Embedded Systems. introduction. Jan Madsen

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1 Embedded Systems introduction Jan Madsen Informatics and Mathematical Modeling Technical University of Denmark Richard Petersens Plads, Building 321 DK2800 Lyngby, Denmark Wireless Sensor Networks Dataopsamling Embedded Systems Jan Madsen [2] Embedded Systems 1

2 Sensor Node Architecture sensor rtos cpu radio Mem battery sensing communicating processing Embedded Systems Jan Madsen [3] Sensor Node Architecture 8-bit, 10 MHz Slow computation sensor rtos cpu 1Kbps - 1Mbps, Meter, Lossy Transmissions radio 128KB-1MB Limited Memory Mem battery Limited life Embedded Systems Jan Madsen [4] Embedded Systems 2

3 02131 Embedded Systems C programming practice, test, verification Assembly language basics Operating systems usage Interfaces SW-SW, HW-HW, SW-HW Processor design Microprocessor basics Specialized hardware sensor rtos cpu Mem radio battery Embedded Systems Jan Madsen [5] Det er ok at vise din kærste din nye computer, hvis du selv har lavet den Embedded Systems Jan Madsen [6] Embedded Systems 3

4 Computing systems Desktop, workstations, mainframes and servers Millions of such systems built every year! But, billions of computing systems are built every year for a very different purpose... Embedded systems accounts for 99% of all computing systems!!! Embedded Systems Jan Madsen [9] Embedded systems if... bit-pattern then... else... for { mem io CPU rom Embedded Systems Jan Madsen [10] Embedded Systems 4

5 Embedded systems Systems which use a computer to perform a specific tion, but are neither used nor perceived as a computer They are embedded within larger electronic devices Repeatedly carrying out a particular tion Often completely unrecognized by the device s user Heavily resource constrained Embedded Systems Jan Madsen [11] Embedded Computing Systems? Fabrication equipment Automotives fuel injection, anti-lock brakes, airbags, etc. Avionics Flight control systems, anti-collision systems, etc. Telecommunication Mobile phones Authentication systems SMARTpen Consumer electronics Game consoles, TV sets, video, DVD, mp3, etc. Microwave ovens, washing machines, etc. Medical systems Hearing aid, smart pills, etc Embedded Systems Jan Madsen [12] Embedded Systems 5

6 Medical systems: Hearing aid Embedded Systems Jan Madsen [13] Medical systems: Diagnostics Embedded Systems Jan Madsen [14] Embedded Systems 6

7 Smart pills 1st generation Embedded Systems Jan Madsen [15] Smart pills 2nd generation Embedded Systems Jan Madsen [16] Embedded Systems 7

8 Embedded Computing Systems? Smart buildings Energy control, air-conditioning, safety systems, etc. Sensor networks Environmental monitoring, animal monitoring, etc. Wearable computing Embedded Systems Jan Madsen [17] Wearable computing Embedded Systems Jan Madsen [18] Embedded Systems 8

9 Wearable computing Embedded Systems Jan Madsen [19] Embedded Computing Systems? Smart buildings Energy control, air-conditioning, safety systems, etc. Sensor networks Environmental monitoring, animal monitoring, etc. Wearable computing Robotics Humanoid, micro-insects, etc Embedded Systems Jan Madsen [20] Embedded Systems 9

10 Flying micro-insects Embedded Systems Jan Madsen [21] How do we design these embedded systems? Embedded Systems Jan Madsen [23] Embedded Systems 10

11 Embedded systems design hardware software Several design groups hardware model validation software model validation Separated validations hardware prototype software prototype Prototype realization Problems arise at a very late point in the design process Embedded Systems Jan Madsen [24] Embedded systems design C/C++/Java void UnitControl() { up = down = 0; open = 1; while (1) { while (req == floor); open = 0; if (req > floor) { up = 1; else {down = 1; while (req!= floor); open = 1; delay(10); bit-pattern DSP chip Size and speed requirements Need to know about hardware! Embedded Systems Jan Madsen [25] Embedded Systems 11

12 Hardware (chip) design C/C++/Java void UnitControl() { up = down = 0; open = 1; while (1) { while (req == floor); open = 0; if (req > floor) { up = 1; else {down = 1; while (req!= floor); open = 1; delay(10); architecture netlist Layout ASIC Size and speed requirements + energy Embedded Systems Jan Madsen [26] Principples of Codesign void UnitControl() { up = down = 0; open = 1; while (1) { while (req == floor); open = 0; if (req > floor) { up = 1; else {down = 1; while (req!= floor); open = 1; delay(10); void UnitControl() { up = down = 0; open = 1; while (1) { while (req == floor); open = 0; if (req > floor) { up = 1; else {down = 1; while (req!= floor); open = 1; delay(10); SW synthesis Interface synthesis HW synthesis CPU ASIC Embedded Systems Jan Madsen [27] Embedded Systems 12

13 Principples of Codesign void UnitControl() { up = down = 0; open = 1; while (1) { while (req == floor); open = 0; if (req > floor) { up = 1; else {down = 1; while (req!= floor); open = 1; delay(10); void UnitControl() { up = down = 0; open = 1; while (1) { while (req == floor); open = 0; if (req > floor) { up = 1; else {down = 1; while (req!= floor); open = 1; delay(10); SW synthesis Interface synthesis HW synthesis System-on-Chip Embedded Systems Jan Madsen [28] BREAK Embedded Systems Jan Madsen [29] Embedded Systems 13

14 Processor technology Architecture of computation engine Does not have to be programmable Differs in its specialization towards a particular application Manifests different design metrics Embedded Systems Jan Madsen [30] Processor: General-purpose Designed to: maximize the number of devices sold suitable for a variety of applications Architecture contains: program memory general datapath large register file Embedded Systems Jan Madsen [31] Embedded Systems 14

15 Processor: General-purpose Used by the embedded system designer to program the processor s memory to carry out the required tionality This portion of an implementation is often referred to as the software portion Embedded Systems Jan Madsen [32] Software if... then... else... for {... cpu.. Elements of computation Transform data Store data Move data Embedded Systems Jan Madsen [33] Embedded Systems 15

16 Processor if... then... else... for {..... Architecture components Processing elements transform data Memories store data Interconnect movedata Embedded Systems Jan Madsen [34] Processor: General-purpose if... then... else... for {..... inst mem controller datapath data mem ir cu reg * pc +/- Availability Low cost (mass production) Simple design flow High flexibility Embedded Systems Jan Madsen [35] Embedded Systems 16

17 Processor: General-purpose - example if... then... else... for {..... inst mem controller datapath data mem ir cu reg pc * +/- p1 A[i] x = x + A[i] * p1 5 cycles Embedded Systems Jan Madsen [36] Processor: Single-purpose Digital circuit designed to execute exactly one program This portion of an implementation is often referred to as the hardware portion Other common terms: Co-processor Accelerator Embedded Systems Jan Madsen [37] Embedded Systems 17

18 Processor: Single-purpose (ASIC) if... then... else... for {..... controller cu datapath * + +/- mem High performance Low power Complex design flow No flexibility Embedded Systems Jan Madsen [38] Processor: Single-purpose example if... then... else... for {..... controller cu datapath * + +/- p1 mem A[i] x = x + A[i] * p1 1 cycle Embedded Systems Jan Madsen [39] Embedded Systems 18

19 Processor: Application-specific Designed for a particular class of applications with common characteristics Serve as a compromise between the two other processor types Examples are digital signal processors (DSPs) Embedded Systems Jan Madsen [40] Processor: Application-specific May require large NRE cost to build the processor itself and to build a compiler Automatically generating such processors and associated retargetable compilers are currently very hot research topics Lack of good compilers requires many embedded system designers to program in assembly language Embedded Systems Jan Madsen [41] Embedded Systems 19

20 Processor: Application-specific (ASIP) if... then... else... for {..... inst mem controller datapath data mem ir cu reg * + pc +/- Costumized datapath 16, 8 or 4 bit Optimized for particular class of programs - MACC Simple design flow High flexibility Embedded Systems Jan Madsen [42] Processor: Application-specific - example if... then... else... for {..... inst mem controller datapath data mem ir cu reg * + pc +/- p1 A[i] x = x + A[i] * p1 2 cycles Embedded Systems Jan Madsen [43] Embedded Systems 20

21 Summary Processors General-purpose Single-purpose (ASIC) Application-specific (ASIP) Common model FSMD - Finite State Machine with Datapath controller datapath Embedded Systems Jan Madsen [44] What you will do! if... Pentium IV Speed Size Energy then... else... for {... IJVM.. ASIC Embedded Systems Jan Madsen [45] Embedded Systems 21

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