Hadron injectors 1.1.1 Overall design parameters 1.1.1.1 Performance and gap of existing injector chain 1.1.1.2 Performance and gap of existing injector chain 1.1.1.3 Baseline parameters

More information

Introduction to SME and Scattering Theory. Don Colladay. New College of Florida Sarasota, FL, 34243, U.S.A.

Introduction to SME and Scattering Theory. Don Colladay. New College of Florida Sarasota, FL, 34243, U.S.A. June 2012 Introduction to SME and Scattering Theory Don Colladay New College of Florida Sarasota, FL, 34243, U.S.A. This lecture was given at the IUCSS summer school during June of 2012. It contains a

More information

Recent developments in Electromagnetic Hadron Form Factors

Recent developments in Electromagnetic Hadron Form Factors Recent developments in Electromagnetic Hadron Form Factors (JOH7RPDVL*XVWDIVVRQ '$31,$63K16DFOD\ :KDW are Form Factors? :K\ to measure? +RZ to measure? :KDWLVQHZ" Consequences, Conclusions 6SRNHSHUVR QV

More information

Axion/Saxion Cosmology Revisited

Axion/Saxion Cosmology Revisited Axion/Saxion Cosmology Revisited Masahiro Yamaguchi (Tohoku University) Based on Nakamura, Okumura, MY, PRD77 ( 08) and Work in Progress 1. Introduction Fine Tuning Problems of Particle Physics Smallness

More information

Antimatter Experiments at CERN

Antimatter Experiments at CERN Dezső Horváth Antimatter FFK-2014, 1-5 December 2014, Dubna, Russia p. 1/24 Antimatter Experiments at CERN Dezső Horváth horvath.dezso@wigner.mta.hu Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Institute for Particle

More information

Looking for Magnetic Monopoles AT The Large Hadron Collider. Vicente Vento Universidad de Valencia-IFIC

Looking for Magnetic Monopoles AT The Large Hadron Collider. Vicente Vento Universidad de Valencia-IFIC Looking for Magnetic Monopoles AT The Large Hadron Collider Vicente Vento Universidad de Valencia-IFIC Luis Epele Huner Fanchiotti Carlos García Canal Vasiliki Mitsou Introduction Monopoles Monopole Production

More information

Aspects of Electroweak Symmetry Breaking in Physics Beyond the Standard Model

Aspects of Electroweak Symmetry Breaking in Physics Beyond the Standard Model Aspects of Electroweak Symmetry Breaking in Physics Beyond the Standard Model Peter Athron Department of Physics and Astronomy University of Glasgow Presented as a thesis for the degree of Ph.D. in the

More information

Where is Fundamental Physics Heading? Nathan Seiberg IAS Apr. 30, 2014

Where is Fundamental Physics Heading? Nathan Seiberg IAS Apr. 30, 2014 Where is Fundamental Physics Heading? Nathan Seiberg IAS Apr. 30, 2014 Disclaimer We do not know what will be discovered. This is the reason we perform experiments. This is the reason scientific research

More information

Holographic Principle -towards the new paradigm- Bum-Hoon Lee Center for Quantum Spacetime(CQUeST)/Dept. of Physics Sogang University Seoul, Korea

Holographic Principle -towards the new paradigm- Bum-Hoon Lee Center for Quantum Spacetime(CQUeST)/Dept. of Physics Sogang University Seoul, Korea Holographic Principle -towards the new paradigm- Bum-Hoon Lee Center for Quantum Spacetime(CQUeST)/Dept. of Physics Sogang University Seoul, Korea AKPA-IBS Symposium @Chicago, May 9, 2014 I. Introduction

More information

UN PICCOLO BIG BANG IN LABORATORIO: L'ESPERIMENTO ALICE AD LHC

UN PICCOLO BIG BANG IN LABORATORIO: L'ESPERIMENTO ALICE AD LHC UN PICCOLO BIG BANG IN LABORATORIO: L'ESPERIMENTO ALICE AD LHC Parte 1: Carlos A. Salgado Universidade de Santiago de Compostela csalgado@usc.es http://cern.ch/csalgado LHC physics program Fundamental

More information

Objectives 404 CHAPTER 9 RADIATION

Objectives 404 CHAPTER 9 RADIATION Objectives Explain the difference between isotopes of the same element. Describe the force that holds nucleons together. Explain the relationship between mass and energy according to Einstein s theory

More information

The Standard Model and the LHC! in the Higgs Boson Era Juan Rojo!

The Standard Model and the LHC! in the Higgs Boson Era Juan Rojo! The Standard Model and the LHC in the Higgs Boson Era Juan Rojo Saturday Mornings of Theoretical Physics Rudolf Peierls Center for Theoretical Physics Oxford, 07/02/2015 1 The Standard Model of Particle

More information

SUSY Breaking and Axino Cosmology

SUSY Breaking and Axino Cosmology SUSY Breaking and Axino Cosmology Masahiro Yamaguchi Tohoku University Nov. 10, 2010 ExDiP2010@KEK, Japan 1. Introduction Fine Tuning Problems of Particle Physics Smallness of electroweak scale Smallness

More information

PrHEP JHW2002. Experiments on high energy reactions in the diffractive regime at LHC. 1. Introduction. Twenty-sixth Johns Hopkins Workshop

PrHEP JHW2002. Experiments on high energy reactions in the diffractive regime at LHC. 1. Introduction. Twenty-sixth Johns Hopkins Workshop PROCEEDINGS Experiments on high energy reactions in the diffractive regime at LHC Helsinki Institute for Physics, c/o CERN, Route de Meyrin, CH-1211 Geneva 23, Switzerland E-mail: Stefan.Tapprogge@cern.ch

More information

1 Introduction. 1 There may, of course, in principle, exist other universes, but they are not accessible to our

1 Introduction. 1 There may, of course, in principle, exist other universes, but they are not accessible to our 1 1 Introduction Cosmology is the study of the universe as a whole, its structure, its origin, and its evolution. Cosmology is soundly based on observations, mostly astronomical, and laws of physics. These

More information

Unification - The Standard Model

Unification - The Standard Model Unification - The Standard Model Information on Physics level 4 Undergraduate Course PT.4.6 K.S. Stelle, Office Huxley 519 November 9, 2015 Rapid Feedback to be handed in to the UG office Level 3 (day

More information

How NOT to do a data analysis

How NOT to do a data analysis How NOT to do a data analysis The Physics case: neutrinoless double beta decay The experimental apparatus The reported results A critical review of the analysis The ROOT code A. Fontana and P. Pedroni

More information

Theory of electrons and positrons

Theory of electrons and positrons P AUL A. M. DIRAC Theory of electrons and positrons Nobel Lecture, December 12, 1933 Matter has been found by experimental physicists to be made up of small particles of various kinds, the particles of

More information

The Higgs Boson. Linac08 Victoria BC, Canada CANADA S NATIONAL LABORATORY FOR PARTICLE AND NUCLEAR PHYSICS

The Higgs Boson. Linac08 Victoria BC, Canada CANADA S NATIONAL LABORATORY FOR PARTICLE AND NUCLEAR PHYSICS CANADA S NATIONAL LABORATORY FOR PARTICLE AND NUCLEAR PHYSICS Owned and operated as a joint venture by a consortium of Canadian universities via a contribution through the National Research Council Canada

More information

Outline. book content motivations storyline

Outline. book content motivations storyline Outline book content motivations storyline Content history from 1968 (Veneziano amplitude) to 1984 (first string revolution) 7 parts with introductions, 35 contributors and 5 appendices: I. Overview (Veneziano,

More information

The Dawn of PHYSICS BEYOND THE. By Gordon Kane 68 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN

The Dawn of PHYSICS BEYOND THE. By Gordon Kane 68 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN The Dawn of PHYSICS BEYOND THE By Gordon Kane 68 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN STANDARD MODEL The Standard Model of particle physics is at a pivotal moment in its history: it is both at the height of its success

More information

emission of light from atoms discrete line spectra - energy levels, Franck-Hertz experiment

emission of light from atoms discrete line spectra - energy levels, Franck-Hertz experiment Introduction Until the early 20 th century physicists used to explain the phenomena in the physical world around them using theories such a mechanics, electromagnetism, thermodynamics and statistical physics

More information

About the Author. journals as Physics Letters, Nuclear Physics and The Physical Review.

About the Author. journals as Physics Letters, Nuclear Physics and The Physical Review. About the Author Dr. John Hagelin is Professor of Physics and Director of the Doctoral Program in Physics at Maharishi International University. Dr. Hagelin received his A.B. Summa Cum Laude from Dartmouth

More information

POSSIBL-E EXPERIMENTS ON THE 200-GeV ACCELERATOR. A. D. Krisch University of Michigan. R. Serber Columbia University.

POSSIBL-E EXPERIMENTS ON THE 200-GeV ACCELERATOR. A. D. Krisch University of Michigan. R. Serber Columbia University. FN-68 POSSIBL-E EXPERIMENTS ON THE 200-GeV ACCELERATOR A. D. Krisch University of Michigan R. Serber Columbia University August 23, 1967 We will describe a number of experiments that might be dcne on.,he

More information

Quark Model. Quark Model

Quark Model. Quark Model Quark odel Outline Hadrons Isosin Strangeness Quark odel Flavours u d s esons Pseudoscalar and vector mesons Baryons Deculet octet Hadron asses Sin-sin couling Heavy Quarks Charm bottom Heavy quark esons

More information

Scuola Raimondo Anni Electro-weak probes in Nuclear Physics. Electron scattering. (a general introduction) Antonio M. Lallena. Universidad de Granada

Scuola Raimondo Anni Electro-weak probes in Nuclear Physics. Electron scattering. (a general introduction) Antonio M. Lallena. Universidad de Granada Scuola Raimondo Anni Electro-weak probes in Nuclear Physics Electron scattering (a general introduction) Antonio M. Lallena Universidad de Granada Otranto, 2013 Outline i. A very short history of electron

More information

Presenting limits of simplified dark matter models from collider searches in. 0 m DM planes and self-annihilation cross-sections.

Presenting limits of simplified dark matter models from collider searches in. 0 m DM planes and self-annihilation cross-sections. Internal working document not intended for broader distribution Presenting limits of simplified dark matter models from collider searches in SD/SI m DM planes and self-annihilation cross-sections. Oliver

More information

Prof. Arán García-Bellido Prof. Kevin McFarland UNIVERSITY OF ROCHESTER DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY 30 APRIL 2009

Prof. Arán García-Bellido Prof. Kevin McFarland UNIVERSITY OF ROCHESTER DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY 30 APRIL 2009 Prof. Arán García-Bellido Prof. Kevin McFarland UNIVERSITY OF ROCHESTER DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY 30 APRIL 2009 THE MOVIE TRAILER MOVIE SUMMARY Antimatter is stolen from CERN s Large Hadron Collider

More information

In theoretical physics, paradoxes are

In theoretical physics, paradoxes are Asymptotic freedom: From paradox to paradigm Frank Wilczek* A Pair of Paradoxes In theoretical physics, paradoxes are good. That s paradoxical, since a paradox appears to be a contradiction, and contradictions

More information

ADVANCEMENTS IN BIG DATA PROCESSING IN THE ATLAS AND CMS EXPERIMENTS 1. A.V. Vaniachine on behalf of the ATLAS and CMS Collaborations

ADVANCEMENTS IN BIG DATA PROCESSING IN THE ATLAS AND CMS EXPERIMENTS 1. A.V. Vaniachine on behalf of the ATLAS and CMS Collaborations ADVANCEMENTS IN BIG DATA PROCESSING IN THE ATLAS AND CMS EXPERIMENTS 1 A.V. Vaniachine on behalf of the ATLAS and CMS Collaborations Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S Cass Ave, Argonne, IL, 60439, USA

More information

A Theory for the Cosmological Constant and its Explanation of the Gravitational Constant

A Theory for the Cosmological Constant and its Explanation of the Gravitational Constant A Theory for the Cosmological Constant and its Explanation of the Gravitational Constant H.M.Mok Radiation Health Unit, 3/F., Saiwanho Health Centre, Hong Kong SAR Govt, 8 Tai Hong St., Saiwanho, Hong

More information

Three-generation models in heterotic asymmetric orbifolds

Three-generation models in heterotic asymmetric orbifolds Three-generation models in heterotic asymmetric orbifolds Shogo Kuwakino (Chung Yuan Christian U., Taiwan) Based on arxiv:1304.5621 [hep-th] and 1311.4687 [hep-th] Collaborator : Florian Beye (Nagoya university)

More information

ASACUSA: Measuring the Antiproton Mass and Magnetic Moment

ASACUSA: Measuring the Antiproton Mass and Magnetic Moment Dezső Horváth ASACUSA ECFA, 4 October 2013, Wigner FK, Budapest p. 1/19 ASACUSA: Measuring the Antiproton Mass and Magnetic Moment Dezső Horváth on behalf of the ASACUSA Collaboration horvath.dezso@wigner.mta.hu

More information

Non-Supersymmetric Seiberg Duality in orientifold QCD and Non-Critical Strings

Non-Supersymmetric Seiberg Duality in orientifold QCD and Non-Critical Strings Non-Supersymmetric Seiberg Duality in orientifold QCD and Non-Critical Strings, IAP Large N@Swansea, July 2009 A. Armoni, D.I., G. Moraitis and V. Niarchos, arxiv:0801.0762 Introduction IR dynamics of

More information

Launching DORIS II and ARGUS. Herwig Schopper University Hamburg and CERN

Launching DORIS II and ARGUS. Herwig Schopper University Hamburg and CERN Launching DORIS II and ARGUS Herwig Schopper University Hamburg and CERN ARGUS 20 Years, DESY symposium 9 November 2007 Early days of DORIS The DESY laboratory was founded in 1959 synchrotron DESY began

More information

Evolution of the Universe from 13 to 4 Billion Years Ago

Evolution of the Universe from 13 to 4 Billion Years Ago Evolution of the Universe from 13 to 4 Billion Years Ago Prof. Dr. Harold Geller hgeller@gmu.edu http://physics.gmu.edu/~hgeller/ Department of Physics and Astronomy George Mason University Unity in the

More information

SCATTERING CROSS SECTIONS AND LORENTZ VIOLATION DON COLLADAY

SCATTERING CROSS SECTIONS AND LORENTZ VIOLATION DON COLLADAY SCATTERING CROSS SECTIONS AND LORENTZ VIOLATION DON COLLADAY New College of Florida, 5700 Tamiami Trail, Sarasota, FL 34243, USA E-mail: colladay@sar.usf.edu To date, a significant effort has been made

More information

Boardworks AS Physics

Boardworks AS Physics Boardworks AS Physics Vectors 24 slides 11 Flash activities Prefixes, scalars and vectors Guide to the SI unit prefixes of orders of magnitude Matching powers of ten to their SI unit prefixes Guide to

More information

The future of string theory

The future of string theory JOURNAL OF MATHEMATICAL PHYSICS VOLUME 42, NUMBER 7 JULY 2001 The future of string theory John H. Schwarz a) California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 Received 2 January 2001; accepted

More information

Elementary Particle Physics Fall Term 2014. Course Information

Elementary Particle Physics Fall Term 2014. Course Information Physics 145 Harvard University Elementary Particle Physics Fall Term 2014 Course Information Instructors: Gary Feldman, Professor, Lyman 232, 496-1044, gfeldman@fas.harvard.edu Teaching Fellow, Stephen

More information

Session 42 Review The Universe, and its Dark Side

Session 42 Review The Universe, and its Dark Side 95% Session 42 Review The Universe, and its Dark Side Dec 9, 2011 Email: ph116@u.washington.edu Announcements Final exam: Monday 12/12, 2:30-4:20 pm Same length/format as previous exams (but you can have

More information

Searching for the Building Blocks of Matter

Searching for the Building Blocks of Matter 1 Searching for the Building Blocks of Matter Building Blocks of Matter The Smallest Scales Physicists at Fermilab are searching for the smallest building blocks of matter and determining how they interact

More information

Physics Department Phone: (541)357-9284 Center of High Energy Physics Fax: (541)346-5217

Physics Department Phone: (541)357-9284 Center of High Energy Physics Fax: (541)346-5217 Spencer Chang Curriculum Vitae Contact Information Research Positions Education Awards Teaching Physics Department Phone: (541)357-9284 Center of High Energy Physics Fax: (541)346-5217 University of Oregon

More information

"in recognition of the services he rendered to the advancement of Physics by his discovery of energy quanta". h is the Planck constant he called it

in recognition of the services he rendered to the advancement of Physics by his discovery of energy quanta. h is the Planck constant he called it 1 2 "in recognition of the services he rendered to the advancement of Physics by his discovery of energy quanta". h is the Planck constant he called it the quantum of action 3 Newton believed in the corpuscular

More information

AUTOMATION OF OPERATIONS ON THE VEPP-4 CONTROL SYSTEM

AUTOMATION OF OPERATIONS ON THE VEPP-4 CONTROL SYSTEM 10th ICALEPCS Int. Conf. on Accelerator & Large Expt. Physics Control Systems. Geneva, 10-14 Oct 2005, PO1.072-7 (2005) AUTOMATION OF OPERATIONS ON THE VEPP-4 CONTROL SYSTEM A. Bogomyagkov, S. Karnaev,

More information

Chapter 7: The Quantum-Mechanical Model of the Atom

Chapter 7: The Quantum-Mechanical Model of the Atom C h e m i s t r y 1 A : C h a p t e r 7 P a g e 1 Chapter 7: The Quantum-Mechanical Model of the Atom Homework: Read Chapter 7. Work out sample/practice exercises Suggested Chapter 7 Problems: 37, 39,

More information

A Study of the Top Quark Production Threshold at a Future Electron-Positron Linear Collider

A Study of the Top Quark Production Threshold at a Future Electron-Positron Linear Collider A Study of the Top Quark Production Threshold at a Future Electron-Positron Linear Collider Filimon Gournaris Department of Physics and Astronomy University College London A thesis submitted for the degree

More information

variables to investigate Monte Carlo methods of t t production

variables to investigate Monte Carlo methods of t t production Using the M 2 and variables to investigate Monte Carlo methods of t t production Caitlin Jones September 8, 25 Abstract In this project the behaviour of Monte Carlo simulations for the event t t! ` `+b

More information

JANVIDA ROU. Introduction

JANVIDA ROU. Introduction HANBURY BROWN-TWISS INTERFEROMETRY IN SUBATOMIC PARTICLES JANVIDA ROU Introduction Many different experiments utilizing collisions have been developed to study nuclei and elementary particles. For example,

More information

SubAtomic Physics Nuclear Physics

SubAtomic Physics Nuclear Physics SubAtomic Physics Nuclear Physics Lecture 4 Main points of Lecture 3 Strong and coulomb interaction processes conserve angular momentum and parity External properties 1) Charge number of protons (ze) 2)

More information

Fundamental Physics at Extreme High Energies

Fundamental Physics at Extreme High Energies Fundamental Physics at Extreme High Energies Michael Kachelrieß NTNU, Trondheim [] Outline: Introduction Testing (new?) strong interactions Lorentz invariance violation Topological defects & superheavy

More information

arxiv:hep-ph/ v1 4 May 1999

arxiv:hep-ph/ v1 4 May 1999 CERN-TH/99-116 FNT/T-99/06 Light-Pair Corrections to Small-Angle Bhabha arxiv:hep-ph/9905235v1 4 May 1999 Scattering in a Realistic Set-up at LEP G. Montagna a,b M. Moretti c,d,1 O. Nicrosini b,a A. Pallavicini

More information