TIME, SYMMETRY OF. Although everyday experience leads us to believe that time "flows" in one direction, the


 Edwin Davidson
 2 years ago
 Views:
Transcription
1 TIME, SYMMETRY OF Although everyday experience leads us to believe that time "flows" in one direction, the equations of both classical and modern physics work equally well in either time direction. Since these equations accurately describe all observations of physical phenomena, from those made with the human eye to those made with the finest scientific instruments, the implication is that time can flow either way. The arrow of time of human experience (see also Time, Arrow of) results from the fact that macroscopic objects contain many particles and these, to a great extent, move about randomly. The probability for a phenomenon happening in one time direction, such as air escaping from a punctured tire, is often much greater than the probability for the phenomenon happening in the opposite time direction, such as outside air reinflating a punctured tire. The reverse time event is not impossible, just highly unlikely. The arrow of time is defined as the direction of most probably occurrences. At the level of chemical, nuclear, and elementary particle interactions, however, reactions occur in either time direction. Statistical differences between initial and final states can result in different reaction rates for the two directions, but at the basic interaction level the two directions are equally likely. One exception occurs in certain elementary particle reactions that are mediated by the weak nuclear force (see also Time, Asymmetry of). There a slight asymmetry of one part on a thousand exists. However, reactions can still proceed in either direction with only a slight difference in probabilities.
2 In 1949 Richard Feynman showed that an antiparticle, such as the antielectron or positron, may be viewed as a particle going backward in time. This symmetry is built into the visual aids called Feynman diagrams used by physicists to calculate the rates of various reactions between elementary particles. Despite the basic time symmetry of physics, most physicists continue to assume directed time in their models. This generally makes no difference, since a particle going backward in time is empirically indistinguishable from its antiparticle going forward in time, where "forward" is defined by everyday experience. However, it has been known for decades that quantum mechanics predicts certain phenomena that seem paradoxical. For example, electrons and other particles behave as if they can be in two or more places at the same time. Experiments have been performed that suggest "backward causality," where the changing of the parameters of a detector after the particles to be detected are already in flight affects the behavior of those particles, even though they cannot be reached without sending a superluminal signal (signal traveling faster than the speed of light, violating Einstein's theory of special relativity). This is taken as evidence for nonlocality in quantum mechanics, in which two events separated in space are still connected despite the fact that no signal can pass between them without going faster than the speed of light. Timereversibility offers a possible explanation for these observations. For example, an electron can be seen to appear at two places at the same time when one uses the picture introduced by Feynman, as illustrated in figure 1. An electron
3 moving through space can be turned back in time by a collision with a photon. Normally this is simply viewed as the production of an electronpositron pair. However, we can view the positron as an electron going backward in time. If, in the "past," it is reversed again by a collision with a photon, it can proceed forward in time again, thus appearing two places at once. Figure 1. The "Feynman spacetime zigzag." In (a), an electron goes forward in time, scatters off a photon, moves backward in time, scatters again, and goes forward. Note that the electron appears simultaneously in three different places at time B. In (b), the conventional timedirected view is shown in which an electronpositron pair is produced at time A, with the positron annihilating with the other electron at time C. The advantage
4 of view (a) is parsimony, with no need to introduce antiparticles. It also offers an explanation for the indistinguishability of electrons. If we insist on a single time direction, an electron appearing two places at once implies superluminal motion (motion faster than the speed of light), which is forbidden by Einstein's theory of relativity. Indeed, in this case infinite speed is needed. While relativity does in principle allow for superluminal motion, it is restricted to particles called tachyons that must always travel faster than the speed of light. Particles, such as electrons, which normally travel at less than the speed of light cannot be accelerated beyond that speed. In any case, no tachyons have ever been observed. In short, time reversibility is not forbidden and indeed is suggested by the basic principles of physics. Furthermore, time reversibility can help to explain the socalled paradoxes of quantum mechanics, what Einstein called "spooky action at a distance," without involving superluminal motion. Still, one problem remains to be resolved: the time travel or grandfather's paradox. Simply stated, if you could go back in time, you would be able to kill your grandfather before he met your grandmother, in which case you would never have been born! The answer to this paradox is rather subtle and has to do with the definition of the arrow of time. Time's arrow is determined by the direction in which the entropy of the universe increases. Entropy is a measure of disorder. Negative
5 entropy is thus a measure of order or information. Thus time's arrow is the direction in which information decreases. Now, if you were to go "backward" with respect to the conventional direction of time to kill your grandfather, you would be using information from the future that was not available in the past. This implies that the future has more information lower entropy than the past, a contradiction. That is, it would not be the future but the past by definition. If you traveled back without any information, as if you had amnesia and did not even know your own name, there would be no contradiction but you would have no way of identifying your grandfather. FURTHER READING Davies, Paul. (1996). About Time: Einstein's Unfinished Revolution. New York: Simon & Schuster. Feynman, Richard. (1985). QED: The Strange Theory of Light and Matter. Princeton: Princeton University Press. Lederman, Leon M. and Christopher T. Hill. (2004). Symmetry and the Beautiful Universe. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books. Price, Huw. (1996). Time's Arrow and Archimedes Point: New Directions for the Physics of Time. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Stenger, Victor J. (2000). Timeless Reality: Symmetry, Simplicity, and Multiple Universes. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books.
6
TIME'S ARROWS POINT BOTH WAYS
TIME'S ARROWS POINT BOTH WAYS THE VIEW FROM NOWHEN VICTOR J. STENGER Published in Skeptic Vol 8, No. 4, 2001 pp. 925 Suppose you are in a closed room full of people. Somebody opens the door and all the
More information8 The Timeless Quantum
8 The Timeless Quantum Every particle in Nature has an amplitude to move backward in time... Richard Feynman (1986, 98) Note: This chapter is from my book Timeless Reality: Symmetry, Simplicity, and Multiple
More informationSubatomic Physics: Particle Physics Lecture 4. Quantum ElectroDynamics & Feynman Diagrams. Antimatter. Virtual Particles. Yukawa Potential for QED
Ψ e (r, t) exp i/ (E)(t) (p) (r) Subatomic Physics: Particle Physics Lecture Quantum ElectroDynamics & Feynman Diagrams Antimatter Feynman Diagram and Feynman Rules Quantum description of electromagnetism
More informationPHY1020 BASIC CONCEPTS IN PHYSICS I
PHY1020 BASIC CONCEPTS IN PHYSICS I Jackson Levi Said 14 lectures/tutorials/past paper session Project on one of the interesting fields in physics (30%) Exam in January/February (70%) 1 The Course RECOMMENDED
More informationLaws of Motion and Conservation Laws
Laws of Motion and Conservation Laws The first astrophysics we ll consider will be gravity, which we ll address in the next class. First, though, we need to set the stage by talking about some of the basic
More informationFeynman diagrams. 1 Aim of the game 2
Feynman diagrams Contents 1 Aim of the game 2 2 Rules 2 2.1 Vertices................................ 3 2.2 Antiparticles............................. 3 2.3 Distinct diagrams...........................
More informationOn the Nature of Measurement in Quantum Mechanics. Abstract. Text
of Measurement in Quantum Mechanics DOUGLAS M. SNYDER LOS ANGELES, CALIFORNIA Abstract A number of issues related to measurement show that selfconsistency is lacking in quantum mechanics as this theory
More informationREALIZING EINSTEIN S DREAM Exploring Our Mysterious Universe
REALIZING EINSTEIN S DREAM Exploring Our Mysterious Universe The End of Physics Albert A. Michelson, at the dedication of Ryerson Physics Lab, U. of Chicago, 1894 The Miracle Year  1905 Relativity Quantum
More informationFree Fall: Observing and Analyzing the Free Fall Motion of a Bouncing PingPong Ball and Calculating the Free Fall Acceleration (Teacher s Guide)
Free Fall: Observing and Analyzing the Free Fall Motion of a Bouncing PingPong Ball and Calculating the Free Fall Acceleration (Teacher s Guide) 2012 WARD S Science v.11/12 OVERVIEW Students will measure
More informationIntroduction to Quantum Computing
Introduction to Quantum Computing Javier Enciso encisomo@in.tum.de Joint Advanced Student School 009 Technische Universität München April, 009 Abstract In this paper, a gentle introduction to Quantum Computing
More informationHigh Energy Physics. Lecture 4 More kinematics and a picture show of particle collisions
High Energy Physics Lecture 4 More kinematics and a picture show of particle collisions 1 Recall from the previous lecture: the momentum of the scattered Particle in an elastic collision is given by p
More informationConcepts in Theoretical Physics
Concepts in Theoretical Physics Lecture 6: Particle Physics David Tong e 2 The Structure of Things 4πc 1 137 e d ν u Four fundamental particles Repeated twice! va, 9608085, 9902033 Four fundamental forces
More informationInteresting note: When the Big Bang theory came out, many Christians embraced it. Why?
Cosmology Interesting note: When the Big Bang theory came out, many Christians embraced it. Why? Because the prevailing scientific view about the Universe in the early 1900 s was: The Universe is infinite
More informationDO PHYSICS ONLINE FROM QUANTA TO QUARKS QUANTUM (WAVE) MECHANICS
DO PHYSICS ONLINE FROM QUANTA TO QUARKS QUANTUM (WAVE) MECHANICS Quantum Mechanics or wave mechanics is the best mathematical theory used today to describe and predict the behaviour of particles and waves.
More informationTime and Causation in Gödel s Universe.
Time and Causation in Gödel s Universe. John L. Bell In 1949 the great logician Kurt Gödel constructed the first mathematical models of the universe in which travel into the past is, in theory at least,
More informationTheory of electrons and positrons
P AUL A. M. DIRAC Theory of electrons and positrons Nobel Lecture, December 12, 1933 Matter has been found by experimental physicists to be made up of small particles of various kinds, the particles of
More informationNontrivial bookkeeping: a mechanical perspective
vailable online at www.sciencedirect.com Physica 324 (2003) 266 271 www.elsevier.com/locate/physa Nontrivial bookkeeping: a mechanical perspective Robert Fischer a, Dieter raun b; a mriswilerstr. 108,
More informationAdvanced Waves and Quantum Mechanics
Advanced Waves and Quantum Mechanics Ulisse Di Corpo 1 and Antonella Vannini 2 Abstract Advanced waves are predicted by the negative solution of KleinGordon s equation. This equation is compatible with
More informationDO WE REALLY UNDERSTAND QUANTUM MECHANICS?
DO WE REALLY UNDERSTAND QUANTUM MECHANICS? COMPRENONSNOUS VRAIMENT LA MECANIQUE QUANTIQUE? VARIOUS INTERPRETATIONS OF QUANTUM MECHANICS IHES, 29 janvier 2015 Franck Laloë, LKB, ENS Paris 1 INTRODUCTION
More information39 EPR and Bell s theorem. EPR Bohm s version. S x S y S z V H 45
1 39 EPR and Bell s theorem EPR Bohm s version S x S y S z n P(n) n n P(0) 0 0 V H 45 P(45) D S D P(0) H V 2 ( ) Neumann EPR n P(n) EPR PP(n) n EPR ( ) 2 5 2 3 But even at this stage there is essentially
More informationElementary Particle Physics Fall Term 2014. Course Information
Physics 145 Harvard University Elementary Particle Physics Fall Term 2014 Course Information Instructors: Gary Feldman, Professor, Lyman 232, 4961044, gfeldman@fas.harvard.edu Teaching Fellow, Stephen
More informationA Modest View of Bell s Theorem. Steve Boughn, Princeton University and Haverford College
A Modest View of Bell s Theorem Steve Boughn, Princeton University and Haverford College Talk given at the 2016 PrincetonTAMU Symposium on Quantum Noise Effects in Thermodynamics, Biology and Information
More informationFractional Calculus: differentiation and integration of noninteger
Fractional Calculus: differentiation and integration of noninteger order Oxford University May 9, 2012 Introduction: Standard calculus The differential calculus we all know and love was invented independently
More informationSTRING THEORY: Past, Present, and Future
STRING THEORY: Past, Present, and Future John H. Schwarz Simons Center March 25, 2014 1 OUTLINE I) Early History and Basic Concepts II) String Theory for Unification III) Superstring Revolutions IV) Remaining
More informationChapter 27: The Early Universe
Chapter 27: The Early Universe The plan: 1. A brief survey of the entire history of the big bang universe. 2. A more detailed discussion of each phase, or epoch, from the Planck era through particle production,
More informationParticle Physics. The Standard Model. A New Periodic Table
5 Particle Physics This lecture is about particle physics, the study of the fundamental building blocks of Nature and the forces between them. We call our best theory of particle physics the Standard Model
More informationCosmology, 2014, Vol. 18. 131156 Cosmology.com, 2014
Cosmology, 2014, Vol. 18. 131156 Cosmology.com, 2014 Space And Time Separation, Time Travel, Superluminal Motion And Big Bang Cosmology Luigi Maxmilian Caligiuri 1,2, Amrit Sorli 1 1 Foundation of Physics
More information3.1 Photoelectricity AS13. 3.1 Photoelectricity 2
Photoelectricity Einstein s quantum explanation of the photoelectric effect  Einstein used Planck s quantum theory of radiation, (see Revision Card AS1), to explain photoelectric emission. He assumed
More informationAP1 Electricity. 1. A student wearing shoes stands on a tile floor. The students shoes do not fall into the tile floor due to
1. A student wearing shoes stands on a tile floor. The students shoes do not fall into the tile floor due to (A) a force of repulsion between the shoes and the floor due to macroscopic gravitational forces.
More informationWork and Energy. Work = Force Distance. Work increases the energy of an object. Energy can be converted back to work.
Work and Energy Ch. 6 Work = Force Distance Work increases the energy of an object. Energy can be converted back to work. Therefore, energy and work have the same unit: Newton meter = Nm Energy per gram,
More informationAdvanced Topics in Physics: Special Relativity Course Syllabus
Advanced Topics in Physics: Special Relativity Course Syllabus Day Period What How 1. Introduction 2. Course Information 3. Math PreAssessment Day 1. Morning 1. Physics PreAssessment 2. Coordinate Systems
More informationWhat does Quantum Mechanics tell us about the universe?
Fedora GNU/Linux; L A TEX 2ǫ; xfig What does Quantum Mechanics tell us about the universe? Mark Alford Washington University Saint Louis, USA More properly: What do experiments tell us about the universe?
More informationThe speed of the ball relative to O, which we call u, is found. u u' O'
Einstein s Theory of relativity The theory of relativity has two parts. The Special Theory of Relativity relates the measurements of the same events made by two different observers moving relative to each
More informationWhat was before the Big Bang?
1 / 68 Std. What was before the Big Bang? of the Very Robert Brandenberger McGill University February 21, 2013 2 / 68 Outline Std. 1 What is? 2 Standard Big Bang 3 ary 4 String 5 3 / 68 Plan Std. 1 What
More informationFinal. Mark Scheme. Physics A PHYA1. (Specification 2450) Unit 1: Particles, quantum phenomena and electricity
Version.0 General Certificate of Education (Alevel) June 0 Physics A PHYA (Specification 450) Unit : Particles, quantum phenomena and electricity Final Mark Scheme Mark schemes are prepared by the Principal
More informationPrestimuli heart rate differences: replica and controls
Prestimuli heart rate differences: replica and controls Antonella Vannini and Ulisse Di Corpo Abstract Experiments on prestimuli heart rate differences were replicated 3 times adding each time new controls
More informationWorld of Particles Big Bang Thomas Gajdosik. Big Bang (model)
Big Bang (model) What can be seen / measured? basically only light (and a few particles: e ±, p, p, ν x ) in different wave lengths: microwave to γrays in different intensities (measured in magnitudes)
More informationVector or Pseudovector?
Vector or Pseudovector? Jeffrey A. Phillips Loyola Marymount University Los Angeles, CA 90045 By using a corner reflector it is possible to perform an inversion or improper transformation thereby identifying
More informationlimit.) Every group so defined would be still further subdivided if we Thus a heterogeneous substance such as a mixture of ice and water naturally
VloL. 11, 1925 PHYSICS: G. N. LEWIS A NEW PRINCIPLE OF EQ UILIBRI UMI By GILBERT N. LEwIs DEPARTMENT OF CHEMISTRY, UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA Communicated January 21, 1925 The NonExistence of Cyclic Equilibrium.At
More informationPolarized Light and Quantum Mechanics
Polarized Light and Quantum Mechanics Introduction Readily available and inexpensive polarizing films can be used to illustrate many fundamental quantum mechanical concepts. The purpose of this tutorial
More informationThe Variational Principle, from Fermat to Feynman. Nick Sheridan
The Variational Principle, from Fermat to Feynman Nick Sheridan 1662: Fermat points out that light always follows the path between two points that takes least time. This explains the laws of reflection
More informationPX434 Physics of the Standard Model Dr Steven Boyd : P448. ATLAS Event Display
PX434 Physics of the Standard Model Dr Steven Boyd : P448 ATLAS Event Display Intro Stuff Lectures are divided in chapters each chapter has a writeup which will be put online There is a module homepage
More informationEinstein s Theory of Special Relativity Made Relatively Simple!
Einstein s Theory of Special Relativity Made Relatively Simple! by Christopher P. Benton, PhD Young Einstein Albert Einstein was born in 1879 and died in 1955. He didn't start talking until he was three,
More informationAn amusing analogy: modelling quantumtype behaviours with wormholebased time travel
INSTITUTE OF PHYSICS PUBLISHING JOURNAL OF OPTICS B: QUANTUM AND SEMICLASSICAL OPTICS J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclass. Opt. (00) S S7 PII: S666(0)78 An amusing analogy: modelling quantumtype behaviours
More informationLecture 2  The current state of fundamental physics
Lecture 2  The current state of fundamental physics 1) Einstein & General Relativity Gravity as Spacetime Curvature Gravitational Radiation, LIGO & LISA Cosmology & the Expanding Universe Dark Energy
More informationGenerally Covariant Quantum Mechanics
Chapter 15 Generally Covariant Quantum Mechanics by Myron W. Evans, Alpha Foundation s Institutute for Advance Study (AIAS). (emyrone@oal.com, www.aias.us, www.atomicprecision.com) Dedicated to the Late
More informationFeynman diagrams, RNA folding, and the transition polynomial
Feynman diagrams, RNA folding, and the transition polynomial Yongwu Rong Department of Mathematics George Washington University RNA in Biology, Bioengineering and Nanotechnology IMA, October 29November
More informationFundamental Particles, Fundamental Questions. Elizabeth H. Simmons Dean and Professor, Lyman Briggs College
Fundamental Particles, Fundamental Questions Elizabeth H. Simmons Dean and Professor, Lyman Briggs College The smallest pieces of matter Nuclear physics and particle physics study the smallest known building
More informationBoardworks AS Physics
Boardworks AS Physics Vectors 24 slides 11 Flash activities Prefixes, scalars and vectors Guide to the SI unit prefixes of orders of magnitude Matching powers of ten to their SI unit prefixes Guide to
More informationMotion of a Leaky Tank Car
1 Problem Motion of a Leaky Tank Car Kirk T. McDonald Joseph Henry Laboratories, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 8544 (December 4, 1989; updated October 1, 214) Describe the motion of a tank car initially
More informationSpecial Theory of Relativity. A Brief introduction
Special Theory of Relativity A Brief introduction Classical Physics At the end of the 19th century it looked as if Physics was pretty well wrapped up. Newtonian mechanics and the law of Gravitation had
More informationAppendix A: Science Practices for AP Physics 1 and 2
Appendix A: Science Practices for AP Physics 1 and 2 Science Practice 1: The student can use representations and models to communicate scientific phenomena and solve scientific problems. The real world
More informationChapter 18: The Structure of the Atom
Chapter 18: The Structure of the Atom 1. For most elements, an atom has A. no neutrons in the nucleus. B. more protons than electrons. C. less neutrons than electrons. D. just as many electrons as protons.
More informationCHAPTER 16: Quantum Mechanics and the Hydrogen Atom
CHAPTER 16: Quantum Mechanics and the Hydrogen Atom Waves and Light Paradoxes in Classical Physics Planck, Einstein, and Bohr Waves, Particles, and the Schrödinger equation The Hydrogen Atom Questions
More informationMy reading from Amanda Gefter, Trespassing on Einstein s lawn 1
My reading from Amanda Gefter, Trespassing on Einstein s lawn 1 Josep Planelles, Borriana, Gener 2015 Nothing and everything: the universe substance How would we define nothing? I guess we would define
More informationPHOTOELECTRIC EFFECT AND DUAL NATURE OF MATTER AND RADIATIONS
PHOTOELECTRIC EFFECT AND DUAL NATURE OF MATTER AND RADIATIONS 1. Photons 2. Photoelectric Effect 3. Experimental Setup to study Photoelectric Effect 4. Effect of Intensity, Frequency, Potential on P.E.
More informationLecture 1: Microscopic Theory of Radiation
253a: QFT Fall 2009 Matthew Schwartz Lecture : Microscopic Theory of Radiation Blackbody Radiation Quantum Mechanics began on October 9, 900 with Max Planck s explanation of the blackbody radiation spectrum.
More informationSolar Energy Production
Solar Energy Production We re now ready to address the very important question: What makes the Sun shine? Why is this such an important topic in astronomy? As humans, we see in the visible part of the
More informationAtomic Structure: Chapter Problems
Atomic Structure: Chapter Problems Bohr Model Class Work 1. Describe the nuclear model of the atom. 2. Explain the problems with the nuclear model of the atom. 3. According to Niels Bohr, what does n stand
More informationUnamended Quantum Mechanics Rigorously Implies Awareness Is Not Based in the Physical Brain
Unamended Quantum Mechanics Rigorously Implies Awareness Is Not Based in the Physical Brain Casey Blood, PhD Professor Emeritus of Physics, Rutgers University www.quantummechanicsandreality.com CaseyBlood@gmail.com
More informationTHE MEANING OF THE FINE STRUCTURE CONSTANT
THE MEANING OF THE FINE STRUCTURE CONSTANT Robert L. Oldershaw Amherst College Amherst, MA 01002 USA rloldershaw@amherst.edu Abstract: A possible explanation is offered for the longstanding mystery surrounding
More informationPHYS 1624 University Physics I. PHYS 2644 University Physics II
PHYS 1624 Physics I An introduction to mechanics, heat, and wave motion. This is a calculus based course for Scientists and Engineers. 4 hours (3 lecture/3 lab) Prerequisites: Credit for MATH 2413 (Calculus
More informationAtomic structure. Resources and methods for learning about these subjects (list a few here, in preparation for your research):
Atomic structure This worksheet and all related files are licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, version 1.0. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/1.0/,
More informationRemodelling the Big Bang
Remodelling the Big Bang Dewey B. Larson Unquestionably, the most significant development that has taken place in cosmology in recent years is the replacement of the original Big Bang theory by a totally
More informationhypothesis of Louis de Broglie (1924): particles may have wavelike properties
Wave properties of particles hypothesis of Louis de Broglie (1924): particles may have wavelike properties note: it took almost 20 years after noting that waves have particle like properties that particles
More informationNuclear Fusion and Radiation
Nuclear Fusion and Radiation Lecture 2 (Meetings 3 & 4) Eugenio Schuster schuster@lehigh.edu Mechanical Engineering and Mechanics Lehigh University Nuclear Fusion and Radiation p. 1/40 Modern Physics Concepts
More informationThe Kinetic Theory of Gases Sections Covered in the Text: Chapter 18
The Kinetic Theory of Gases Sections Covered in the Text: Chapter 18 In Note 15 we reviewed macroscopic properties of matter, in particular, temperature and pressure. Here we see how the temperature and
More informationChapter 7: The QuantumMechanical Model of the Atom
C h e m i s t r y 1 A : C h a p t e r 7 P a g e 1 Chapter 7: The QuantumMechanical Model of the Atom Homework: Read Chapter 7. Work out sample/practice exercises Suggested Chapter 7 Problems: 37, 39,
More informationLancelot Hogben, in the book Mathematics for the Million, states that
Lancelot Hogben, in the book Mathematics for the Million, states that mathematics is the language of size, shape, and order. (p. 22, Mathematics for the Million) In the section on the development of algebra,
More informationReality in the Eyes of Descartes and Berkeley. By: Nada Shokry 5/21/2013 AUC  Philosophy
Reality in the Eyes of Descartes and Berkeley By: Nada Shokry 5/21/2013 AUC  Philosophy Shokry, 2 One person's craziness is another person's reality. Tim Burton This quote best describes what one finds
More informationarxiv:quantph/0404128v1 22 Apr 2004
How to teach Quantum Mechanics arxiv:quantph/0404128v1 22 Apr 2004 Oliver Passon Fachbereich Physik, University of Wuppertal Postfach 100 127, 42097 Wuppertal, Germany Email: Oliver.Passon@cern.ch In
More information2. Spin Chemistry and the Vector Model
2. Spin Chemistry and the Vector Model The story of magnetic resonance spectroscopy and intersystem crossing is essentially a choreography of the twisting motion which causes reorientation or rephasing
More informationLecture Outlines. Chapter 27. Astronomy Today 7th Edition Chaisson/McMillan. 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Lecture Outlines Chapter 27 Astronomy Today 7th Edition Chaisson/McMillan Chapter 27 The Early Universe Units of Chapter 27 27.1 Back to the Big Bang 27.2 The Evolution of the Universe More on Fundamental
More informationMolecular vs. Continuum
Molecular vs. Continuum Classical fluid mechanics (i.e., A&AE 511) treats a gas as an infinitely divisible substance, a continuum. As a consequence of continuum assumption, each fluid property is assumed
More informationThere is a physics joke about the stages of learning quantum mechanics:
Preface The only way to learn physics is to do physics. However, almost all physics textbooks leave a huge gap between the level of the problems that they solve as examples, and the level of the problems
More informationReligion and Science: The Emerging Relationship The Quantum Enigma X
Religion and Science: The Emerging Relationship The Quantum Enigma X The atoms or elementary particles themselves are not real; they form a world of potentialities or possibilities rather than one of things
More informationOracle Turing machines faced with the verification problem
Oracle Turing machines faced with the verification problem 1 Introduction Alan Turing is widely known in logic and computer science to have devised the computing model today named Turing machine. In computer
More informationThe Standard Model or Particle Physics 101. Nick Hadley Quarknet, July 7, 2003
The Standard Model or Particle Physics 101 Nick Hadley Quarknet, July 7, 2003 Thanks Thanks to Don Lincoln of Fermilab who provided some of the pictures and slides used in this talk. Any errors are mine
More informationEPFL researchers have found that water molecules are 10,000 times more sensitive to ions than previously thought. [10]
Water Ionization EPFL researchers have found that water molecules are 10,000 times more sensitive to ions than previously thought. [10] Working with colleagues at the HarvardMIT Center for Ultracold Atoms,
More informationForce & Motion. Force & Mass. Friction
1 2 3 4 Next Force & Motion The motion of an object can be changed by an unbalanced force. The way that the movement changes depends on the strength of the force pushing or pulling and the mass of the
More informationThe Theory of Relativity
The Theory of Relativity 1. THE SPECIAL THEORY In 1905, his annum mirabilis, Einstein revolutionized physics with, among other things, his special theory of relativity. With it he completely overturned
More informationThreedimensional figure showing the operation of the CRT. The dotted line shows the path traversed by an example electron.
Physics 241 Lab: Cathode Ray Tube http://bohr.physics.arizona.edu/~leone/ua/ua_spring_2010/phys241lab.html NAME: Section 1: 1.1. A cathode ray tube works by boiling electrons off a cathode heating element
More informationNewton s Laws of Motion How Physics Works
Newton s Laws of Motion How Physics Works It is the task of physicists to take physical phenomena and show how they can be reduced to a modest number of basic laws of nature. Physicists also predict phenomena,
More informationCAUSALITY AND NONLOCALITY AS AXIOMS FOR QUANTUM MECHANICS
TAUP 245297 CAUSALITY AND NONLOCALITY AS AXIOMS FOR QUANTUM MECHANICS Sandu Popescu Isaac Newton Institute, 20 Clarkson Road, Cambridge, U.K. CB3 0EH Daniel Rohrlich School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel
More informationNewton Einstein Relation on Gravity
Newton Einstein Relation on Gravity Aloysius Sebastian, Via Tremonti 26, Milazzo, Messina, Italy Aloysi.aloys@gmail.com Abstract Our present concept about gravity is related with the mass and distance
More informationIMO. MSC/Circ.707 19 October 1995. Ref. T1/2.04 GUIDANCE TO THE MASTER FOR AVOIDING DANGEROUS SITUATIONS IN FOLLOWING AND QUARTERING SEAS
INTERNATIONAL MARITIME ORGANIZATION 4 ALBERT EMBANKMENT LONDON SE1 7SR Telephone: 0207735 7611 Fax: 0207587 3210 Telex: 23588 IMOLDN G IMO E MSC/Circ.707 19 October 1995 Ref. T1/2.04 GUIDANCE TO THE
More informationState of Stress at Point
State of Stress at Point Einstein Notation The basic idea of Einstein notation is that a covector and a vector can form a scalar: This is typically written as an explicit sum: According to this convention,
More information1 Introduction. 1.1 The Tunneling Process
1 1 Introduction 1.1 The Tunneling Process There are many popular essays about time, history of the universe, teleportation or the possibility of time travel, but not much is reported about tunneling.
More information23. The Beginning of Time. Agenda. Agenda. ESA s Venus Express. Conditions in the Early Universe. 23.1 Running the Expansion Backward
23. The Beginning of Time Somewhere, something incredible is waiting to be known. Agenda Announce: Solar Altitude Lab (#2) due today Read Ch. 24 for Thursday Observation makeup next week Project Presentations
More informationSpecial Relativity. Photo by Philippe Halsman. Used with permission from Mrs. P. Halsman.
Albert Einstein and the Miracle Year Special Relativity The year 1905 is often referred to as the Annus Mirabilis (or year of miracles). In this year, Albert Einstein, a 23year old with an undergraduate
More informationIntroduction to Quantum Mechanics: An Overview
Introduction to Quantum Mechanics: An Overview Austin Szatrowski and Tayson Reese Edited by Oliver Jordan and Britton Gorfain JanuaryFebruary 2016 Contents 1 The 17 Particles and the Standard Model 5
More informationUniverse. Can scientists theory of everything really explain all the weirdness the universe displays? /// BY EDWARD WITTEN
Can scientists theory of everything really explain all the weirdness the universe displays? /// BY EDWARD WITTEN Astronomers have wrapped up cosmic history in a neat package. Or so it might seem. Some
More informationFuzzballs, Firewalls, and all that..
Fuzzballs, Firewalls, and all that.. Samir D. Mathur The Ohio State University Avery, Balasubramanian, Bena, Carson, Chowdhury, de Boer, Gimon, Giusto, Halmagyi, KeskiVakkuri, Levi, Lunin, Maldacena,
More information0.33 d down 1 1. 0.33 c charm + 2 3. 0 0 1.5 s strange 1 3. 0 0 0.5 t top + 2 3. 0 0 172 b bottom 1 3
Chapter 16 Constituent Quark Model Quarks are fundamental spin 1 particles from which all hadrons are made up. Baryons consist of three quarks, whereas mesons consist of a quark and an antiquark. There
More informationPearson Physics Level 30 Unit VIII Atomic Physics: Chapter 17 Solutions
Pearson Physics Level 30 Unit VIII Atomic Physics: Chapter 17 Solutions Student Book page 831 Concept Check Since neutrons have no charge, they do not create ions when passing through the liquid in a bubble
More informationM1. (a) (i) 4.5 allow 1 mark for correct substitution i.e. 9 2 2
M. (a) (i) 4.5 allow mark for correct substitution i.e. 9 (ii) m/s accept answer given in (a)(i) if not contradicted here (iii) (iv) speed straight line from the origin passing through (s, 9m/s) allow
More informationEVALUATING ACADEMIC READINESS FOR APPRENTICESHIP TRAINING Revised For ACCESS TO APPRENTICESHIP
EVALUATING ACADEMIC READINESS FOR APPRENTICESHIP TRAINING For ACCESS TO APPRENTICESHIP MATHEMATICS SKILL OPERATIONS WITH INTEGERS AN ACADEMIC SKILLS MANUAL for The Precision Machining And Tooling Trades
More information13 Quantum Cosmology and the Hard Problem of the Conscious Brain
13 Quantum Cosmology and the Hard Problem of the Conscious Brain Chris King Summary. The conscious brain poses the most serious unsolved problem for science at the beginning of the third millennium. Not
More informationNewton s Third Law, Momentum, Center of Mass
Team: Newton s Third Law, Momentum, Center of Mass Part I. Newton s Third Law Atomic Springs When you push against a wall, you feel a force in the opposite direction. The harder you push, the harder the
More information1. Coordinates (x, t) in one frame are related to coordinates (x, t ) in another frame by the Lorentz transformation formulas.
Physics 00 Problem Set 7 Solution Quick overview: Although relativity can be a little bewildering, this problem set uses just a few ideas over and over again, namely. Coordinates x, t in one frame are
More information