LHC discoveries and Particle Physics Concepts for Education

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1 LHC discoveries and Particle Physics Concepts for Education Farid Ould- Saada, University of Oslo On behalf of IPPOG EPS- HEP, Vienna,

2 A successful program LHC data are successfully deployed in International Master classes and related events Young students perform various measurements based on p- p, lead- lead and p- lead collisions explore the Higgs discovery and the quark gluon plasma Promises of new discoveries in the 13 TeV era and opportunities offered by CERN open data have triggered new educational materials Interesting discussions on how to introduce more concepts, should new phenomena be discovered at the LHC 24/07/15 Physics Concepts for Education 2

3 4 levels of engagement The introductory level provides limited amounts of data in short activities to convey key concepts day- long Master classes. With more time, students design their own investigations to access larger data sets in an e- Lab. Research projects based on large LHC datasets open possibilities for university (and advanced high school) students and result in strong support to theoretical and experimental lectures. Tools to analyse larger datasets allow more concepts to be brought closer to students. 24/07/15 Physics Concepts for Education 3

4 From outreach to education Basics concepts include particle identification and event characterisation Invariant mass is successfully mastered to measure properties of various known particles (J/ψ, Υ, Z 0, K s, D 0, Λ, ) to discover new ones Higgs and to search for exotic particles and phenomena (Z / new forces) Counting of W + and W - is explained in terms of the proton structure Other achievements include understanding the concepts of event & statistics & significance simulation & modelling: hypothesis testing 24/07/15 Physics Concepts for Education 4

5 From outreach to education More concepts must be brought in if we want to go beyond Buzz- words, such as Dark Matter, Dark Energy, Extra space dimensions, Graviton, There is an urgent need to extend the educational materials to follow LHC 'heartbeats : share any new discovery and influence textbooks and teaching methods 24/07/15 Physics Concepts for Education 5

6 Invariant mass at work Z Mass calculation Plotting LHC Discovery CMS Data Express TOTEM Data Express Masterclass- in- a- Box ATLAS W&Z measurement ATLAS Z path OPloT 24/07/15 6 m ll

7 Invariant mass at work ATLAS & CMS Higgs discovery seen by students From 2 to 25/n Looking forward to using large datasets m 4l m γγ LHCb new exotic pentaquark? worth sharing with students! 24/07/15 7

8 Hands- on data analysis and teaching concepts e- Lab Level CMS e- Lab Open Data Visualize CMS events Open Data Visualize CMS histograms CMS data for teaching concepts of data analysis Muon multiplicity, invariant mass,, Top quark properties, Data- MC comparisons Towards a Prototype visualization of a larger dataset ATLAS University students, based on dc.js Hà WW based on 1/n (MC) 24/07/15 Physics Concepts for Education 8

9 Hands- on data analysis and teaching concepts Proposal for an ATLAS endorsed data set for Education and Outreach Purposes à under approval Lab Courses in use and/or development introduction to concepts, methods, out- of- the box tools, data- MC comparison, statistical analysis Studies include searches for ttbar resonances (1 day lab course, Dortmund) Hà WW (e- Course in Venezuela, CMS and soon ATLAS data) Search for an exotic particle (4- week Student s Course, Maastricht) Multileptons (Athens) Z path and extensions to SUSY and Graviton Searches (1 day, 3 weeks, 3 months, Oslo) è 24/07/15 Physics Concepts for Education 9

10 Example of extensions to prepare for possible LHC discoveries and take advantage of high data statistics Features implemented into Z path to serve both high- school and more advanced (university) students Possibility for batch analysis after having studied a set of event displays è Exploit missing energy- momentum, a key concept closely related to neutrinos, dark matter, supersymmetry, and other exotic phenomena such as extra space dimensions Supersymmetry searches in di- lepton final states: di- lepton invariant mass endpoints of SUSY particles è Graviton decays to di- leptons, di- photons, di- weak bosons Make use of simulation and modeling of new physics 24/07/15 Physics Concepts for Education 10

11 Batch analysis & high data statistics after having studied a set of event displays m ee è example of ATLAS data available in recent Master classes p T (jet) m µµ Interesting event worth studying m γγ Z recoiling against high pt jet (1.2 TeV) Track pt cut of 10 GeV 24/07/15 11

12 Missing energy and Transverse mass Students practiced Missing (Transverse) Energy E T miss From Invariant to Transverse mass From Z ( ) to W ( ) From Hà ZZ, γγ to Hà WW 24/07/15 12

13 Students are used to DM particles The neutrino is widely accepted although It is a very light dark matter in most HEP experiments But, It is detected in large detectors the way we would like to detect DM directly recoil of some matter particle Neutrinos are too light to entirely explain the DM problem But constitute background when searching for DM Particle physics solution to DM must involve new particles expected to be Weakly Interacting Massive SUSY Features Lightest SUSY Particle (LSP) Comes with a plethora of new particles related to SM particles through spin Many SUSY theories and many parameters 24/07/15 Physics Concepts for Education 13

14 Z path- related projects Z- path is introduced in two courses, FYS3510 (Subatomic physics) and FYS4560 (Advanced particle physics) at University of Oslo Students calculate an electroweak process e+e- à l+l-, use CompHEP to include a Z, and perform a pp à l+l- analysis and compare to ATLAS results The Z- path dilepton spectrum adds the feeling of working with fresh, real data. The 4- lepton final state (40 events) is used in project work related to Higgs (production and decay) and weak gauge boson self- couplings (allowed and forbidden couplings) studies. Larger statistics (real data and MC) would allow beautiful textbook hands- on activities 3- month student research project within FYS4010 Bachelor Course Search optimisation with ATLAS, and sharing discoveries with students. Available di- lepton data (IMC) data compared to some generated and ATLFAST simulated MC samples resulting from a pmssm search optimisation also performed by student ETmiss is implemented and used to enhance the di- lepton end- point distribution à results 24/07/15 Physics Concepts for Education 14

15 a SUSY search for MC and beyond Choose relevant kinematical variables Missing Transverse Energy (MET) Di- lepton Invariant Mass Compare data to Standard Model Search for deviations And find / guess a (SUSY or other) model reproducing the observation Is it a lot to introduce and how far can t we go? 24/07/15 15

16 Some challenges for you and me Which basic concepts must be taught to prepare for new discoveries and how? How to introduce MC- related concepts into textbooks Will not ask you about how to explain / convey the hierarchy problem How do we convey / explain the way we plan to discover DM? at LHC? What about Extra space dimensions and the link to gravity? And the fact that some signatures are similar for graviton and DM (mono- jets, mono- photons) Maybe reconsider the way we introduce the SM & beyond? 16

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